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Medidas antidumping: devido processo legal à luz das regras da OMC; Antidumping duties: due process of law according to WTO rules

Kramer, Cynthia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/09/2012 PT
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46.63%
Apesar de o fluxo de comércio afetado por medidas antidumping não chegar nem a 1% do comércio global, aproximadamente 20% das disputas na OMC são sobre antidumping. A OMC é um órgão intergovernamental e seu sistema de solução de controvérsias tem por objetivo analisar se as medidas adotadas por seus Membros estão em conformidade com os compromissos assumidos nos acordos abrangidos. O Acordo Antidumping da OMC (ADA) estabelece os procedimentos investigatórios a serem seguidos por seus Membros para combater o dumping que comprovadamente causa dano à indústria doméstica. O objetivo é evitar que sejam adotadas medidas em circunstâncias descabidas, com o mero intuito protecionista de criar barreiras ao comércio. O dumping é uma prática do setor privado e não dos governos. Portanto, não é o dumping que é questionado perante a OMC, e sim a obediência pela autoridade investigadora dos procedimentos investigatórios estabelecidos no ADA. Tanto os órgãos da Administração Pública como a OMC exercem uma função fundamental para que o devido processo legal seja observado em matéria antidumping. A função legislativa é criar as normas que regularão o procedimento, a função executiva é aplicar/monitorar o procedimento...

A Economia do Antidumping

Saraiva, Marcelo Menezes
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
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Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Economia, 2011.; O direito antidumping é o instrumento de defesa comercial mais utilizado por todos os países. O Brasil não é uma exceção. O objetivo deste trabalho é mostrar algumas abordagens disponíveis na literatura econômica para análise do dumping e de suas implicações. Apresenta-se também a regulamentação do direito antidumping no Brasil e no Mundo, levando-se em consideração seus aspectos históricos e institucionais. Adicionalmente, são apresentadas estatísticas do antidumping no Brasil e no Mundo para analisar e dimensionar o problema estudado, com maior foco para o caso brasileiro. Para esta finalidade, utiliza-se para o Brasil o período de 1988 a 2010 e, para os demais países, de 1995 a 2009. De acordo com a literatura consultada, apenas o caso de dumping predatório teria justificativa econômica para a aplicação de medidas antidumping. A literatura também dá conta de que as primeiras leis antidumping foram formuladas com base nas leis antitruste, tendo em vista a grande preocupação com a formação de monopólios, e havia apenas oito usuários da medida até meados da década de 1950. Com o tempo...

Um estudo sobre os efeitos das ações antidumping nas importações brasileiras

Souza Júnior, Delphino Pires de
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Economia, Administração, Contabilidade e Ciência da Informação, Departamento de Economia, 2012.; Esta dissertação tem como objetivo principal analisar os efeitos sobre as importações brasileiras das ações antidumping iniciadas pela Secretaria de Comércio Exterior no período compreendido entre agosto de 1995 e agosto de 2005. Destacam-se, entre os resultados obtidos nesta análise, as evidências encontradas da existência de desvio de comércio em favor das origens não citadas nas investigações de dumping, desvio que tende a ser em montante inferior ao da redução das importações de origens citadas. Outro resultado aponta a ocorrência do “efeito investigação” na presença de medidas provisórias. Analisando-se os dados segundo a abrangência das origens investigadas, observou-se que quando foi citada somente uma origem, a taxa de crescimento das origens não citadas foi menor do que quando foram citadas várias origens na investigação. Também foi verificado que as investigações conduzidas no período concentraram-se sobre bens intermediários. Além de analisar a evolução das importações brasileiras submetidas a ações de dumping...

Is Protectionism on the Rise? Assessing National Trade Policies during the Crisis of 2008

Kee, Hiau Looi; Neagu, Cristina; Nicita, Alessandro
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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To understand the role of trade policies in the crisis of 2008, this paper constructs the overall trade restrictiveness indices for a wide range of countries using their tariff schedules in 2008 and 2009. The index summarizes the trade policy stance of a country, taking into account the share of each good in trade as well as its corresponding import demand elasticity. Results show that there is no widespread increase in protectionism via tariff policies since the global financial crisis has unfolded. While many countries have adjusted tariffs upward on selected products, only a handful of countries, such as Malawi, Russia, Argentina, Turkey and China focus on products that have significant impacts on trade flows. The United States and the European Union, by contrast, rely mainly on anti-dumping duties to shield domestic industries. Overall, while the rise in tariffs and anti-dumping duties in these countries may have jointly caused global trade to drop by as much as US$43 billion during the crisis period, it explains less than 2 percent of the collapse in world trade.

