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Romania : Public Expenditure and Institutional Review : Background Papers

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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26.58%
The government has embarked upon a comprehensive and difficult medium term program for reforming the public sector aimed at rebalancing the relation between revenue and spending and enhancing the efficiency and efficacy of service delivery. The Romanian economy has been hit hard by the global economic downturn. Latest estimates suggest that real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) may have contracted by around 7 percent in 2009, before modestly recovering in 2010. The severe decline in output has had a significant adverse effect on consolidated budget revenues, which fell substantially below the initial target in 2009. To prevent a further deterioration of the already large fiscal deficit, the shortfall in revenue has led to adjustments in spending. Consolidation of expenditure needs however continue in order to put public finances on a sustainable trajectory over the medium term. The report is structured in two volumes. The first volume synthesizes the menu of options suggested to reduce the short term gap between budget expenditure and revenues. It also highlights the key challenges and recommendations for improving efficiency and efficacy of spending in the sectors investigated. Volume two consists of the background analyses...

Fiscal Policy, Public Expenditure Composition, and Growth : Theory and Empirics

Semmler, Willi; Greiner, Alfred; Diallo, Bobo; Rezai, Armon; Rajaram, Anand
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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36.26%
This paper responds to the development policy debate involving the World Bank and the IMF on the use of fiscal policy not only for economic stabilization but also to promote economic growth and increase per capita income. A key issue in this debate relates to the effect of the composition of public expenditure on economic growth. Policy makers and some researchers have argued that expenditure on growth-enhancing functions could enhance future revenue and justify the provision of "fiscal space" in the budget. But there are no simple ways to identify the growth-maximizing composition of public expenditure. The current paper lays out a research strategy to explore the effects of fiscal policy, including the composition of public expenditure, on economic growth, using a time series approach. Based on the modeling strategy of Greiner, Semmler and Gong (2005) we develop a general model that features a government that undertakes public expenditure on (a) education and health facilities which enhance human capital...

Sudan : Public Expenditure Review, Synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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26.64%
This synthesis provides a baseline assessment of two fundamental dimensions of public finance in post-CPA Sudan-fiscal management and the alignment of resources to broad-based growth and reduced poverty and inequality. This Public Expenditure Review (PER), the first for Sudan, reflects the initial phase of engagement, with the objective of identifying and supporting improvements in budget planning, monitoring and institutional arrangements so as to contribute to improved resource use and outcomes. The emphasis is on establishing a baseline understanding of key fiscal management and policy challenges, highlighting reform measures for policymakers, and setting the agenda for the next phase of work. This report begins with an introduction. The rest of the synthesis report is structured as follows. Sections 2 and 3 cover the Government of National Unity (GNU) revenue and expenditure management, respectively. Section 4 summarizes key aspects of the PER dialogue on identifying and monitoring pro-poor spending in Sudan. Intergovernmental transfers and fiscal decentralization are the focus of Section 5...

The Amhara Regional Report : Public Finance Review

Alebachew, Abebe; Alemu, Getnet
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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26.65%
The objective of this study is explore in depth public finance issues and their impact on decentralized service delivery at the regional and woreda level in Amhara region. The study is carried out as part of the federal and some regional case studies designed to examine effectiveness of public finances of sub-national governments. This study was expected to (i) review the institutional arrangement for managing public finances at the regional level including policies, budgetary institutions, systems and processes; (ii) assess the level, trend, and composition of public spending (both functional and economic classification) in per capita terms over the past five years and identify key achievements and limitations; (iii) assess the level, trend, and, composition of revenue at the regional level and examine the financing framework, including ways to increase local revenue generation capacity; (iv) assess the role of external aid in supporting decentralized service delivery and the sustainability of the program in absence of external aid; (v) review the planning and budgeting process as well as the quality of PFM system; and (vi) data permitting...

