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Driving to anti-corruption utopia without a roadmap: assessing the theoretical basis for Corruption Prevention Strategies of Global Institutions

Warburton, John
Fonte: CIES - ISCTE Publicador: CIES - ISCTE
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
Desde a década de 1990 que se tem vindo a verificar uma enorme vaga de interesse pela luta contra a corrupção, sobretudo por parte das instituições mundiais e organizações não governamentais, como o FMI, o Banco Mundial, a OCDE e a Transparency International. São promovidas estratégias de luta contra a corrupção para os países menos desenvolvidos, quer como uma forma de melhorar a prestação de serviços aos cidadãos, quer como condição prévia para receberem ajudas. Um enorme sector de ajuda empenhado na luta contra a corrupção cresceu na comunidade mundial, onde antes nenhum existia. Afigura-se que as instituições mundiais estão a promover estes programas com base numa insuficiente investigação efectiva e sem disporem de uma verdadeira base teórica. O único corpus teórico coerente e viável que se encontra disponível é a abordagem da economia política, assente nos instrumentos e pressupostos subjacentes à ciência económica neoclássica e à teoria da escolha pública. Isto é notoriamente insuficiente para fundamentar as medidas práticas de combate à corrupção, sendo que a maioria das instituições mundiais e ONG se limita a promover uma variante da estratégia de melhoria da governação e de reforço das instituições. No presente paper sugere-se que é importante possuir uma compreensão teórica do modo como a corrupção funciona e que há várias áreas de investigação proveitosas que têm sido negligenciadas. A corrupção deve ser entendida como um processo social...

Corruption and Decentralized Public Governance

Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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56.22%
This paper examines the conceptual and empirical basis of corruption and governance and concludes that decentralized local governance is conducive to reduced corruption in the long run. This is because localization helps to break the monopoly of power at the national level by bringing decisionmaking closer to people. Localization strengthens government accountability to citizens by involving citizens in monitoring government performance and demanding corrective actions. Localization as a means to making government responsive and accountable to people can help reduce corruption and improve service delivery. Efforts to improve service delivery usually force the authorities to address corruption and its causes. However, one must pay attention to the institutional environment and the risk of local capture by elites. In the institutional environments typical of some developing countries, when in a geographical area, feudal or industrial interests dominate and institutions of participation and accountability are weak or ineffective and political interference in local affairs is rampant, localization may increase opportunities for corruption. This suggests a pecking order of anticorruption policies and programs where the rule of law and citizen empowerment should be the first priority in any reform efforts. Localization in the absence of rule of law may not prove to be a potent remedy for combating corruption.

Mobilizing Civil Society to Fight Corruption in Bangladesh

Landell-Mills, Pierre
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
A successful anti-corruption strategy must have a free press to voice public opinion and report cases of corruption, an effective and politically neutral mechanism to investigate and prosecute corruption, and a reliable judicial process to punish wrongdoing when it is proved. It is rare to find all these elements in a developing country. without considerable public pressure, governments are unlikely to foster the transparency and accountability needed to curb malfeasance by public officials. Consequently there is a major role for civil society organizations to campaign for such reforms. This is the mission of the national chapters of Transparency International. This Note discusses the crucial role played by the Bangladesh chapter of Transparency International in pressing for the implementation of corruption reform, publicizing well-researched facts about corruption, and lobbying for additional measures.

Mauritania : Anti-Corruption Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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86.4%
This report provides analytic support to the National Anti-corruption Strategy (NACS) formulation, offers lessons from international experience on governance and anti-corruption (GAC) policy, and generally supports the Government and its development partners to better understand the phenomenon of corruption in Mauritania. The report is structured as follows: Chapter 2 focuses on the definition and measurement of corruption and the Mauritanian political economy. Chapter 3 focuses on corruption in public procurement. Chapter 4 concentrates on corruption in the courts of law. Chapter 5 deals with the extractive industries. Chapter 6 focuses on corruption from the perspective of the private sector, based on the results of the recent Investment Climate Assessment (ICA). On the basis of the analysis conducted in this report, the single most important message concerns the need for maintaining momentum and pressing ahead with the finalization of ongoing anti-corruption strategic thinking and legislation, and the implementation of already approved GAC laws and measures. Looking forward...