Keeping Animal Spirits Asleep : The Case of Chile

Sáez, Sebastián
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Chilean legislation is quite conservative, especially compared with international practice. However, its application has not been free of criticism, and it proved necessary to seek mechanisms that combine limitations set forth in the GATT/WTO regulations and others self-imposed by Chilean law. Legislation on antidumping measures was introduced in Chile in 1992. The Distortions Commission has recommended and the President has adopted such measures on just six occasions, of which two correspond to extensions of existing measures. Legislation on safeguard measures was introduced in 1999. In the 1999-2002 period, seven safeguard measures were adopted. The traditional agricultural sector was the main user of the measures, and no measure was in place for more than 12 months. The context in which the Commission was created in 1981 and the type of measures adopted by this entity support the idea that the objective of the Commission was to alleviate the political pressures generated by the difficult economic situation rather than to correct problems originated by the price distortions of goods. In the second half of the 1980s, the Commission supported the liberalization process that started in 1985. Adopting safeguard legislation in 1999 helped to gain approval of further tariff reductions from 11 percent to 6 percent. During the decade of the 1990s and until the present day...

Developing Country Trade Policies and Market Access Issues : 1990-2012

Michalopoulos, Constantine; Ng, Francis
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The study presents a comprehensive review of developing country trade policies and market access issues as they evolved over the period 1990-2012. The main findings are, first, that applied tariffs as well as traditional core non-tariff measures have declined significantly over time in both developed and developing countries. Second, the instruments of protection used by developed and developing countries are becoming increasingly similar: trade remedies, especially anti-dumping are the instruments of choice for all except low-income developing countries. Third, agriculture is the main sector where developing countries face access problems in OECD markets. Fourth, regional and other preferential trade agreements are both a result and a cause of the lack of progress in multilateral trade negotiations. They violate the basic World Trade Organization tenet of most favored nation and thus pose a potential threat to the multilateral system and a potential stimulus to further multilateral collaboration. Fifth...

Trade and Transport Facilitation in South Asia : Systems in Transition, Volume 1. Summary and Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Over the past few decades, the World trading system has become increasingly more open. Tariff rates have been reduced and quantitative restrictions (quotas) have been progressively eliminated, e.g. the Multi-Fiber Agreement (MFA). Most countries have adopted more outward-looking economic policies, seeking to increase growth and employment through expanding exports. Such outward looking policies have even been adopted by countries which previously pursued policies based on import substitution as in South Asia. Protective trade restrictions still persist, but tend to be in terms of more subtle non-tariff barriers (such as sanitary or phyto-sanitary standards), though anti-dumping measures and temporary quantity restrictions are still used by many countries to shield domestic producers. Trade regulations no longer solely attempt to protect domestic producers; their scope has extended to cover the need for enhanced security and the desire for greater consumer protection through the traceability of the production chain for many agricultural products. Intense competition compels firms to reduce costs throughout their manufacturing and distribution processes. Outsourcing to lower cost firms and countries has been one major source of cost reduction...

WTO market access negotiations for non-agricultural products, Doha Round: implications for East Asia

Flowers, Kate; Bosworth, Malcolm
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 226116 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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The East Asian economies continue to have a major interest in the global liberalization of trade in industrial products. This interest is even more pronounced in the context of the deepening of the supply chain linkages in East Asia, a process that is associated in part with restructuring in Japan, Chinese Taipei and Korea and also the emergence of China in the world trading system. A number of formulae for negotiating industrial tariff reductions are now on the table in Geneva (including proposals from Japan, South Korea, China, Chinese Taipei, the United States and the European Union), and a first draft of the ‘modalities’ paper for achieving such cuts under the Doha Round was recently released. This paper reviews the impact of these formulae and comments on their relevance to countries in the East Asian community, including to the important goal of reforming their own tariff regimes. A genuine ‘top-down’ formula approach modeled on the Swiss approach is seen to offer the best economic prospects for multilateral tariff reform. Other risks in the approaches to industrial goods liberalisation, including more widespread application of anti-dumping and other safeguard measures, are also examined. The proliferation of anti-dumping action...

