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Direito antitruste e crise-perspectivas para a realidade brasileira; Antitrust law and crisis: perspectives for Brazil

Romanielo, Enrico Spini
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/05/2013 PT
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O problema que o presente estudo visa a esmiuçar é se a aplicação das normas de defesa da concorrência deve ou não ser flexibilizada em tempos de crises econômicas e financeiras. Mais especificamente, propõe-se a investigar se, durante crises, as autoridades concorrenciais devem ou não adotar uma abordagem mais leniente com relação aos princípios tradicionais e fundamentais do antitruste, (i) aprovando concentrações excessivas a partir de uma aplicação leniente da Failing Firm Defense, e/ou (ii) permitindo a coordenação de agentes econômicos mediante a formação de acordos colusivos sob os argumentos dos cartéis de crise. O Capítulo 1 apresenta uma breve descrição acerca da evolução do Direito Concorrencial nos Estados Unidos, União Europeia e Brasil, de forma a se verificar que a política antitruste é influenciada pelas condições econômicas vigentes em cada país. Ademais, tal discussão serve para contextualizar a análise conduzida ao longo do trabalho. Posteriormente, fez-se imprescindível entender o que são as crises econômicas e financeiras, buscando-se definições doutrinárias e mostrar que tais fenômenos ocorrem frequentemente no capitalismo. Finaliza-se tal capítulo com uma sucinta análise de duas das principais crises da história do capitalismo moderno...

A florescência da cooperação jurídica internacional no combate aos cartéis transfronteiriços: a experiência brasileira e reflexões para seu aperfeiçoamento; The flowering of the antitrust cooperation in the fight against international cartels: Brazilian experience and remarks for its improvement

Arruda, Vivian Anne Fraga do Nascimento
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/05/2013 PT
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O Direito Antitruste experimenta hoje uma verdadeira era dourada na qual a cooperação internacional entre os órgãos de defesa da concorrência e a aplicação de suas leis alcançaram níveis jamais vistos. Como efeito colateral do fenômeno globalização, o qual marcou as últimas décadas pela expansão da economia de mercado, veio a internacionalização dos acordos entre concorrentes com vistas a limitar a concorrência. Os chamados cartéis, antes nacionais, passam a ter a dimensão dessa nova dinâmica da economia, a mundial. E os danos ao mercado, antes limitados a um território, passam a poder atingir dezenas de jurisdições. A partir desse introito, o objetivo dessa dissertação é oferecer ao leitor um quadro compreensivo da evolução da atuação das autoridades antitruste brasileiras na cooperação internacional de combate aos cartéis transnacionais, em termos normativos e na utilização na prática, considerando, sobretudo, o contexto do recente recrudescimento do instrumental persecutório das autoridades brasileiras de defesa da concorrência no combate às práticas anticompetitivas. Por meio de uma análise comparativa entre os acordos internacionais de cooperação mais sofisticados e os instrumentos cooperacionais existentes no Brasil à luz da sua florescente experiência...

Antitrust private enforcement : passing - on defence

Antunes, Noémie Pinto
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 30/05/2014 POR
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Com a recente Proposta de Diretiva relativa a certas regras que regem as ações de indemnização antitrust, a regra de Courage e Manfredi, que reconhece o direito à reparação a qualquer lesado, é expressamente consagrada e é introduzido o mecanismo da defesa baseada na repercussão. Este estudo pretende, à luz da Proposta, analisar este mecanismo no âmbito do nosso ordenamento jurídico.; With the recent proposal for a Directive on certain rules governing antitrust damages actions, the rule of Courage and Manfredi, which recognizes full compensation to any injured person, is expressly recognized and the passing-on defence mechanism is introduced. This study aims, in light of the proposal, to analyse this mechanism in our legal system.