Governance and Anti-corrupton Diagnostics : Guidance and Tools for Implementation, Monitoring, and Assessment in the Field

Recanatini, Francesca; Morgan, Grace; Laghdaf Cheikh Malainine, Mohamed
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
This guide focuses on one of the more granular approaches to governance improvement, the governance and anti-corruption diagnostic. Governance and anti-corruption diagnostics are used as an initial strategy to identify the nature of governance problems, to target the key sources or institutions associated with these problems, and to establish a baseline and indicators which can be used to make reforms and to measure progress over time. Increasingly, these diagnostics are becoming sectoral in nature, meaning they are customized to assess governance and anti-corruption in a targeted sector. If conducted properly, the diagnostic process informs and catalyzes stakeholders to demand reform. If repeated periodically, these diagnostics can become useful tools to monitor governance and anti-corruption over time. More specifically, governance and anti-corruption diagnostics: 1) Unbundle corruption by type - administrative, capture of the state, bidding, theft of goods and public resources, purchase of licenses and regulations; 2) Identify both weak institutions (which are in need of reform) and strong institutions (which provide examples of good governance); 3) Assess the cost of each type of corruption on different groups of stakeholders; 4) Provide insight into the relationship between corruption...

Diagnosing Corruption in Ethiopia : Perceptions, Realities, and the Way Forward for Key Sectors

Plummer, Janelle
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.37%
For decades, corruption in Ethiopia has been discussed only at the margins. Perhaps because many have not experienced corruption as a significant constraint to their lives and businesses, or perhaps because a culture of circumspection has dampened open dialogue, Ethiopia has seen neither the information flows nor the debate on corruption that most other countries have seen in recent years. To address this information gap, the World Bank agreed with the government of Ethiopia and its Federal Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission (FEACC) to undertake research and produce an independent overview of corruption, identify follow-up actions to these diagnostics, and articulate the proposed approach in an anti-corruption strategy and action plan for Ethiopia. This publication fulfills the first stage of the process through a set of preliminary studies that map the nature of corruption in eight Ethiopian sectors, focusing on three key objectives: 1) develop sector frameworks that enable mapping of the potential areas of corruption on a sector-by-sector basis; 2) map the different forms and types of corrupt practices in the selected sectors; and 3) consider the higher-risk areas and identify appropriate sector or crosscutting responses for government and other stakeholders.

Structural Reforms in Southeastern Europe since the Kosovo Conflict

Gressani, Daniela; Mitra, Saumya
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
This paper attempts to describe and assess the achievements of the countries of South Eastern Europe - Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, FYR Macedonia, Romania, and Federal Republic of Yugoslavia - in pursuing structural economic reforms in the period since the end of the Kosovo conflict. The paper concentrates on four key areas of structural reforms: a) public management and anti-corruption; b) creating a liberal environment for trade in goods and services; c) attracting foreign investments; and d) encouraging the growth of a private market based economy. Since the Kosovo conflict, the countries of Southeastern Europe have made encouraging progress in advancing structural reforms and preparing their economies for greater integration with Europe and the rest of the world with the aim of raising the rate of sustainable economic growth. But progress has been uneven across sectors and across countries. The gap in economic performance with respect to central Europe remains large and can be bridged only with determined reforms in creating the conditions for the formation and growth of private enterprises. Attention must also shift towards strengthening governance and fighting corruption.

Republic of Kazakhstan Tax Administration Reform and Modernization : Volume 2. Tax Strategy Paper

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.23%
This study focuses on the tax system for non-subsurface users in Kazakhstan. It takes as given the tax reform package that the authorities and stakeholders are designing, but proposes a number of additional steps to be taken over the next 2-3 years aimed at maximizing the benefits of tax neutrality on competitiveness. The first volume of this report mainly focuses on tax policy: taxes on labor, capital, and consumption. A draft report on administration was also produced for discussion, which includes an initial assessment for organization, planning and staffing, a large taxpayers unit, anti-corruption issues, taxpayer services and education, audit and inspections, collection activities, and legal issues and appeal. The second volume of the tax strategy paper examines tax administration issues, and identifies functional areas that require attention in the short, medium and longer-term. This examination represents an initial diagnostic and is not a final blueprint for modernization. The nine areas diagnosed are: organizational structure...

An anti-corruption strategy for the Philippines

Angeles, Teresita N
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Outros Formato: 41494 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
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Corruption has been identified as a major factor behind the recent East Asia financial crises. This was the conclusion of the 1998 Annual General Meeting of Transparency International held in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia, September 12-16). Transparency International is a world-wide organisation that tackles corruption in international business and seeks to encourage justice and honesty in government. A consensus reached in the meeting was that corruption, cronyism and insider exploitation were some of the more most serious threats to sustainable growth in East Asia and demanded immediate attention. This paper presents an overview of corruption in the Philippines context, particularly focussing on the electoral process, elected office and taxation assessment and collection. It examines in closer detail ways of strengthening the Resident Ombudsman as one practical measure for tackling corruption.; no

