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Driving to anti-corruption utopia without a roadmap: assessing the theoretical basis for Corruption Prevention Strategies of Global Institutions

Warburton, John
Fonte: CIES - ISCTE Publicador: CIES - ISCTE
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.59%
Desde a década de 1990 que se tem vindo a verificar uma enorme vaga de interesse pela luta contra a corrupção, sobretudo por parte das instituições mundiais e organizações não governamentais, como o FMI, o Banco Mundial, a OCDE e a Transparency International. São promovidas estratégias de luta contra a corrupção para os países menos desenvolvidos, quer como uma forma de melhorar a prestação de serviços aos cidadãos, quer como condição prévia para receberem ajudas. Um enorme sector de ajuda empenhado na luta contra a corrupção cresceu na comunidade mundial, onde antes nenhum existia. Afigura-se que as instituições mundiais estão a promover estes programas com base numa insuficiente investigação efectiva e sem disporem de uma verdadeira base teórica. O único corpus teórico coerente e viável que se encontra disponível é a abordagem da economia política, assente nos instrumentos e pressupostos subjacentes à ciência económica neoclássica e à teoria da escolha pública. Isto é notoriamente insuficiente para fundamentar as medidas práticas de combate à corrupção, sendo que a maioria das instituições mundiais e ONG se limita a promover uma variante da estratégia de melhoria da governação e de reforço das instituições. No presente paper sugere-se que é importante possuir uma compreensão teórica do modo como a corrupção funciona e que há várias áreas de investigação proveitosas que têm sido negligenciadas. A corrupção deve ser entendida como um processo social...

A short introduction to corruption and anti corruption

Larmour, Peter
Fonte: CIES - ISCTE Publicador: CIES - ISCTE
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.61%
A corrupção é um fenómeno que condiciona o desenvolvimento dos serviços públicos, quer pelo dano que causa ao erário público, quer pela má imagem e reputação que cria em relação ao desempenho institucional. A crescente preocupação com as ocorrências do fenómeno e sobretudo com a percepção negativa dos cidadãos sobre o desempenho da sua administração tem conduzido a um conjunto de reformas. Alguns países chegaram mesmo a introduzir exames/testes de conduta nas provas de acesso à administração pública, sessões de esclarecimento sobre conflitos de interesse para os novos elementos e comissões de aconselhamento. Outros optaram pela criação de agências anti-corrupção especializadas com autonomia funcional em relação às forças de investigação convencionais e independentes face ao governo. Este artigo começa por uma análise da definição de corrupção e dos factores (individuais, institucionais ou sócio-culturais) que inibem a sua ocorrência. Segue-se uma reflexão sobre a relação entre corrupção e ética em democracia e por fim conclui-se com algumas notas críticas sobre os efeitos perversos das campanhas anti-corrupção.; Corruption is a very old problem in government, and concern about corruption has shaped the development of public services. For example...

Mauritania : Anti-Corruption Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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66.66%
This report provides analytic support to the National Anti-corruption Strategy (NACS) formulation, offers lessons from international experience on governance and anti-corruption (GAC) policy, and generally supports the Government and its development partners to better understand the phenomenon of corruption in Mauritania. The report is structured as follows: Chapter 2 focuses on the definition and measurement of corruption and the Mauritanian political economy. Chapter 3 focuses on corruption in public procurement. Chapter 4 concentrates on corruption in the courts of law. Chapter 5 deals with the extractive industries. Chapter 6 focuses on corruption from the perspective of the private sector, based on the results of the recent Investment Climate Assessment (ICA). On the basis of the analysis conducted in this report, the single most important message concerns the need for maintaining momentum and pressing ahead with the finalization of ongoing anti-corruption strategic thinking and legislation, and the implementation of already approved GAC laws and measures. Looking forward...

Governance and Anti-corrupton Diagnostics : Guidance and Tools for Implementation, Monitoring, and Assessment in the Field

Recanatini, Francesca; Morgan, Grace; Laghdaf Cheikh Malainine, Mohamed
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This guide focuses on one of the more granular approaches to governance improvement, the governance and anti-corruption diagnostic. Governance and anti-corruption diagnostics are used as an initial strategy to identify the nature of governance problems, to target the key sources or institutions associated with these problems, and to establish a baseline and indicators which can be used to make reforms and to measure progress over time. Increasingly, these diagnostics are becoming sectoral in nature, meaning they are customized to assess governance and anti-corruption in a targeted sector. If conducted properly, the diagnostic process informs and catalyzes stakeholders to demand reform. If repeated periodically, these diagnostics can become useful tools to monitor governance and anti-corruption over time. More specifically, governance and anti-corruption diagnostics: 1) Unbundle corruption by type - administrative, capture of the state, bidding, theft of goods and public resources, purchase of licenses and regulations; 2) Identify both weak institutions (which are in need of reform) and strong institutions (which provide examples of good governance); 3) Assess the cost of each type of corruption on different groups of stakeholders; 4) Provide insight into the relationship between corruption...