The market as lived experience: on the knowledge of markets in antitrust analysis

Onto,Gustavo
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Antropologia (ABA) Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Antropologia (ABA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
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This article describes some of the reported thoughts, anecdotal observations and analytic practices of advisors and commissioners working at the Brazilian antitrust body (CADE) regarding the markets, industries, sectors - i.e. the economic world - which they aim to understand and regulate. The activity of these professionals primarily requires an evaluation of certain market characteristics in order to establish strategies for the investigation of allegations of anti-competitive market practice and for passing judgment on administrative cases filed before the antitrust tribunal. Based on interviews with these professionals and participant observation of their analytical work, this article seeks to describe modes of knowing and conceiving markets which are parallel to the modes officially and more explicitly relied upon by antitrust bureaucrats. We present these lateral modes of knowing as a set of personal lived experiences and compare them to ethnographic practices of knowledge production, in order to reflect on the importance of lived experience in the anthropological and sociological literature on markets.

Sunk Costs and Real Options in Antitrust

Pindyck, Robert S.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 311822 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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Sunk costs play a central role in antitrust economics, but are often misunderstood and mismeasured. I will try to clarify some of the conceptual and empirical issues related to sunk costs, and explain their implications for antitrust analysis. I will be particularly concerned with the role of uncertainty. When market conditions evolve unpredictably (as they almost always do), firms incur an opportunity cost when they invest in new capital, because they give up the option to wait for the arrival of new information about the likely returns from the investment. This option value is a sunk cost, and is just as relevant for antitrust analysis as the direct cost of a machine or a factory.

Controlling Market Power : Balancing Antitrust and Sector Regulation in Telecoms

Kerf, Michel; Neto, Isabel; Geradim, Damien
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Among the countries fully liberalizing their telecommunicationssector, some have chosen to rely mainly on sector-specific rules,often applied by sector-specific institutions, while others havedepended on economywide antitrust rules and institutions to controlmarket power. This Note describes the choices made by five notablereformers: Australia, Chile, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and theUnited States. Drawing on their experiences, it then assesses whetherantitrust or sector-specific processes have dealt more quickly andeffectively with key regulatory issues.

Interconnection Disputes : Antitrust or Sector Regulation and the Case of New Zealand

Kerf, Michel; Neto, Isabel; Geradin, Damien
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Full liberalization of telecommunications markets provides scope for relying largely on general antitrust rules and institutions for economic regulation. But at least for a time after liberalization, sector-specific rules and institutions are likely to be needed in some areas, including interconnection. This Note draws lessons from the experience of New Zealand. After fully liberalizing its telecommunications market in the late 1980s, the country relied primarily on antitrust instruments to regulate interconnection until 2001, when it introduced a new regime putting heavier emphasis on sector-specific regulation.

Are Issuers of and Dealers in Securities Immune from Lawsuits Arising Under Federal and State Antitrust Laws?

Travis, Hannibal B
Fonte: SelectedWorks Publicador: SelectedWorks
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Conduct potentially subject to regulatory scrutiny by federal agencies such as the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) is not necessarily immune from antitrust liability. The Supreme Court previously held that an anticompetitive conspiracy in the mutual fund industry was immune from antitrust liability because the SEC had the primary statutory authority to prohibit or permit such conspiracies. This case raises the question of whether another alleged conspiracy—to restrict the availability of certain initial public offerings of securities (IPOs)—is similarly immune.

Joint research and development and patent pools under the antitrust laws of the USA and the competition rules of the European Union

LUNDQVIST, Björn
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
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Great prosperity is derived from innovation, which in turn prospers in an environment with a large public domain of free knowledge, property rights and unfettered competition. Generally, this was the basic theory for prosperity under the antitrust laws with reference to joint R&D, technology transfer and technology standardization in the US and Europe for many years. This perspective was slowly abandoned in the 1980s and 1990s, replaced by a belief that the greatest wealth was derived from innovators having large resources to perform R&D, the ability to cooperate with competitors and the possibility of jointly protect and exploit newly discovered knowledge through intellectual property rights, technology standardization agreements and joint licensing schemes. The antitrust policies on both sides of the Atlantic have closely and swiftly been adapted to mirror this change of theory. The thesis illustrates this transformation by analyzing the modifications and amendments made to legal acts and guidelines, and the slow shift in the scant case-law detected both under the antitrust laws of the USA and the Competition Rules of the EU. The thesis shows that the prevailing antitrust policies towards R&D collaborations, technology standardization agreements and patent pools are very similar in the US and EU and they both mirror a lenient or even supportive attitude towards collaboration between competitors in reference to creating innovation.; Defense Date: 10/05/2010; Examining Board: Professor Hanns Ullrich...