An anti-corruption strategy for provincial government in Papua New Guinea

Mana, Bui
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Outros Formato: 51170 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
This paper examines the causes and characteristics of corruption at the provincial government level in Papua New Guinea. The aim is to develop a holistic education and training approach towards preventing corruption. This approach will incorporate aspects of the ethical framework proposed by the Independent Commission Against Corruption in New South Wales which are relevant to provincial government in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The study of corruption at the provincial government level includes local governments operating at the district level. Both political and administrative corruption are addressed at the provincial level.; no

An Anticorruption Strategy for Revenue Administration; Uma estrategia anticorrupcao para administracao da receita

Das-Gupta, Arindam; Engelschalk, Michael; Mayville, William
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
The World Bank defines corruption as the abuse of public office for private gain. Corrupt actions include the unilateral theft of public property by its steward and multi-party transactions in which beneficiaries bribe officials. Corruption can exist at all levels of public administration--from the highest officeholder to the lowest functionary. Because tax and customs administration often figure among the corrupt government agencies in developing countries, Bank projects that reform these administrations should include anti-corruption efforts. Any strategy to combat corruption must limit the motives and opportunities for public officeholders to abuse their positions. This should be done directly for unilateral corruption, while for multi-party corruption it can also be done indirectly by focusing on the supply side of bribes. Although we do not know enough to identify optimal anti-corruption strategies for different country situations, there is no one-size-fits-all strategy. Various elements from the menu of possibilities must be integrated into a coherent package. The Bank's approach in this area...

Anti-Corruption Diagnostic for Argentina : An Overview of Three Reports and General Recommendations, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In mid-1999, the World Bank initiated diagnostic studies of three topics relevant to improving public sector transparency in Argentina. The topics proposed for study--procurement, the detection and investigation of corrupt acts, and the role of public information--were seen to be critical to any Argentine Government program to combat corruption. The three resulting papers (to be attached as Annexes) are synthesized in the present overview which provides a number of specific recommendations for imprvements and a suggested course of action for the future. The research focused almost exclusively on the federal government, but holds lessons for the other levels (provincial and municipal) as well. The report describes the situation prior to the assumption of office by President Fernando de la Rua (December 10, 1999). President De la Rua has begun an anti-corruption program, which is addressing many of the problems identified here. This report does not and cannot assess these new efforts. The attached consultants' reports should be read with that understanding.

Anti-Corruption Policies and Programs : A Framework for Evaluation

Huther, Jeff; Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The anti-corruption strategy the World Bank announced in September 1997 defined corruption as the "use of public office for private gain" and called for the Bank to address corruption along four dimensions: 1) Preventing fraud and corruption in Bank projects; 2) Helping countries that request Bank assistance for fighting corruption; 3) Mainstreaming a concern about corruption in Bank work; and 4) Lending active support to international efforts to address corruption. The menu of possible actions to contain corruption (in both countries and Bank projects) is very large, so the authors develop a framework to help assign priorities, depending on views of what does and does not work in specific countries. Their framework, based on public officials' incentives for opportunistic behavior, distinguishes between highly corrupt and largely corruption-free societies. Certain conditions encourage public officials to seek or accept corruption: a) The expected gains from undertaking a corrupt act exceed the expected costs. b) Little weight is placed on the cost that corruption imposes on others. In a country with heavy corruption and poor governance...

Combating Corruption in Indonesia : Enhancing Accountability for Development

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.21%
Given steady progress in the development of democracy - establishment of effective checks on arbitrary rulers, replacement of arbitrary rules with just and honest ones, and, participation of ordinary people in the making of rules - Indonesia could over time, emerge as a strong functioning democracy. Yet, continued progress towards a full-fledged democracy cannot be taken for granted, precisely because the transition to an elected government has been a largely peaceful one, indeed allowed the powerful interests that dominated the New Order-the former First Family, the military, and the conglomerates-to continue to operate, and indeed flourish in this new environment. It is in this context the problem of corruption in Indonesia must be viewed. This report is an initial outcome of an ongoing process of rethinking, and learning by the Bank, on issues of accountability, and corruption in Indonesia. In the aftermath of the financial crisis, and related political upheaval, the Bank revisited its entire strategy towards the country. The report builds on a comprehensive set of diagnostic assessments...

Zambia - Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability Review : Country Financial Accountability Assessment, Annex, Volume 2

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Integrated Fiduciary Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.16%
The challenges faced by Zambia in public expenditure management (PEM) have been longstanding, and will require targeted efforts, as well as a strong degree of political will to address. The recently launched constitutional review, which includes issues of public finance, the anti-corruption campaign of the new Government, and the renewed interest by Parliament in governance issues, and accountability have all been encouraging steps. Nevertheless, for Zambia to assure that public accountability is enduring, and not dependent upon the Government of the day, it must take steps to strengthen institutions of the State that can provide public oversight, and that promote basic checks and balances. This report provides a very detailed analysis of the country's PEM, and accountability processes. Yet, many of the recommendations are not new, but have been cited in previous reports of the Bank, and/or other donors. Effective implementation of public sector reforms will likely remain a challenge in Zambia. The limited capacity of Government suggests the need to target a few major aspects of public finance...

