Página 1 dos resultados de 1725 itens digitais encontrados em 0.017 segundos

Fluxos de capitais externos, crescimento e desenvolvimento econômico: evidências de causalidade; External Capital Flows, Economic Growth and Development: Evidences of Causality.

Pimentel, Luciano Aparecido dos Santos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/03/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
A redução da pobreza é um problema amplamente discutido no mundo. Por meio do crescimento econômico, os países podem melhorar seu padrão de vida e alcançar maiores níveis de desenvolvimento. Com a abertura promovida no contexto da globalização, houve aumento no fluxo de bens e capitais externos para os países em desenvolvimento, favorecendo seu crescimento econômico. Este trabalho buscou identificar relações de causalidade entre fluxos externos, crescimento e desenvolvimento econômico. Foram utilizados indicadores trimestrais e anuais sugeridos na revisão teórica. Os dados trimestrais foram utilizados para construir um modelo de auto-regressão vetorial (VAR), que verificou relações de causalidade entre as variáveis. Os dados anuais foram utilizados para a análise de regressão. Os resultados sugerem que o crescimento econômico apresenta relações de causalidade com investimento interno, poupança, abertura econômica e produtividade. A produtividade, por sua vez, é influenciada pelo capital humano, investimento estrangeiro direto e progresso tecnológico. O desenvolvimento econômico apresentou relações de causalidade com educação e renda (aumento e distribuição de renda).; The poverty reduction is widely discussed around the world. Through the economic growth...

Regional Economic Growth in Mexico : Recent Evolution and the Role of Governance

Weiss, Eli; Rosenblatt, David
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
There has been substantial research in recent years examining the regional evolution of economic growth across states in Mexico -- with a particular focus on the post North American Free Trade Agreement period. There is also a vast literature using cross-country regressions to examine institutional determinants of economic growth, including government transparency, or "corruption," as a key institutional variable. This paper uses more recently available data for Mexican states to both update the general state convergence/divergence literature, and incorporate into the analysis more recently developed state level indicators of institutional factors related to government transparency. The authors do not find a systematic relationship between measures of government transparency and gross domestic product per capita growth in Mexico during 2001-2005; however, they do find that corruption is negatively associated with the level of state gross domestic product per capita. The contrasting results may imply that more years of data are necessary to be able to establish statistically significant relationships between state growth rates and measures of corruption.

Distributions in Motion : Economic Growth, Inequality, and Poverty Dynamics

Ferreira, Francisco H.G.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
The joint determination of aggregate economic growth and distributional change has been studied empirically from at least three different perspectives. A macroeconomic approach that relies on cross-country data on poverty, inequality, and growth rates has generated some interesting stylized facts about the correlations between these variables, but has not shed much light on the underlying determinants. "Meso-" and microeconomic approaches have fared somewhat better. The microeconomic approach, in particular, builds on the observation that growth, changes in poverty, and changes in inequality are simply different aggregations of information on the incidence of economic growth along the income distribution. This paper reviews the evolution of attempts to understand the nature of growth incidence curves, from the statistical decompositions associated with generalizations of the Oaxaca-Blinder method, to more recent efforts to generate "economically consistent" counterfactuals, drawing on structural, reduced-form...

Economic Growth in the Republic of Yemen : Sources, Constraints, and Potentials

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
High and sustained rate of economic growth in Yemen is a necesary, though not sufficient, condition for reduction of the high incidence of poverty and for raising the living standards of Yemeni citizens. Evidence in this report suggests that the main obstacle to rapid and sustained economic growth is the weak governance that characterizes Yemen in addition to the weaknesses in domestic security, property rights, and rule of law systems. Weak governance in Yemen is characterized/manifested by widespread corruption, lack of transparency and accountability, inefficiency in the interaction of public officials and private business, ineffective or absent market promoting institutions such as those enforcing contracts (courts, tribunals, etc.), poor performance of the public sector in terms of delivering essential goods and implementing programs, associated lack of incentives and skills in the civil service, and weak enforceability of contracts and rulings. Along with ordering the governance situation, there are areas that should receive government priority in the short and medium term...