Diagnosing Corruption in Ethiopia : Perceptions, Realities, and the Way Forward for Key Sectors

Plummer, Janelle
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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For decades, corruption in Ethiopia has been discussed only at the margins. Perhaps because many have not experienced corruption as a significant constraint to their lives and businesses, or perhaps because a culture of circumspection has dampened open dialogue, Ethiopia has seen neither the information flows nor the debate on corruption that most other countries have seen in recent years. To address this information gap, the World Bank agreed with the government of Ethiopia and its Federal Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission (FEACC) to undertake research and produce an independent overview of corruption, identify follow-up actions to these diagnostics, and articulate the proposed approach in an anti-corruption strategy and action plan for Ethiopia. This publication fulfills the first stage of the process through a set of preliminary studies that map the nature of corruption in eight Ethiopian sectors, focusing on three key objectives: 1) develop sector frameworks that enable mapping of the potential areas of corruption on a sector-by-sector basis; 2) map the different forms and types of corrupt practices in the selected sectors; and 3) consider the higher-risk areas and identify appropriate sector or crosscutting responses for government and other stakeholders.

Fraud and Corruption Awareness Handbook : A Handbook for Civil Servants Involved in Public Procurement

World Bank
Fonte: Warsaw Publicador: Warsaw
EN_US
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This handbook is intended for government employees involved in public procurement. It provides some insights into how fraud and corruption schemes work in public investments. The handbook identifies a range of fraud and corruption indicators, or red flags, and relevant schemes that may become apparent during the life of an investment, from design to implementation. The primary focus of this handbook is fraud and corruption in procurement, with some coverage of general governance issues. It is based on the experience of Poland s Central Anti-Corruption Bureau and the World Bank s Integrity Vice Presidency, and it presents examples referring both to public investments implemented under Polish public procurement law and international competitive bidding. This handbook aims to provide support to the managers of procuring entities in conducting public procurement by identifying frequently occurring irregularities and suggesting methods of preventing them.

Corruption is bad: normative dimensions of the anti-corruption movement

Bukovansky, Mlada
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 278949 bytes; 349 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Informed by a recent wave of academic and policy research, international organisations such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the OECD are increasingly attempting to incorporate anti-corruption measures into their respective missions. But while the concept of corruption makes little sense in the absence of a parametric normative distinction between that which properly belongs to the public sphere and that which belongs to the private or commercial sphere, there has been little effort by policy makers or students of international political economy to explicitly articulate and reflect upon the moral and ethical underpinnings of the concept of corruption. This paper reviews some of the key documents of the emerging global anti-corruption regime, and analyses the moral connotations permeating these documents. I also examine the relative neglect of moral and ethical issues within the scholarly literature on corruption and its consequences. Such neglect, I argue, is likely to undercut the legitimacy, and hence efficacy, of international institutional efforts to combat corruption.; yes

Anti-Corruption Agencies: Between Empowerment and Irrelevance

DE SOUSA, Luís
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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One distinctive feature of the anti-corruption activity of the 1990s is the rise of new players, such as specialized anti-corruption bodies. Anti-corruption agencies (ACAs) are public bodies of a durable nature, with a specific mission to fight corruption and reducing the opportunity structures propitious for its occurrence in society through preventive and/or repressive measures. Independently of their format and powers, ACAs encounter various constraints to their mandate, which explains the meagre results obtained by some of them: difficulties (technical, statutory or cultural) in unveiling corruption via complaints; difficulties in obtaining information about corruption and its opportunity structures from other state bodies/agencies; and difficulties in establishing a good working relationship with the political sphere. The burgeoning literature on corruption suggests that the most important issues are the incidence of the phenomenon itself (causes, contexts, processes and effects). Instead, this article argues that anti-corruption activity should now be regarded as an important object of study in its own right. The purpose of this paper is to understand the rise, future, and implications of this new kind of "integrity warriors" and to locate them in the evolving doctrine of corruption control.

Does performance matter to institutional survival? The method and politics of performance measurement for Anti-Corruption Agencies

DE SOUSA, Luís
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
Anti-corruption agencies (ACAs) are facing mounting pressure from national governments, public opinion, donors and international organizations to demonstrate objective results. Debates on the performance of ACAs tend to devote little attention to the causal structure of performance and often take place in a context in which the agency is absent or unprepared to refute allegations of inefficiency and institutional failure loosely formulated against its existence. The aim of this paper is to discuss issues of institutional failure by focusing on the politics and processes underlining performance evaluations of ACAs. Why is it important to evaluate the performance of institutions? How does performance relate to legitimacy and how have ACAs been performing along the three dimensions of legitimacy? What indicators have been developed by agencies and what do they measure? Finally, to what extent evaluation procedures are fundamental to the work and durability of ACAs?