The Role of Parliaments in Curbing Corruption

Stapenhurst, Rick; Johnston, Niall; Pelizzo, Riccardo
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
In most countries, Parliament has the constitutional mandate to both oversee government and to hold government to account; often, audit institutions, ombuds and anti-corruption agencies report to parliament, as a means of ensuring both their independence from government and reinforcing parliament's position at the apex of accountability institutions. At the same time, parliaments can also play a key role in promoting accountability, through constituency outreach, public hearings, and parliamentary commissions.

Good-Practice Note : Governance and Anti-Corruption Innovations in the Malawi Social Action Fund Project

Aklilu, Petros; Agarwal, Sanjay
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
The World Bank supported three phases Malawi Social Action Fund (MASAF) project was first approved in 1996. Malawi, with a population of 13 million, is a low income country with one of the lowest per capita incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Malawi continues to face a variety of social, economic, political and administrative challenges including high inflation, low salaries/pensions of public officials, chronic resource shortages, dearth of public goods and services, unethical individual behavior, and kinship and nepotism. As a result of these factors, corruption remains a major problem in Malawi. In response to these challenges, Malawi has introduced a number of initiatives aimed at promoting good governance and fighting endemic corruption. In May 2004, President Bingu Wa Mutharika, immediately after taking office adopted a zero tolerance stance on corruption. This was subsequently formalized into a declaration on zero tolerance on corruption in February 2007. MASAF projects' commendable work in identifying governance and accountability risks and integrating mitigation measures into proposed project activities.

Can Private Sector Action Tackle Corruption?

Léautier, Frannie; Petkoski, Djordjija; Jarvis, Michael
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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56.18%
Corruption is an impediment to growth and poverty reduction. As the authors in this issue of Development Outreach well document, corruption limits opportunities, creates inefficiencies and forms additional barriers to the smooth delivery of services. Crucially, from the perspective of the World Bank Group, corruption cumulatively undermines progress towards achieving development objectives, not least as its impact is most adversely felt by the world's poor. The World Bank has taken a clear public stance-based on exhaustive research-to seek ways to combat corruption. To this end we do and must work together with other international organizations, governments, civil society groups, and the private sector. As noted by World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz, the private sector worldwide is one of the most important partners in this process and, without the active engagement of business, progress will be limited. This newsletter includes some of the following headings: introduction; why should business care; corruption affects everyone and exists all over the world; capacity of government to regulate is key; so...

Building a Clean Machine : Anti-Corruption Coalitions and Sustainable Reform

Johnston, Michael; Kpundeh, Sahr J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
Many societies have limited corruption through the broad-based mobilization of a diverse range of interests willing and able to defend themselves by making meaningful demands for accountability of, and limits on, official power, and for an end to illicit advantages enjoyed by others. Historically such a process has taken place gradually, as political development has proceeded and the base of participation broadens. But today's high-corruption societies cannot wait for several generations to see such developments take place. The authors argue that social action coalitions, linking public and private actors, are a way to mobilize these sorts of participation and advocacy. Such coalitions are neither a new idea nor a guarantee of successful reforms. In many instances they win out by default as an anti-corruption strategy. But they contend that if sustained by careful planning and a diverse set of incentives, they can reinforce political will and enhance the strength of civil society. Coalition-building efforts are underway in many societies. But too often they have focused only on anti-corruption tactics and pursuing their own growth...

el control como fase del proceso administrativo en las entidades pùblicas: estrategia anticorrupcion; PHASE CONTROL AS THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCESS IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS: CORRUPTION STRATEGY

Torres Herrera, Sandra J.; Espinosa, Pedro N.
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Estudios a Distancia; Administración de Empresas Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Estudios a Distancia; Administración de Empresas
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
SPA
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En el desarrollo del ensayo se presentará las ideas y material de consulta sobre el uso del plan anticorrupción como estrategia de control en las entidades públicas en la lucha anticorrupción, pasando por temas de generalidades, normatividad, metodología y Sistemas de Gestión y Control; entregando así mismo la interpretación y opinión personal alrededor de estos temas y finalizando con una caso práctico en el cual se mostrará los resultados de la estrategia mencionada en una empresa pública real: Unidad Nacional de Protección.; In assay development ideas and reference material on the use of anti-corruption plan as a control strategy in public institutions in the fight against corruption will be presented, to general topics, standards, methodology and Systems Management and Control; likewise delivering interpretation and personal opinion about these issues and ending with a case study in which the results of this strategy is shown in a real public company: National Protection Unit.