The Surprising Convergence of Antitrust and Regulation in Europe

PARCU, Pier Luigi
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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This paper examines the progressive steps of convergence of antitrust enforcement and regulation in Europe. As far as competition law enforcement is concerned, both classical essential facilities remedies and recent changes giving to the Commission and to NCAs the power to accept firms undertakings represent clear steps toward a regulatory activity. This legal development is tantamount to a new power of defining the set of positive economic behaviours a firm can adopt, a type of power previously reserved only to legislative or regulatory bodies. Furthermore, in some regulated sectors, like Electronic Communications, the European regulatory framework is more and more based on competition law and economics principles. These evolutions could possibly rise different kind of problem in the enforcement of competition law and economic regulation. Therefore, they also hint to a possible new institutional frameworks for antitrust and regulators maybe more adapt to the present configuration of powers and duties.

Passing-on-standing matrix in private antitrust enforcement : a reconciliation of economic and justice approaches

DUMBROVSKÝ, Tomáš
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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Any scheme for private antitrust enforcement is framed by two main questions: who will have standing – direct or indirect purchasers – and will the passing-on defense be allowed. Imagine that a cartel of oil producers forces gas stations – direct purchasers – to buy petrol at a higher than competitive price. The gas stations then raise the price for the final customers – indirect purchasers. When the gas stations sue the cartel, the cartelist will claim that no damage has occurred to the gas stations, because the gas stations have passed on the overcharge to its final customers – the passing-on defense. In the United States, the ruling of the California Supreme Court in Clayworth v. Pfizer, alongside a report of the Antitrust Modernization Commission of 2007, spurred new debate on whether the 1970s Federal case law should be overruled. The situation in the European Union has been even more challenging. The Court of Justice of the EU surprised everybody with two landmark cases in the early 2000s, in which the court set up a basic scheme for private antitrust enforcement. However, neither the EU nor the Member States had the appropriate legislation in place. The article analyzes these latest developments, offering new solutions to both jurisdictions. I argue that the practice of passing on increases the total social welfare loss resulting from the existence of a cartel. To remedy the problem...

Aplicaci??n del derecho antitrust y t??cnicas de derecho internacional privado

Esteban de la Rosa, Fernando
Fonte: Revista de Derecho Privado Publicador: Revista de Derecho Privado
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
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El art??culo analiza el sistema espa??ol de Derecho internacional privado en el ??mbito del Derecho de defensa de la competencia y, tras el an??lisis de las diferentes t??cnicas normativas, propone el m??todo de reglamentaci??n bilateral para la determinaci??n del Derecho aplicable en las situaciones internacionales.; The article analyses the spanish private international law system in the field of antitrust law, and after looking at the differents types of norms available, proposes the bilateral conflict of law rule for the antitrust law.

Collusive networks in market sharing agreements in the presence of an antitrust authority

Roldán, Flavia
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper; info:eu-repo/semantics/workingPaper Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2008 ENG
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This paper studies how the presence of an antitrust authority affects market-sharing agreements made by firms in oligopolistic markets. These agreements prevent firms from entering each other´s market. The set of market-sharing agreements defines a collusive network, which is under suspicion by antitrust authorities. This paper shows that, from the firm´s point of view, the probability of being caught is endogenous and depends on the agreements each firm has signed. Stable collusive networks can be decomposed into a set of isolated firms and complete alliances of different sizes. While in the absence of the antitrust authority, a network is stable if its alliances are large enough, when the antitrust authority is considered, the network is stability depends on the network configuration as a whole. Antitrust laws may have a pro-competitive effect as they give Firms in large alliances more incentives to cut their agreements at once.