Aggregate Analysis of the Impact of Cigarette Tax Rate Increases on Tobacco Consumption and Government Revenue : The Case of Indonesia

Djutaharta, Triasih; Viriya Surya, Henry; Pasay, N. Haidy A.; Hendratno; Adioetomo, Sri Moertiningsih
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.26%
This study uses aggregate times series data (annual data from 1970-2001) and monthly data from January 1996 to June 2001 to estimate the price and income elasticity of demand for tobacco products in Indonesia. Using various model specifications used in the cigarette demand literature, and then selecting the best model, it estimates the real price elasticity of cigarette demand as -0.345 and income elasticity of demand as 0.473. This inplies that a 10 percent real price increase would reduce consumption by 3.4 percent, and a 10 percent real income increase would raise consumption by 4.7 percent. The economic crisis after 1997 was found to increase consumption, over and above the effects of price and income, and the warning label on cigarette packs required after 1991 appears to have no significant impact on demand. Estimates based on the shorter period of monthly data showed less responsiveness to price and incomes, as would be expected. The study simulates the effects of a tax increase on total tobacco excise revenues and predicts that an increase in the tax level of 10...

ICSID 2013 Annual Report

International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.05%
International investment law and international investment arbitration are relatively new disciplines: the first bilateral investment treaty was signed by Pakistan and Germany in 1959, the first investment treaty offering investor-state arbitration was concluded in 1968 between the Netherlands and Indonesia, the first International Center for Settlement of Investment Dispute (ICSID) case was registered in 1972, and the first treaty-based investment case was registered by the Centre in 1987. The Centre itself was established in 1966, along with the coming into force of the ICSID convention. It was the first dispute resolution facility designed exclusively for international investment dispute settlement, and it continues to be the only international facility dedicated to this area. This specialized mandate has allowed ICSID to develop an unparalleled expertise and focus, which benefits disputing parties, arbitrators and contracting states. Cumulatively, ICSID has administered over 430 cases, involving foreign investors from all regions of the world and more than 95 states and state agencies under the ICSID convention and rules. In addition...

Government of Republic of South Sudan Public Finance Management Assessment : Unity State

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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26.71%
The purpose of the public finance management assessment of South Sudan s Unity State is to assess the Public Finance Management (PFM) system performance of the state government using the Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) framework. The execution of the assessment was limited due to prevailing security issues in the state at the time of the assessment. The assessment team after analysis of the information available to them arrived at the following observations: 1) the budget is prepared with due regard to state government policy, which is consistent with the Government of the Republic of South Sudan (GRSS) framework; 2) an electronic payroll system was established during 2010; 3) an integrated financial management information system has been established; 4) legislative oversight has been strengthened, and 5) government-donor interaction has been strengthened. However, the assessment team also deduced that certain challenges are also to be addressed: i) meaningful budget performance reports are still not being produced...

Republic of Iraq Public Expenditure Review : Toward More Efficient Spending for Better Service Delivery

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Group Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank Group
EN_US
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26.62%
The report is organized as follows. Chapter one sets out the strategic context for Iraq, including the evolving political situation, macroeconomic context, and poverty and social conditions. Chapter two analyzes the trends in, and composition of, public expenditure, both from economic and functional perspectives. This chapter discusses the efficiency of public expenditure in Iraq (that is, through benchmarking as well as direct output comparisons) and identifies, on the basis of analysis, key sectors for further in-depth assessment for the second phase. It also looks at revenue management issues drawing on the Country Economic Memorandum (CEM). Chapter three examines strategic prioritization and budget execution issues in Iraq. In particular, it reviews the national development priorities, as articulated in the National Development Plan (NDP) and poverty reduction strategy (PRS), and examines the strategic orientation of public expenditures, that is, to what extent public expenditure priorities relate to Iraq s development plan. This chapter also focuses on public investment in Iraq...

United Republic of Tanzania Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability Review 2008

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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26.6%
Rising inflation represents a serious challenge for the government, including fiscal policy. By December 2008, inflation has risen to 13.5 percent, far above the government target of five percent since 2004. It is important the government continue its effort to reduce inflation through monetary and fiscal policies, including reducing inflationary pressures on the budget by controlling wage bill growth in line with medium-term pay policy. The 2008-09 Medium-Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF) projected optimistic targets for domestic revenue and, at a same time, pessimistic targets for foreign aid. Although domestic revenue has been rising over the recent past, the targeted 18.5 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in revenue effort is high given the fact that revenue has increased by only one percent of GDP annually in the past five years. It is important to improve reliability of the macro-framework by sustaining efforts to develop capacity in macro-fiscal policy and macro-modeling, which is an important tool for the government to properly assess expected levels of domestic revenue collection over the medium term. Although some major achievements have been obtained in capacity building program...