US and EU trade policies and East Asia

Drysdale, Peter; Findlay, Christopher
Fonte: Asia Pacific School of Economics & Government, ANU Publicador: Asia Pacific School of Economics & Government, ANU
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 212860 bytes; application/pdf
EN
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This article identifies a number of examples of apparent lack of coherence in United States and European Union trade policies. They include the effect of preferential policies that lock in trade shares and inhibit growth promoting structural adjustment, biases in tariff structures, policies that affect incentives of developing countries to make commitments in the World Trade Organisation, the use of anti-dumping actions and the nature of tariff peaks and escalation. The origins of the lack of policy coherence lie within the domestic policy-making processes of the developed economies. An important question, then, is whether opportunity exists for East Asian economies to mobilise to induce an external shock sufficient to shift policy consensus in the United States and the European Union – The key elements of such a grand bargain on trade in manufactured goods would include an explicit East Asian commitment to bind more tariff lines, initiatives to resolve the problem of accelerating anti-dumping actions and a replacement for the program of tariff preferences. A package of trade policy reforms of this type in East Asia would constitute a substantial offer and benefit to the United States and the European Union. It has the potential to trigger a response of equal benefit to East Asian economies.; no

China : anti-dumping and countervailing duty measures on broiler products from the United States : how the chickens came home to roost

PRUSA, Thomas J.; VERMULST, Edwin
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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66.45%
The WTO panel report on China – Anti-dumping and Countervailing Duty Measures on Broiler Products from the United States was circulated to Members on 2 August 2013. In the report the Panel examined a variety of issues challenged by the United States under various provisions of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994, the Anti-dumping Agreement and the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures. The Panel upheld the United States’ claims on the majority of the issues, which covered certain procedural aspects of the anti-dumping and countervailing investigations such as the right to disclosure of “essential facts”, as well as the substantive determinations including costing issues, the imposition of the “all others” rate on the basis of “facts available”, the price effects’ analyses, the sufficiency of the public notices and others. Notably the costing issues that came up in the case, although decided mostly on procedural grounds, provide food for thought and are likely to feature again in future disputes.

EU anti-circumvention rules : do they beat the alternative?

VERMULST, Edwin
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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76.34%
This article discusses EU law and practice with regard to tackling circumvention of trade defence instruments, notably anti-dumping measures. The author considers that, while strong legal arguments can be made that anti-circumvention rules are WTO-illegal, as a practical matter transparent and predictable anti-circumvention rules are to be preferred over vague and multi-interpretable non-preferential origin rules that vary from country to country. Furthermore, the many findings of transhipment in EU anti-circumvention investigations show that circumvention may constitute a real problem which warrants quick and effective relief. Therefore, the article suggests that the way forward is to agree on detailed anti-circumvention rules within the WTO with focus on further improvements in transparency and predictability.

Application of Safeguards and Anti-Dumping Duties in Colombia

Reina, Mauricio; Zuluaga, Sandra
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Colombia's experience in the use of safeguards and antidumping duties differs from international trends. On the one hand, the number of investigations conducted is substantially lower than that recorded in most of the hemisphere's large and medium-size countries. On the other hand, while there is a growing international trend of more frequent use of antidumping as opposed to safeguards, in Colombia the safeguard process has been the more used policy instrument. Although several large and medium-size firms are familiar with the application of safeguards and antidumping duties, there is still a relative unfamiliarity regarding the instruments in most of the private sector. The institutional arrangements related to the investigations and the decisionmaking processes have proven to be stable and sound. The trade liberalization process in the country has created awareness of the importance of preserving the competitiveness of production chains to strengthen their insertion in international markets, which has restrained the authorities from restricting access to intermediate goods and raw materials. The evaluation of the Colombian experience also raises concerns about the potential discretional use of these instruments. The relatively intense use of safeguards and antidumping measures in some specific periods and sectors...