Improving the transparency/anti-corruption efforts in defense procurement: recommendations from global practices

Kilaz, Ilker; Hayri, Kadir
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xx, 123 p.; 28 cm.
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MBA Professional Report; The purpose of this MBA Project is to explore the risks of corruption throughout the defense procurement cycle, and provide an overview of existing anti-corruption conventions and tools. This report includes background information and corruption focused analysis about defense offset agreements and single-source selection methods. The findings related to these corruption risks are supported with the analysis of three informative defense procurement cases. Additionally, the effectiveness of anti-corruption conventions is evaluated through ten countries' score changes in major corruption indices. Finally, several recommendations are offered to improve the integrity, transparency, and accountability of defense purchases.; Turkish Army author

The role of anti-corruption chapters within free trade agreemnts: governance of bribery within the legislature, judiciary and the public service

Molloy, Erin
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.56%
Corruption has experienced increased attention in recent years, spurred in part by an increasingly globalised market place. In particular, bribery of foreign public officials has become an important issue for governments, civil society and the private sector alike. Bribery in international transactions exists to the detriment of domestic economies and the international trading environment. Bribery impedes economic growth, undermines governing institutions, and results in ineffective administrative institutions, reduced citizen welfare and environmental degradation. The increased risk and expense created by bribery in international transactions also hampers the efficiency and economic development accorded by international trade liberalisation Bribery is a result of opportunities for economic rents, high levels of discretionary powers, inadequate transparency and a lack of accountability for both multinational firms and public officials. Bribery is therefore controlled by effective governance. Governance involves the integration of proactive and enforcing measures in governing institutions to foster integrity, increase transparency and enhance accountability. This report examine s governance of the institutions of public officials...

Anti-Corruption Diagnostic for Argentina : An Overview of Three Reports and General Recommendations, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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In mid-1999, the World Bank initiated diagnostic studies of three topics relevant to improving public sector transparency in Argentina. The topics proposed for study--procurement, the detection and investigation of corrupt acts, and the role of public information--were seen to be critical to any Argentine Government program to combat corruption. The three resulting papers (to be attached as Annexes) are synthesized in the present overview which provides a number of specific recommendations for imprvements and a suggested course of action for the future. The research focused almost exclusively on the federal government, but holds lessons for the other levels (provincial and municipal) as well. The report describes the situation prior to the assumption of office by President Fernando de la Rua (December 10, 1999). President De la Rua has begun an anti-corruption program, which is addressing many of the problems identified here. This report does not and cannot assess these new efforts. The attached consultants' reports should be read with that understanding.

Anti-Corruption Policies and Programs : A Framework for Evaluation

Huther, Jeff; Shah, Anwar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The anti-corruption strategy the World Bank announced in September 1997 defined corruption as the "use of public office for private gain" and called for the Bank to address corruption along four dimensions: 1) Preventing fraud and corruption in Bank projects; 2) Helping countries that request Bank assistance for fighting corruption; 3) Mainstreaming a concern about corruption in Bank work; and 4) Lending active support to international efforts to address corruption. The menu of possible actions to contain corruption (in both countries and Bank projects) is very large, so the authors develop a framework to help assign priorities, depending on views of what does and does not work in specific countries. Their framework, based on public officials' incentives for opportunistic behavior, distinguishes between highly corrupt and largely corruption-free societies. Certain conditions encourage public officials to seek or accept corruption: a) The expected gains from undertaking a corrupt act exceed the expected costs. b) Little weight is placed on the cost that corruption imposes on others. In a country with heavy corruption and poor governance...

West Bank and Gaza - Improving Governance and Reducing Corruption

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: City Development Strategy (CDS)
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In the past decade, the Palestinian Authority (PA) has worked to strengthen economic governance and combat corruption, both essential to sustained economic growth and improved delivery of public services. This report finds the PA has made significant progress in its public institutions, establishing a strong governance environment in many critical areas. But it also identifies areas where reforms are underway but incomplete or, in some areas, not yet under consideration. Major reforms have been put in place to strengthen the PA's public financial management (PFM) systems and better manage its equity holdings, two crucial components in the public finance sector. In other important areas, such as public procurement, public sector employment, regulation of the private sector, and the work of anti-corruption institutions, reforms are underway but have not been fully implemented. This analysis relies on an understanding of the relationship between good economic governance, public service delivery, and corruption. Studies show a direct correlation between weak governance systems and the quality of public service delivery. Weak governance systems...