The Republic of Yemen - Economic Growth : Sources, Constraints and Potentials

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
High and sustained rate of economic growth in Yemen is a necesary, though not sufficient, condition for reduction of the high incidence of poverty and for raising the living standards of Yemeni citizens. Evidence in this report suggests that the main obstacle to rapid and sustained economic growth is the weak governance that characterizes Yemen in addition to the weaknesses in domestic security, property rights, and rule of law systems. Weak governance in Yemen is characterized/manifested by widespread corruption, lack of transparency and accountability, inefficiency in the interaction of public officials and private business, ineffective or absent market promoting institutions such as those enforcing contracts (courts, tribunals, etc.), poor performance of the public sector in terms of delivering essential goods and implementing programs, associated lack of incentives and skills in the civil service, and weak enforceability of contracts and rulings. Along with ordering the governance situation, there are areas that should receive government priority in the short and medium term...

Economic Growth, Inequality, and Poverty : Findings from a New Data Set

Adams, Richard H., Jr.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
The author uses new data from 50 developing countries and 101 intervals to examine the impact of economic growth on poverty and inequality. He finds that growth represents an important means for reducing poverty in the developing world. When economic growth is measured by survey mean income (consumption), there is a strong, statistical link between growth and poverty reduction. When economic growth is measured by GDP per capita, the statistical relationship between growth and poverty reduction is still present, albeit not quite as strong. Economic growth reduces poverty because growth has little impact on income inequality. In the data set income inequality rises on average less than 1.0 percent a year. Since income distributions are relatively stable over time, economic growth tends to raise incomes for all members of society, including the poor. When growth is measured by survey mean income (consumption), the elasticity of poverty with respect to growth is -2.59. In other words, on average, a 10 percentage point increase in economic growth (measured by survey mean income) will produce a 25.9 percent decrease in the proportion of people living in poverty ($1 a person a day).

Inequality of Opportunity and Economic Growth : A Cross-Country Analysis

Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Lakner, Christoph; Lugo, Maria Ana; Ozler, Berk
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
Income differences arise from many sources. While some kinds of inequality, caused by effort differences, might be associated with faster economic growth, other kinds, arising from unequal opportunities for investment, might be detrimental to economic progress. This study uses two new metadata sets, consisting of 118 household surveys and 134 Demographic and Health Surveys, to revisit the question of whether inequality is associated with economic growth and, in particular, to examine whether inequality of opportunity -- driven by circumstances at birth -- has a negative effect on subsequent growth. The results are suggestive but not robust: while overall income inequality is generally negatively associated with growth in the household survey sample, we find no evidence that this is due to the component associated with unequal opportunities. In the Demographic and Health Surveys sample, both overall wealth inequality and inequality of opportunity have a negative effect on growth in some of the preferred specifications...

Essays on transportation infrastructure, urbanisation and economic growth: evidence from China.

He, Xiaobo
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.19%
China’s spectacular economic growth during the reform era from 1978 to 2008 has captivated much attention both in academia and in the policy arena. This thesis looks at this period of Chinese economic reforms and the consequences for China’s economic growth, urbanisation, and income inequality, in which transportation infrastructure plays a pivotal role. Among many contributors to the economic growth in China, as measured by GDP per capita growth, recent studies shed light on the importance of transportation infrastructure. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the function of transportation infrastructure in the context of China and an accurate quantification of its contribution are desired. Accompanying the GDP per capita growth, China also experienced a rapid process of urbanisation during 1978–2008. However, whether the GDP per capita growth causes urbanisation is not yet clear. After the accession to the WTO in 2001, China became an important player in world trade. For example, China’s exports increased from USD 0.27 trillion in 2001 to USD 1.43 trillion in 2008, which has resulted in massive income growth nation-wide. However, the income has been unequally distributed among wage earners. Since urban wage earners are more likely to work in exporting sectors...

Puzzles of Economic Growth

Balcerowicz, Leszek; Rzonca, Andrzej
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.03%
Looking at the economic growth of seemingly similar countries one can find striking differences. Why has Australia gotten so much ahead of New Zealand, in spite of the latter being held up as a paragon of free market reform? How is it possible that Austria, with its persistently oversized state enterprise sector, has managed to (nearly) catch up with Switzerland? How can we account for the differences in economic growth between Estonia and Slovenia, and which of these two countries has been more successful at systemic transformation? Why is Mexico so much poorer than Spain, despite having been wealthier all the way into the 1960s? Why has Venezuela, which in 1950 had a per capita income higher than that of Norway and remains a major exporter of oil, slipped behind Chile? Why is Costa Rica lagging behind Puerto Rico, even though in the 1970s the U.S. territory's fast development slowed to a crawl and is now far below other comparable island economies? Why has 'communist' China outstripped 'capitalist' India? Why has Pakistan's growth lagged behind that of Indonesia...