Kyrgyz Republic Public Expenditure Review Policy Notes : Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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36.68%
Intergovernmental fiscal relations have advanced over the last decade in the Kyrgyz Republic. Since the previous public expenditure review in 2004, the government of the Kyrgyz Republic has developed a number of policy changes in the area of intergovernmental fiscal relations. These policy changes helped the country to introduce a more transparent and equitable system of local government financing. Still, effective decentralization continues to face challenges. A set of policy recommendations for the government to consider are designed to clarify the role of local government and provide better incentives for improved service delivery. These are based on a review of the four pillars of intergovernmental fiscal relations in Kyrgyz Republic: (i) the expenditure assignment (of who does what); (ii) revenue assignment (with what resources) assignment; (iii) the system of transfers; and (iv) borrowing. In this context, the report is structured as follows: section one gives executive summary. Section two provides a brief description of the institutional context in terms of the structure of government and the elements of political and administrative decentralization. Section three analyzes the delineation of expenditure responsibilities among government tiers. Section four analyzes revenue sources assigned to each tier of government. Section five focuses on the system of intergovernmental transfers. Section six examines subnational public investments and borrowing. In each of these sections main issues and problems are identified in the current system and the desired directions for reform are pointed out.

Rwanda : Technical Assessment on a Proposed Credit

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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26.64%
The Public Financial Management (PFM) Sector Strategic Plan (SSP) identifies key challenges and proposes solutions in each program that are translated into a foundation for defining sector priorities and outcomes through FY2017-18. Improving coherence between national strategies, the Medium Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF), and the annual budget process has been identified as an area for improvement under the first program, on economic planning and budgeting. In the second program, on resource mobilization, key challenges are inadequate resource mobilization, resulting in aid dependency at the national level and lack of discretionary revenues at the subnational level. Across the PFM sector, particularly under program 7, on PFM sector and coordination, capacity and skill shortages are identified as key bottlenecks. Capacity and skill shortages are more pronounced at the subnational level, especially on core PFM areas such as accounting, auditing, budgeting, and reporting. NISR made significant progress in the quality...

Small Countries with Volatile Revenue

Kojo, Naoko C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
Bhutan and Botswana share a number of similarities. The two countries, land locked small states, have grown rapidly over the past few decades, boosted by sustained, large-scale inflows of foreign exchange. Botswana’s annual real growth rate averaged 9 percent over the past 40 years, driven by diamond exploration, whereas Bhutan has taken full advantage of generous foreign aid inflows to achieve an average growth rate of 8 percent per year for the past 30 years. However, after decades of rapid growth, the production base of both countries remains very narrow and the economy continues to directly or indirectly dependent on government demand. Job creation, particularly for the youths, is an important policy issue. Despite these similarities, Bhutan and Botswana exhibit an interesting contrast with regard to the management of volatile foreign exchange inflows, and its macroeconomic consequences. Notwithstanding the serious impact of the recent global crisis, today Botswana’s external position remains solid, guarded by sizable international reserves and low external debt. In contrast...

Afghanistan : Public Financial Management and Accountability Assessment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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26.63%
This document reports on a public financial management performance assessment (PFMPA) for the Government of Afghanistan (GoA). The assessment was conducted with the particular objective of updating the PFMPA published in June 2008 to provide the GoA with an objective, indicator led assessment of the public financial management (PFM) system in a concise and standardized manner, to form an updated understanding of the overall fiduciary environment of the PFM system, and to assist in identifying those areas in need of further reform and development. The assessment provides a common information pool with establishment of new baselines against which further progress in PFM development can be assessed. The scope of the assessment is the on-budget activities of the national level budget entities. For the purposes of this report, on budget refers to all operations, including donor financed programs and project financing, and their intended use, which are under the full control of the GoA and are reported in the budget documentation. This is comprehensive of most of Afghanistan's general government sector financial operations since most general government sector revenue and expenditure is on budget and...

