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Water pricing models: a survey

Monteiro, H.
Fonte: Dinâmia Publicador: Dinâmia
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2005 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
JEL Classification: L95, Q25.; This paper surveys water pricing models, highlighting some important results. Efficiency requires marginal cost pricing. Intra-annual price changes or customer differentiation to reflect differences in marginal costs can enhance efficiency. A marginal cost pricing mechanism may signal the value that consumers attribute to further capacity expansions as the water supply system approaches its capacity limit and marginal cost rises. However, pure marginal cost pricing may not be feasible while respecting a revenue requirement because marginal costs may be higher or lower than average costs. The most common ways of combining efficiency and revenue requirements are through the use of two-part tariffs, adjusting the fixed charge to meet the revenue requirement, or through second-best pricing like Ramsey pricing. It is not evident whether the best scheme is a two-part tariff or some other pricing mechanism. The role of block rate pricing, increasingly more frequent in actual pricing practices, is yet to be fully investigated.

Doing Business in 2006 : Creating Jobs

World Bank; International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.87%
Doing Business in 2006: Creating Jobs is the third in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. New quantitative indicators on business regulations and their enforcement can be compared across 155 countries-from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe-and over time. Doing Business in 2004: Understanding Regulation presented indicators in 5 topics: starting a business, hiring and firing workers, enforcing contracts, getting credit and closing a business. Doing Business in 2005: Removing Obstacles to Growth updated these measures and added another two sets: registering property and protecting investors. Doing Business in 2006 again up-dates all previous measures and adds three more sets: dealing with licenses, paying taxes and trading across borders, to create a total of 10 areas measured. The indicators are used to analyze economic outcomes and identify what reforms have worked, where, and why.

Ethiopia : Public Finance Review 2010

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.23%
Ethiopia Public Finance Review (PFR) is an analytical input to the regular Government-Donor dialogue on public finance and aid effectiveness. It forms the basis for policy focused analyses and sustained dialogue that facilitate close partnership and enhanced mutual accountability between Government and the development partners. The PFR is also an important instrument for determining the level and quality of aid and it fulfills a due diligence requirement for operations like the Protection of Basic Services. The 2010 PFR analyzes the effectiveness of decentralized service delivery in Ethiopia. While the Government of Ethiopia (GoE) has pursued decentralization for the last two decades, neither a comprehensive documentation of the functioning of the system nor a thorough evaluation of its effectiveness is available. This study attempts to fill this gap by linking policy and institutional variables related to decentralization with service delivery outcomes at the sub-national level.

Syrian Arab Republic : Modernization of Public Financial Management

Radev, Dimitar; Fouad, Manal; Gardner, John; Messali, Pierre; Petrie, Murray; Webber, David
Fonte: International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.09%
The authorities have made good recent progress in important public financial management (PFM) areas. They have strengthened the overall regulatory framework of the budget process by adopting a new basic finance law, and further deepened budget integration by transferring the responsibilities for the capital budget from the State Planning Commission (SPC) to the Ministry of Finance (MoF). They have also improved the budget presentation by providing information to parliament for selected ministries on the base of a simple program structure.The main purpose of this report is to assist the authorities in advancing their reform agenda for modernization of the PFM system. To this end, the report: Develops an action plan for PFM reform. The plan sets out specific activities in a selection of reform areas identified as priorities in discussion with the Minister of Finance, as well as the suggested timing and possible requirement of technicalassistance (TA); and elaborates, in detail, actions that need to be undertaken in four broad PFM areas as identified in the plan: (i) medium-term orientation of the budget; (ii) budget integration reforms; (iii) budgetary treatment of public economic entities; and (iv) treasury reforms. Key recommendations of the report include:Prepare a three-year fiscal forecast and link fiscal projections to an approved debtsustainability and fiscal strategy framework; present as part of the budget documentation information on the revenues and expenditures of the public economic entities; and progressively strengthen governance of the sector; gradually extend the use of programs for presentation purposes in the budget by adding up to five to six new ministries in 2010...

Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan : Options for Immediate Fiscal Adjustment and Longer Term Consolidation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.16%
This report aims to provide options for immediate fiscal adjustment to the government of Jordan and to set the foundations for longer term consolidation. To that effect, an analysis of the dynamics of revenues and expenditures over the years 2000-2011 is undertaken. Specifically, this report attempts to provide options to stop and reverse the declining trend in revenues observed since 2007. Indeed, domestic revenues declined by 9.4 percentage points of GDP between 2007 and 2011. This steady and structural decline in revenues increased the vulnerability of Jordan s public finances to any exogenous shock. Hence, the strong fiscal stress at the eve of the Arab Awakening, due to the pressures to finance widening power sector deficit following the disruption of Egyptian gas supply, and to meet popular demand for additional spending and subsidies. The report also examines: 1) potential sources of savings from current and capital spending, 2) scenarios to reduce power sector deficit including tariff simulations...

CPIA Africa, June 2013

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
This report is the second in a series of annual reports describing the progress African countries are making on strengthening the quality of policies and institutions that underpin development. It presents Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) scores for the 39 African countries that are eligible for support from the International Development Association (IDA). The development literature identifies the components of the CPIA as being broadly relevant for sustaining growth and reducing poverty. The data provide some support for this association. All country groups exhibit similar patterns across the four CPIA clusters. The gap in scores between the macroeconomic management cluster and the governance cluster is just as pronounced for fragile as for non-fragile states. In contrast, the gap between the economic management cluster and the social policies and structural policies clusters is small. Overall, the macroeconomic policy stance in Sub-Saharan Africa was supportive of growth, with monetary policy focused on managing inflation and fiscal policy focused on pro-poor spending and infrastructure development. Inflation declined in 2012...

Financial Sector Assessment Program - Albania : Public Debt Management

World Bank; International Monetary Fund
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.87%
Government debt continues to expand, reaching over all 872 billion, approximately 62 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), as of end-September 2013. Domestic debt grew sharply in the first half of 2013, emanating largely from poor tax revenue performance, together with the accumulation of a large stock of unpaid bills and arrears. External debt creditors comprise multilaterals, bilateral creditors, and private creditors. The concentrated nature of the investor base and the high domestic debt stock limit the choices available to debt management, particularly with regards to extending the maturity of the domestic debt. Public debt management in Albania follows an organized process but will benefit from a number of technical changes. The domestic borrowing plan has been revised frequently due to unexpected flows in the treasury account. In an environment of volatile treasury balances, cash flows safety nets or minimum cash buffers should be implemented. A number of initiatives are recommended to improve the transmission of price signals in the primary market - overall this will provide incentives for secondary market development. To support the development of the secondary market the General Directorate of public debt management should modify its issuance program and focus on key maturities on the yield curve. It is suggested that the issuance program takes a small step in this direction by limiting the number of tenors and focusing on for example...

Governance of Indian State Power Utilities : An Ongoing Journey

Pargal, Sheoli; Mayer, Kristy
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Group Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank Group
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.99%
By the late 1990s, the technical and financial performance of the power sector in India had deteriorated to the point where the Government of India had to step in to bail out the state utilities, almost all of which were vertically integrated state electricity boards (SEBs). Considering that the dismal performance of state utilities reflected internal and external shortfalls in governance, the new Electricity Act of 2003 (EA 2003) mandated the unbundling and corporatization of the SEBs, along with the establishment of independent regulators. This was expected to bring about a more accountable and commercial performance culture, with concomitant results in improved utility performance. The rest of this review is organized as follows. Chapter two summarizes the institutional context and relevant developments over the past two decades. Chapter three focuses on the corporate governance agenda adopted by the government and its implementation, specifically relating to the structure and functioning of utility boards of directors. Chapter four reviews SERC regulatory governance. Chapter five analyzes the correlation between key indicators of the quality of regulatory and corporate governance and utility financial performance. And chapter six concludes.

Private Participation in the Indian Power Sector : Lessons from Two Decades of Experience

Mukherjee, Mohua
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
This book reviews the major developments in and the lessons learned from the 21-year (1991-2012) experience with private sector participation (PSP) in the power sector in India. It discusses the political economy context of the policy changes, looks at reform initiatives that were implemented for the generation sector, describes transmission and distribution segments at different points in the evolution of the sector, and concludes with a summary of lessons learned and a suggested way forward. The evolution of private participation in the Indian power sector can be divided into different phases. Phase one was launched with the opening of the generation sector to private investment in 1991. Phase two soon followed - early experiments with state-level unbundling and other reform initiatives, including regulatory reform, culminating in divestiture, and privatization in Orissa and Delhi respectively. Phase three, the passage of the electricity act of 2003 by the central government, followed by a large increase in private entry into generation and forays into transmission and experiments with distribution franchise models in urban and rural areas during the 11th five-year plan (2007-12) period. In phase four...