Decentralisation and application of EC competition law by national courts and arbitrators: the awakening of EC private antitrust enforcement

KOMNINOS, Assimakis P.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
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Defence date: 12 January 2007; Examining board: Prof. Claus-Dieter Ehlermann (Supervisor, European University Institute) ; Prof. Laurence Idot (Ext. co-supervisor, Université Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne) ; Sir Francis Jacobs (King's College London) ; Prof. Christian Joerges (European University Institute); This dissertation, written by an academic-cum-practitioner with substantial experience in the field of antitrust enforcement, presents the rise of private enforcement of competition law in Europe, especially in the context of the recent modernisation and decentralisation of EC competition law enforcement. In particular, the study examines the role of courts in the application of the EC competition rules and views that role in the broader system of antitrust enforcement. The author starts from the premise of private enforcement's independence of public enforcement and after examining the new institutional position of national courts and their relationship with the Court of Justice, the Commission, and public enforcement in general, proceeds to deal with the detailed substantive and procedural law framework of private antitrust actions in Europe. The author describes the current post-decentralisation state of affairs but also refers to the latest proposals to enhance private antitrust enforcement in Europe both at the Community level...

Die essential facilities doctrine im Spiegel des Urteils 'Bronner' des Europäischen Gerichtshofs ; unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der historischen Entwicklung im Kartellrecht der Vereinigten Staaten und der Europäischen Gemeinschaft; The essential facilities doctrine in the mirror of the case 'Bronner' of the European Court of Justice ; with special consideration of the historical development in Antitrust-Law of the United States and the European Community

Schäfer, Alexander
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Studienarbeit; info:eu-repo/semantics/other
DE_DE
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Die essential facilities doctrine wurde im amerikanischen Antitrust-Recht ausgearbeitet und ist im Jahre 1977 durch eine Entscheidung des Court of Appeals des District of Columbia und damit erstmals durch ein höheres Gericht der USA anerkannt worden. Die Ursprünge dieser Doktrin liegen in einer Tradition des Common Law und einer Entscheidung des Supreme Court von 1912. Die Europäische Kommission hat erstmals in ihren Hafen-Entscheidungen der Jahre 1992 bis 1994 von wesentlichen Einrichtungen gesprochen und auf die Kriterien der essential facilities doctrine zurückgegriffen. Auch der europäischen Gerichtsbarkeit sind einschlägige Fälle unterbreitet worden, zuletzt der Fall Bronner. Die Gerichte scheuen sich aber, die spezielle Doktrin ausdrücklich anzuerkennen, und greifen statt dessen auf die allgemeine Rechtsprechung zur Geschäftsverweigerung zurück, die der Europäische Gerichtshof seit den 70-er Jahren entwickelt hat. Die Entscheidungen der europäischen Gerichte und die essential facilities doctrine stimmen aber inhaltlich überein. Bei der Doktrin handelt es sich deshalb wohl um eine Untergruppe der Geschäftsverweigerung.; The essential facilities doctrine was developed in American Antitrust-Law and has been accepted by the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia and thus by a higher U.S.-court for the first time in 1977. The roots of this doctrine lie in a tradition of Common Law and in a decision of the Supreme Court in 1912. The European Commission has mentionned essential facilities for the first time in its decisions concerning ports in the years 1992 to 1994 and has relied on the criteria of the essential facilities doctrine. The european jurisdiction has also examined such cases...