Addis Ababa City : Public Expenditure Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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26.72%
This study on Addis Ababa is part of the national Public Expenditure Review (PFR-2010) study and the report is one of the four regional PER-2010 reports. The objective of the study is to review the institutional arrangements for managing public finances in Addis Ababa city administration, to assess the level, trend, and composition of public revenue, spending and financing as well as to review the planning and budgeting process. The study has also tried to evaluate the city administration's service delivery outcomes in education and health sectors as well as road and housing development which are the two most prioritized sectors in terms of their share from the total capital outlay. The report has reviewed different studies, plans and performance reports of the various sectors in the city administration. The analysis is largely based on information and data obtained from different bureaus of the city administration especially Addis Ababa bureau of finance and economic development.

West Bank and Gaza : Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.7%
The purpose of the Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) assessment is to review the performance of the Palestinian Authority's (PA's) Public Financial Management (PFM) framework. The assessment examines progress since an informal PEFA assessment in 2007 and provides a baseline for supporting the PA in refining, where necessary, the current PFM reform strategy. The assessment has been undertaken following the PEFA performance measurement framework methodology as revised in January 2011. The assessment builds on previous reports by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) on various aspects of the PA's PFM system. The assessment is based on publicly available documents and supplementary information provided by the PA and other stakeholders. These include annual budget documents, annual fiscal outturn reports, and specific reports produced by various stakeholders. The scope of the assessment includes the Public Financial Management of the central government, the subnational government (municipalities and community villages)...

Ukraine : Public Financial Management Performance Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.63%
Improvements to the Public Financial Management (PFM) systems in Ukraine, introduced over the last decade, have contributed to improved fiscal management at an aggregate level and helped Ukraine to maintain budget discipline during a period of serious economic and political disturbance in 2008-9. A well established and transparent budget process, a strong centralized Treasury system and improved tax collection provided the foundations for this relatively good performance. Ukraine has a well established budget process that allows for orderly consultations with line ministries and with the legislature. Political events that took place during the period under review resulted in a significant delay in legislative approval of the budget in 2010 that accounts for the lower score compared to 2005. In 2011 budget preparation is back on track. The 2010 budget code which came into effect in the current financial year promises some further strengthening of the links between policy and the budget. Previously government prepared medium term fiscal forecasts...

Fiscal Sustainability in Burundi : Baseline Projections, Stochastic Simulations, and Policy Scenarios

Kida, Mizuho
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.63%
This paper analyzes Burundi's medium-term fiscal sustainability in the light of the country's vulnerability to various shocks. Earlier studies have highlighted the country's vulnerability to exogenous shocks related to commodity exports, rain-fed agriculture, and volatile foreign aid. Internally, uncertainty about the implementation of the government's fiscal reforms is a key risk. The earlier studies, however, did not quantify the size and impact of the risks on the country's fiscal sustainability. Drawing initially on the standard inter-temporal sustainability framework, the baseline analysis shows that Burundi's ongoing fiscal policy strategy is not sustainable, even with a gradually improving external environment and relatively strong growth. Stochastic simulations show that adverse shocks to rainfall or coffee prices could increase the country's debt-to-gross domestic product ratio by 5 to 7 percentage points above the projected baseline ratio. Aid shocks could have an even larger impact but the estimates are less statistically reliable because of the short time series and because historical volatility in part reflects endogenous shocks (such as reform implementation) as well as exogenous shocks (donors' behavior). The policy scenario analysis shows that future fiscal sustainability will hinge on the government's ability to stick to its plans to broaden the tax base...