Small Countries with Volatile Revenue

Kojo, Naoko C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
Bhutan and Botswana share a number of similarities. The two countries, land locked small states, have grown rapidly over the past few decades, boosted by sustained, large-scale inflows of foreign exchange. Botswana’s annual real growth rate averaged 9 percent over the past 40 years, driven by diamond exploration, whereas Bhutan has taken full advantage of generous foreign aid inflows to achieve an average growth rate of 8 percent per year for the past 30 years. However, after decades of rapid growth, the production base of both countries remains very narrow and the economy continues to directly or indirectly dependent on government demand. Job creation, particularly for the youths, is an important policy issue. Despite these similarities, Bhutan and Botswana exhibit an interesting contrast with regard to the management of volatile foreign exchange inflows, and its macroeconomic consequences. Notwithstanding the serious impact of the recent global crisis, today Botswana’s external position remains solid, guarded by sizable international reserves and low external debt. In contrast...

Pakistan Development Update, October 2015

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.99%
Pakistan’s economy posted GDP growth of 4.2 percent in FY2014/15 compared to 4.0 percent in the previous year, but below the 5.1 percent targeted growth envisaged for FY2014-15 in the annual plan. On the demand side, investment and government consumption posted strong growth. Private consumption was supported by record high remittances in the order of US$18.7 billion in FY2014/15. The share of investment in GDP remains relatively small, at 15.1 percent of GDP, about half of the South Asian average at 30 percent. More worryingly, private investment as a share of GDP has been declining and stood at 9.7 percent of GDP in FY2014/15. This low investment has implications for Pakistan’s long term growth potential that has been on a clear declining long run trend as discussed in special section three in this issue. Exports declined in FY2014/15 and this decline was broad based, a result of both low international prices of some of Pakistan’s export products as well as weak external demand. Textiles, which account for about half of all exports...

Doing Business 2011 : Making a Difference for Entrepreneurs - Comparing Business Regulation in 183 Economies

International Finance Corporation; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.87%
Doing Business 2011: making a difference for entrepreneurs is the eighth in a series of annual reports investigating regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 183 economies, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, over time. A set of regulations affecting 11 areas of the life of a business's are covered: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and closing a business. Data in Doing Business 2011 are current as of June 1, 2010. The indicators are used to analyze economic outcomes and identify what reforms have worked, where, and why. The paper includes the following headings: overview, starting a business, dealing with construction permits, employing workers, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors...

Kenya Economic Report, June 2013, No. 8 : Time to Shift Gears--Accelerating Growth and Poverty Reduction in the New Kenya

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.06%
The report has three main messages. First, the economy is expected to achieve higher growth targets in 2013 (5.7 percent) and 2014 (6 percent) over what it achieved in 2012 (4.6 percent), as a result of the smooth election process. However, the government will need to make a concerted effort, if it wishes to approach the 10 percent annual growth rate foreseen in Vision 2030. The report's second message emphasizes on the steps that the government needs to take to create an enabling framework for significant private sector-led growth. The Government needs to continue to invest in infrastructure, to increase domestic energy production, to address the other bottlenecks that affect the cost of doing business, and to continue following sound monetary and fiscal policies. Finally, the report's third message focuses on the poverty situation in Kenya, noting progress made since 2005, when an estimated 47 percent of the population lived below the poverty line, to the present, where poverty estimates range between 34 and 42 percent...

Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Sudan

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.87%
This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Sudan. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business; for 2015 Sudan ranks 160. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 189 economies from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe and over time. Doing Business measures regulations affecting 11 areas of the life of a business known as indicators. Ten of these areas are included in this year's ranking on the ease of doing business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits...