Profili di regolazione e di rilevanza antitrust del trasporto ferroviario passeggeri

IENCA, FRANCESCA
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
IT
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Nel corso degli ultimi venti anni, il settore ferroviario è stato interessato, su scala europea, da processi di ristrutturazione particolarmente incisivi, orientati alla progressiva liberalizzazione dei servizi di trasporto ferroviario. L’esigenza della creazione di un mercato unico europeo del trasporto ferroviario, improntato ai principi del libero mercato, ha condotto alla elaborazione di una cornice normativa articolata e tendenzialmente completa, che ha fornito agli Stati membri i principali strumenti per la ridefinizione della nomenclatura dei settori nazionali, a partire dall’abolizione degli assetti monopolistici sino a quel momento conosciuti. In tale contesto, si colloca l’esperienza italiana, che dall’ordinamento comunitario ha tratto i principi e le linee guida per la predisposizione delle regole che presiedono ai meccanismi di apertura del mercato nazionale del trasporto passeggeri. Il presente lavoro si propone, muovendo dall’analisi del progetto di riforma europeo, di analizzare il settore del trasporto ferroviario, con particolare riguardo al trasporto dei passeggeri, all’esito del processo di liberalizzazione nazionale, valutandone in particolare i profili regolatori e le criticità antitrust, nel tentativo di formulare...

Sunk Costs and Antitrust Barriers to Entry

Schmalensee, Richard
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 194770 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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US antitrust policy takes as its objective consumer welfare, not total economic welfare. With that objective, Joe Bain's definition of entry barriers is more useful than George Stigler's or definitions based on economic welfare. It follows that economies of scale that involve sunk costs may create antitrust barriers to entry. A simple model shows that sunk costs without scale economies may discourage entry without creating an antitrust entry barrier.

Sunk Costs and Antitrust Barriers to Entry

Schmalensee, Richard
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 194768 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.54%
US antitrust policy takes as its objective consumer welfare, not total economic welfare. With that objective, Joe Bain's definition of entry barriers is more useful than George Stigler's or definitions based on economic welfare. It follows that economies of scale that involve sunk costs may create antitrust barriers to entry. A simple model shows that sunk costs without scale economies may discourage entry without creating an antitrust entry barrier.

Determinants of merger review decisions: an assessment of the Brazilian antitrust authority\'s capabilities and the influential role of antitrust commissioners; Determinantes de decisões sobre atos de concentração: uma avaliação das capacidades da autoridade antitruste brasileira e a influência dos conselheiros

Moran, Marcio Roberto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/09/2015 EN
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Merger reviews are institutionalized and customized analyses of mergers and acquisitions by antitrust authorities which result in approvals or disapprovals of the strategic intents of firms. In view of the wide variety of agents whose lives may be changed by a merger review, the fact that different stakeholders might induce a government intervention on a particular deal, and the central role of antitrust commissioners in this context, the general aim of this thesis is to examine the determinants of merger review decisions, but particularly those related to commissioners\' personal attributes, values and interests. Additionally, some structural and procedural issues contained in the antitrust regulatory sphere as well as control variables related to other perspectives of analysis are included as part of this empirical analysis. To achieve the mentioned general objective and other specific goals, a unique dataset was built that covers a fourteen-year period of competition regulation in Brazil. The sample of this study comprises 30,543 votes by 36 different panel members on 5,091 transactions examined through ordered probit models. This thesis, mainly, reveals that \'political ideology\', \'prior work experience in the public service\' and \'human capital\' of antitrust commissioners...

Antitrust Enforcement as a Cause of Google’s Innovation (2001-2013)

Fischer-Zernin, Maxime
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Publicado em 30/06/2015 EN_US
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In this paper I consider the role of antitrust enforcement as a driver of innovation at Google. My hypothesis is that President Obama increased antitrust enforcement relative to his predecessor, George W. Bush, leading Google to increase its rate of innovation. I review literature regarding the role of antitrust as a driver of high-tech innovation, and use regression analysis to determine to what extent, if at all, Google’s innovation can be linked to antitrust enforcement. A holistic appraisal of the data finds mixed support for my hypothesis, varying by measurement method. This demonstrates the importance of measures of enforcement and innovation, as well as measurement method selection, which play a role in the outcome of the tests.; Honors thesis