Streamlining Non-Tariff Measures : A Toolkit for Policy Makers

Cadot, Olivier; Malouche, Mariem; Sáez, Sebastián
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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This volume is organized as follows. Chapter one discusses the newly revamped non-tariff measure (NTM) classification system, the data collection effort so far, and the key characteristics of the data. It also highlights the private-sector view that NTMs should support domestic firms' competitiveness across countries. Chapter two describes the analytics of an NTM review, step by step through the key questions, for example, is there a market failure, which market is affected, what are the costs of regulatory action vs. the risks of deregulation, and explains how to answer these questions and how to go about quantification when it is possible. Chapter three focuses on the institutional setup and key principles required to successfully pursue the streamlining of regulations. Since the mid-1990s, developed countries have introduced new regulatory approaches aimed at improving the quality of the decision-making process by enhancing both the analytical framework used by policy makers and the participation of interested parties in the regulatory process. Finally...

US Compliance with WTO Rulings on Zeroing in Anti-dumping; World Trade Review

Hoekman, Bernard; Wauters, Jasper
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
EN
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This paper reviews the WTO Appellate Body Reports on United States-Zeroing (EC) (Article 21.5 DSU--EC) (WT/DS294/AB/RW, 14 May 2009) and United States-Zeroing (Japan) (Article 21.5 DSU--Japan) (WT/DS322/AB/RW, 18 August 2009). The Appellate Body found that the United States had not brought its anti-dumping measures into compliance with the WTO Anti-Dumping Agreement as it continued to use zeroing in annual reviews of anti-dumping orders. We argue that this conclusion--based on a complicated discussion of what constitutes a 'measure taken to comply'--could have been reached through a much simpler and direct argument. Continued noncompliance by the United States generates costs to traders targeting the United States and the trading system more generally. We argue that from a broader WTO compliance perspective consideration should be given to stronger multilateral surveillance of anti-dumping practice by all WTO members and to more analysis and effective communication by economists regarding the costs of zeroing and anti-dumping practices more generally.

A Survey of Non-Tariff Measures in the East Asia and Pacific Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
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This report seeks to give a multifaceted view of non-tariff issues facing countries in the East Asia and Pacific region both vis-a-vis their most important export markets as well as intra-regionally. While the first perspective is important today given the high dependence of East Asian and Latin American countries on the markets of the EU, the US and Japan, the second is important in the context of countries' efforts to bring about ever closer regional integration. A large part of liberalization efforts have in the past focused on reducing tariff barriers to facilitate the integration of goods markets across the world and within particular regions. However, countries which were more serious about integration also recognized early on the importance of eliminating trade-reducing measures other than tariffs, so-called non-tariff measures or NTMs, which, if not already present, often sprung up precisely where tariffs were reduced. Country studies which draw on firm level surveys and interviews with government agencies and exporters' associations in East Asia and Latin America are presented in Part II of this report.

Anti-Dumping Policies and Safeguard Measures in the Context of Costa Rica’s Economic Liberalization

Monge-González, Ricardo; Monge-Ariño, Francisco
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This paper reviews the most important changes, both in the economy and in the legal and institutional framework, to deal with unfair trade practices that Costa Rica has experienced during its trade liberalization process. It also evaluates whether the sectors that as a result of such a process have been facing increased foreign competition, and may have attempted to use the World Trade Organization (WTO) rules adopted by Costa Rica as a protectionist instrument. Costa Rica's legal framework against unfair trade practices at the multilateral level emerged when the country adopted the WTO rules on antidumping policies and safeguard measures. That has been reinforced at the bilateral level through the subscription of free trade agreements with Central America, Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Chile, and Canada. So far, only six antidumping petitions and five safeguards have been received by the government. In reviewing these petitions, the government has paid particular attention to the impact of any action on the competitiveness of the domestic market and on the possibility that it would support modernization of the industry. Behind the political acceptance of this disciplined approach lies widespread recognition of the social as well as economic progress that liberalization has supported.

Dumping and state economy : is China's anti-dumping retaliation justified under the WTO framework?

Sarzosa Larrea, Marcelo Alejandro
Fonte: Universidad de Chile Publicador: Universidad de Chile
Tipo: Tesis
ES
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Tesis (magíster en derecho internacional, inversiones y comercio); Article 56 of China’s Anti-dumping Regulation provides that China may adopt corresponding measures whenever another country discriminatorily imposes anti-dumping measures against imports originating in the People’s Republic of China. This retaliatory language, which dates back to Article 40 of China’s Old Regulations, makes China special since there is no other country’s anti-dumping regulation making such an explicit retaliatory message. AlthoughChinahas not invokedArticle 56 inany of itsanti-dumping investigations,retaliationhas been put inpractice.An example isthe Fasteners Case. By doing an analysis at the light of the WTO Agreements, this thesis concludes that Article 56 is inconsistent with article 23.1 of the Dispute Settlement Understanding, article 18.1 of the Anti-dumping Agreement and Articles I:1 and X:3 lit. (a) of the GATT 1994

Como o uso de medidas antidumping ajuda a entender as Relações comerciais entre Brasil e Argentina.