The Role of Parliaments in Curbing Corruption

Stapenhurst, Rick; Johnston, Niall; Pelizzo, Riccardo
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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56.55%
In most countries, Parliament has the constitutional mandate to both oversee government and to hold government to account; often, audit institutions, ombuds and anti-corruption agencies report to parliament, as a means of ensuring both their independence from government and reinforcing parliament's position at the apex of accountability institutions. At the same time, parliaments can also play a key role in promoting accountability, through constituency outreach, public hearings, and parliamentary commissions.

Africa Development Indicators 2010 : Silent and Lethal, How Quiet Corruption Undermines Africa's Development

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.53%
The corruption that often captures newspaper headlines and provokes worldwide public disapproval is dominated by loud 'big-time corruption,' notably administrative and political corruption at the highest government levels. In response to this notoriety, the bulk of anti-corruption measures have been tailored to address this type of corruption. However, recent examinations of the level and quality of service delivery in developing countries, including the World Development Report 2004, have highlighted the need to expand the scope of the standard definition of corruption, the abuse of public office for private gain. While acknowledging the importance of big-time corruption in reducing funding for service delivery, recent research has devoted increasing attention to identifying corrupt practices downstream at the frontline of public service provision. Given the complexity of the task, the fight against quiet corruption requires tailoring policies to country circumstances, recognizing that priorities and responses may vary depending on different country conditions. This essay outlines a research agenda to identify interventions to address quiet corruption. Experimenting with various ways to empower beneficiaries and continuing the ongoing efforts to tackle big-time corruption will go a long way toward achieving this goal. Indeed...

Good-Practice Note : Governance and Anti-Corruption Innovations in the Malawi Social Action Fund Project

Aklilu, Petros; Agarwal, Sanjay
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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56.54%
The World Bank supported three phases Malawi Social Action Fund (MASAF) project was first approved in 1996. Malawi, with a population of 13 million, is a low income country with one of the lowest per capita incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa. Malawi continues to face a variety of social, economic, political and administrative challenges including high inflation, low salaries/pensions of public officials, chronic resource shortages, dearth of public goods and services, unethical individual behavior, and kinship and nepotism. As a result of these factors, corruption remains a major problem in Malawi. In response to these challenges, Malawi has introduced a number of initiatives aimed at promoting good governance and fighting endemic corruption. In May 2004, President Bingu Wa Mutharika, immediately after taking office adopted a zero tolerance stance on corruption. This was subsequently formalized into a declaration on zero tolerance on corruption in February 2007. MASAF projects' commendable work in identifying governance and accountability risks and integrating mitigation measures into proposed project activities.

Good-Practice Note : Governance and Anti-Corruption Innovations in the Da Nang Priority Infrastructure Investment Project, Vietnam

Golan, Amnon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.44%
As Vietnam's fourth largest urban area, Da Nang is expected to grow exponentially in the next two decades. The Da Nang priority infrastructure investment project which operates in a challenging governance environment has introduced a number of innovative Governance and Anti-Corruption (GAC) interventions through a Governance and Transparency Action Plan (GTAP). The key features and challenges of the project GTAP assessed along three dimensions governance and political economy, fraud and corruption risks in procurement and financial management, and demand side governance (transparency, participation and third party monitoring) are discussed in this learning note.

Building a Clean Machine : Anti-Corruption Coalitions and Sustainable Reform

Johnston, Michael; Kpundeh, Sahr J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.56%
Many societies have limited corruption through the broad-based mobilization of a diverse range of interests willing and able to defend themselves by making meaningful demands for accountability of, and limits on, official power, and for an end to illicit advantages enjoyed by others. Historically such a process has taken place gradually, as political development has proceeded and the base of participation broadens. But today's high-corruption societies cannot wait for several generations to see such developments take place. The authors argue that social action coalitions, linking public and private actors, are a way to mobilize these sorts of participation and advocacy. Such coalitions are neither a new idea nor a guarantee of successful reforms. In many instances they win out by default as an anti-corruption strategy. But they contend that if sustained by careful planning and a diverse set of incentives, they can reinforce political will and enhance the strength of civil society. Coalition-building efforts are underway in many societies. But too often they have focused only on anti-corruption tactics and pursuing their own growth...

Republic of Belarus : Corruption Vulnerability Scan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Institutional and Governance Review (IGR); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The Corruption Vulnerability Scan (CVS) is an internal Bank document aimed at providing a better understanding on the Bank's vulnerability in extending assistance to Belarus, and making suggestions as to how to reduce risks in the use of Bank funds, while improving results on the ground. The CVS team visited Belarus in March 2007. Its main conclusion is that the vulnerability to corruption of Bank funds and activities funded from loan proceeds in Belarus is low, as long as Bank fiduciary procedures are used and implementation is closely supervised. The report is in three parts: Corruption and Anti-Corruption in Belarus, Public Finance Management and the Bank Portfolio.