The Quality of Budget Execution and Its Correlates

Addison, Douglas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
What determines the quality of budget execution around the world, measured in terms of a government's ability to accurately hit its own revenue and expenditure targets? The answers could be relevant to the topics of macroeconomic stability, national development, public service delivery, and political reputation. This paper takes a step toward finding answers through the exploration of a new database of budgets and budget outcomes and potential cross-country correlates of budget execution in levels and in composition. Few countries within the data sample execute their budgets well, in levels or in composition. Expenditure deviations are positively but rather loosely correlated with revenue deviations. Within this broad tendency, there is considerable variation in behavior not only across countries, but also across time within countries. In explaining the cross-country variations, the data confirm traditional drivers for common pool behavior while also supporting constructive roles for political institutions and the technical capacity for public financial management. This is good news for reform minded governments.

Um estudo da metodologia de desconto da Receita Anual Permitida (RAP) em função dos atrasos na entrada em operação de empreendimentos de transmissão; A study of metodology of the Allowed Annual Revenue (AAR) discount of the company's arising out of delays for entry into commercial operation of the transmission construction

Feitosa Neto, Sandoval de Araújo
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
Dissertação (mestrado)–Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, 2009.; Em sistemas de energia elétrica reestruturados, o serviço de transmissão desempenha papel central no estabelecimento da competição nos setores de geração e comercialização de energia, influenciando decisivamente nas relações comerciais, sendo neste contexto equiparado a um importante agente econômico. Apesar da atual regulamentação de qualidade do serviço de transmissão incentivar a disponibilidade das instalações de transmissão, a metodologia atual não prevê a captura das contribuições das indisponibilidades do serviço para a operação do sistema elétrico. O presente trabalho faz uma análise do setor elétrico brasileiro e neste contexto aprofunda o estudo do modelo atual da regulação técnica e econômica da transmissão no Brasil, propondo, no âmbito da atual metodologia de regulação da qualidade do serviço público de transmissão, métrica discriminatória a ser incorporada na atual metodologia de desconto da Receita Anual Permitida (RAP). O Trabalho também avalia os impactos resultantes da redução da Capacidade de Transferências Disponíveis (ATC – Available Transfer Capability) do sistema e a elevação do Uso das instalações de transmissão baseado no princípio dos Intercâmbios Bilaterais Equivalentes (EBE – Equivalent Bilateral Exchange)...

Quantifying the annual fish harvest from South Africa's largest freshwater reservoir

Ellender,BR; Weyl,OLF; Winker,H; Booth,AJ
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
South African inland fisheries are poorly developed and their contribution to near-shore communities is poorly understood. This study is the first comprehensive assessment of recreational and subsistence angling undertaken in an inland fishery in South Africa. The study was conducted on the 360 km² Lake Gariep, South Africa's largest freshwater reservoir. A total of 508 anglers were interviewed between February 2007 and January 2008. Of those interviewed, 67% were subsistence anglers and 33% recreational anglers. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) did not differ significantly between sectors. CPUE fluctuated seasonally, ranging between 0.37 (95% CI= 0.26 to 0.51) kg·angler-1·h-1 in winter and 0.88 (0.67 to 1.17) kg·angler-1·h-1 in summer. The duration of a fishing day ranged from 5.99 (5.24 to 6.74) h in mid-winter to 7.26 (6.88 to 7.63) h in early summer. Expected end-of-day catch (CPUE × fishing-trip duration) ranged from 2.2 to 6.4 kg·angler-1·d-1 depending on the season. The number of anglers ranged from 22 (8 to 53) anglers·d-1 in June/July to 74 (25 to 176) anglers·d-1 in April. Total annual catch from the roving creel survey was estimated at 71.4 (57.4 to 91.4) t·yr-1. Another 7.5 t·yr-1 were landed during recreational angling competitions. The resultant total catch divided by the lakeshore population equated to a per capita fish supply of 11.1 kg·yr-1. More than 70% of the catch was the alien invasive carp Cyprinus carpio and there was no evidence of overfishing. The fish resource of Lake Gariep is of significant recreational and subsistence value. As a result of the low fish price (ZAR5.72 ± 2.60·kg-1) subsistence fishing was considered a low-revenue activity that mainly augmented food security in lakeshore communities. The relatively high CPUE indicated that the fishery may be an important safety-net during periods when alternate sources of livelihoods are limited. Consequently...