Figueiredo, Jéssica Filardi Milker
Fonte: Universidade Católica de Brasília Publicador: Universidade Católica de Brasília
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: Texto
PT_BR
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A exportação de produtos abaixo do valor normal de mercado é o que determina a existência do dumping. Se sua ocorrência ocasionar qualquer tipo de dano material a indústria doméstica do país importador, o dumping é passível de retaliação via medidas antidumping. A partir do entendimento de como a requisição de contramedidas é tratada dentro do âmbito do Mercosul, visualiza-se o impacto dessas nas relações comerciais entre Brasil e Argentina. A análise do número de ocorrências de pedidos de implementação de medidas antidumping registradas na Organização Mundial do Comércio e do incremento do fluxo de comércio entre os mercados brasileiro e argentino mostra os efeitos negativos e protecionistas desse instrumento nas transações comerciais, além de salientar o viés político de sua adoção.; Products’ export below a normal market value determines the existence of dumping. Its occurrence may injure the domestic industry of an importing country, being, then, subject to retaliation through antidumping measures. By understanding countermeasures request’s treatment within Mercosur, it is possible to view the impact of trade relations between Brazil and Argentina. The study analyses the implementing orders’ number of anti-dumping measures filed at the World Trade Organization and the trade flow between the Brazilian and Argentine markets...

THE APPLY OF ANTIDUMPING MEASURES BY THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA ON BRAZILIAN´S ORANGE JUICE IMPORTATION; APLICAÇÃO DE MEDIDAS ANTIDUMPING PELOS ESTADOS UNIDOS NA IMPORTAÇÃO DE SUCO DE LARANJA BRASILEIRO

Arriola Sperandio, Helena; UFPR
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/12/2009 POR
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The defense measures regarding commerce are imposed in order to protect the national industry against the illegal practices of commerce, such as dumping. There was a significant increase in the orange juice importation by United States of America, which made necessary the implication of anti-dumping measures to protect the North American domestic industry. The measurements were imposed by the decision of the U.S. Department of Commerce, creating some concerns to Brazil, guiding it to the Dispute Settlement Body at the World Trade Organization to discuss those measures at the WTO; As medidas de defesa comercial são impostas com a finalidade de proteger a indústria nacional de práticas desleais do comércio, como é o caso do dumping. Houve uma significativa importação de suco de laranja brasileiro por parte dos Estados Unidos, o que ensejou a aplicação de medidas antidumping para proteção da indústria doméstica norte-americana. As medidas foram impostas através de decisão do Departamento do Comércio dos Estados Unidos, no entanto, gerou preocupações, levando o Brasil ao Órgão de Solução de Controvérsias da OMC para dirimir tais questões.

As medidas antidumping na Organização Mundial do Comércio e os constrangimentos aos Estados Unidos

Geraldello, Camilla Silva; Centro Universitário Moura Lacerda, Ribeirão Preto
Fonte: Meridiano 47; Meridiano 47 Publicador: Meridiano 47; Meridiano 47
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/10/2015 POR
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O objetivo deste artigo é compreender como os EUA foram constrangidos a deixar de utilizar o zeroing para o cálculo de medidas antidumping. O método utilizado para o cálculo das medidas antidumping é relevante e tem sido alvo de contestações internacionais dado que União Europeia e EUA utilizavam um método que favorece a aparição de dumping, o zeroing. Porém, com a primeira condenação do método pela OMC, a União Europeia deixa de utilizá-lo e o constrangimento fica para os EUA que se tornaram o único Estado a utilizá-lo.The goal of this article is to understand how USA was constraint to leave use the zeroing for calcite anti-dumping measures. Anti-dumping measures serve as compensation obtaining advantages caused by the use of dumping. The method used for calculating the anti-dumping measures is relevant and has been the target of international challenges as the European Union and the United States used a method that favors the appearance of dumping, zeroing. But with the first sentence of the method by the WTO, the European Union fails to use it and is embarrassment to the US that became the only state to use it.