How Do Countries Measure, Manage, and Monitor Fiscal Risks Generated by Public-Private Partnerships? Chile, Peru, South Africa, Turkey

Aslan, Cigdem; Duarte, David
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.14%
The topic of managing fiscal risks arising from public-private partnerships is receiving increased attention as more governments turn toward this type of financing for large infrastructure projects. Governments can manage balance sheet exposure to public-private partnerships by quantifying and capturing direct obligations and provisions for potential calls on government guarantees associated with public-private partnership projects in the preparation of the medium term fiscal framework and annual budget. This working paper examines how four countries with active public-private partnership projects manage the costs and risks of financial obligations generated by these investments throughout the lifetime of the contracts. The paper seeks to complement the existing literature with a practitioner's point of view while exploring if and how these countries monitor and evaluate the fiscal risks generated by the portfolio of public-private partnerships (as well as individual projects). The countries covered are Chile...

Bolivia - Public Financial Management Review, Based on the PEFA Methodology

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.24%
The National Development Plan highlights the Bolivian Government's commitment to improving efficiency, transparency, and accountability in the use of public resources. Within that framework, the authorities of the Ministry of Economy and Public Finance (Ministerio de Economia y Finanzas Publicas, or MEFP) expressed their interest in conducting a public finance performance review following the Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) framework. Under this initiative the MEFP conducted a self-assessment, Evaluacion de las Finanzas Publicas (EFIP), at the beginning of 2008, which was then updated in a second phase toward the end of the same year. The purpose of this PEFA review is to provide the Government, international donors, and other stakeholders with an objective diagnosis of the performance of the PFM systems, processes, and institutions, using 31 high-level indicators taken from the PEFA reference framework. In accordance with government requirement, the review focuses on the central government's public expenditure and revenues...

Doing Business 2008 : Comparing Regulation in 178 Economies

International Finance Corporation; World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.99%
Doing business 2008 is the fifth in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Doing business presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 178 economies, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, and over time. Regulations affecting 10 stages of a business's life are measured: starting a business, dealing with licenses, employing workers, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts, and closing a business. Data in doing business 2008 are current as of June 1, 2007. The indicators are used to analyze economic outcomes and identify what reforms have worked, where, and why. The Doing business methodology has limitations. Other areas important to business-such as a country's proximity to large markets, the quality of its infrastructure services, the security of property from theft and looting, the transparency of government procurement...

Debt Management Performance Assessment : Papua New Guinea

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Debt Management Performance Assessment
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.99%
At the request of the Government of Papua New Guinea (PNG), a mission comprised of Jeff Chelsky (PRMVP, mission lead), Tomas Magnusson (BDM, consultant), Greg Horman (BDM, consultant) and Tim Bulman (EAP, country economist), visited Port Moresby between November 22nd and December 3rd to undertake a DeMPA exercise. The team met with officials from the Department of Treasury, Bank of Papua New Guinea, Department of Finance, Department of National Planning and Monitoring, State Solicitor's Office, Auditor General's Office, Independent Public Business Corporation (IPBC), AUSAid, Asian Development Bank, ANZ Bank, Nambawan Super, and Bank South Pacific (BSP). This report reflects comments received from the PNG authorities in February 2011. The mission found that, in a number of areas, PNG meets or exceeds minimum DeMPA requirements. Strengths include the quality of the debt management strategy, the framework for domestic debt issuance, coordination with monetary policy, and the legal framework (except for the issuance of T-bills for which the law contains no explicit borrowing purposes). Looking ahead...

Republic of Armenia : Power Sector Tariff Study

Kochnakyan, Artur; Balabanyan, Ani; Antmann, Pedro; Laderchi, Caterina Ruggeri; Olivier, Anne; Pierce, Lauren; Hankinson, Denzel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.87%
Armenia's energy sector has achieved a level of electricity reliability, service quality and efficiency of sector operations that stands out among countries participating in Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Much of this can be attributed to a decade of regulatory reform including a long-standing commitment to cost-recovery tariffs. The study is structured as follows: section one provides definitions of the key terms used and a background on the current tariff setting process in Armenia. Section two indicates how far tariffs have departed from cost-recovery levels and what costs have not been covered as a result. Section three describes how new investments will affect the average cost of service and the average residential tariff. Section four proposes a marginal cost-based tariff structure and explains why this differs from the current tariff structure. Section five discusses the poverty and social impact of tariff increases needed to cover new investments in 2021. Section six identifies options for subsidization and mitigating rate shock that will help transition to higher...

Doing Business Economy Profile 2016; Ukraine

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.96%
This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Ukraine. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business; for 2015 Ukraine ranks 83. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 189 economies from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe and over time. Doing Business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 11 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business...