Poverty Reduction without Economic Growth? Explaining Brazil's Poverty Dynamics, 1985-2004

Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Leite, Phillippe G.; Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
Brazil's slow pace of poverty reduction over the last two decades reflects both low growth and a low growth elasticity of poverty reduction. Using GDP data disaggregated by state and sector for a twenty-year period, this paper finds considerable variation in the poverty-reducing effectiveness of growth-across sectors, across space, and over time. Growth in the services sector was substantially more poverty-reducing than was growth in either agriculture or industry. Growth in industry had very different effects on poverty across different states and its impact varied with initial conditions related to human development and worker empowerment. The determinants of poverty reduction changed around 1994: positive growth rates and a greater (absolute) elasticity with respect to agricultural growth contributed to faster poverty reduction. But because there was so little of it, economic growth played a relatively small role in accounting for Brazil's poverty reduction between 1985 and 2004. The taming of hyperinflation (in 1994) and substantial expansions in social security and social assistance transfers...

Tanzania - Sustaining and Sharing Economic Growth : Country Economic Memorandum and Poverty Assessment, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.16%
Tanzania's National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP) sets an ambitious target of 6 to 8 percent annual economic growth to achieve rapid reduction in poverty. This report focuses on three issues that are central to the success of Tanzania's poverty reduction efforts: 0 what factors explain Tanzania's recent acceleration in economic growth; has the accelerated economic growth translated into reduced poverty; and what must be done to sustain economic growth that is pro-poor. The report presents evidence from the macroeconomic, sectoral, and firm and household levels that shed light on these questions. The report is presented in two volumes. Volume I summarizes the main findings and recommendations. Volume II contains the main report.

Tanzania - Sustaining and Sharing Economic Growth : Country Economic Memorandum and Poverty Assessment, Volume 2. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.09%
Tanzania's National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP) sets an ambitious target of 6 to 8 percent annual economic growth to achieve rapid reduction in poverty. This report focuses on three issues that are central to the success of Tanzania's poverty reduction efforts: 0 what factors explain Tanzania's recent acceleration in economic growth; has the accelerated economic growth translated into reduced poverty; and what must be done to sustain economic growth that is pro-poor. The report presents evidence from the macroeconomic, sectoral, and firm and household levels that shed light on these questions. The report is presented in two volumes. Volume I summarizes the main findings and recommendations. Volume II contains the main report.

Is India's Economic Growth Leaving the Poor Behind?

Datt, Gaurav; Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
There has been much debate about how much India's poor have shared in the economic growth unleashed by economic reforms in the 1990s. The authors argue that India has probably maintained its 1980s rate of poverty reduction in the 1990s. However, there is considerable diversity in performance across states. This holds some important clues for understanding why economic growth has not done more for India's poor. India's economic growth in the 1990s has not been occurring in the states where it would have the most impact on poverty nationally. If not for the sectoral and geographic imbalance of growth, the national rate of growth would have generated a rate of poverty reduction that was double India's historical trend rate. States with relatively low levels of initial rural development and human capital development were not well-suited to reduce poverty in response to economic growth. The study's results are consistent with the view that achieving higher aggregate economic growth is only one element of an effective strategy for poverty reduction in India. The sectoral and geographic composition of growth is also important...

Has India’s Economic Growth Become More Pro-Poor in the Wake of Economic Reforms?

Datt, Gaurav; Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
The extent to which India's poor have benefited from the country s economic growth has long been debated. This paper revisits the issues using a new series of consumption-based poverty measures spanning 50 years, and including a 15-year period after economic reforms began in earnest in the early 1990s. Growth has tended to reduce poverty, including in the post-reform period. There is no robust evidence that the responsiveness of poverty to growth has increased, or decreased, since the reforms began, although there are signs of rising inequality. The impact of growth is higher for poverty measures that reflect distribution below the poverty line, and it is higher using growth rates calculated from household surveys than national accounts. The urban-rural pattern of growth matters to the pace of poverty reduction. However, in marked contrast to the pre-reform period, the post-reform process of urban economic growth has brought significant gains to the rural poor as well as the urban poor.

A Counterfactual Analysis of the Poverty Impact of Economic Growth in Cameroon; Policy Research working paper ; no. WPS 5249

Essama-Nssah, B.; Bassole, Leandre
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
The Government of Cameroon has declared poverty reduction through strong and sustainable economic growth the central objective of its socioeconomic policy. This paper uses available household survey data to assess the performance of the economy with respect to this objective over the period 1996-2007. The authors use counterfactual decompositions based on both the Shapley method and the generalized Oaxaca-Blinder framework to identify proximate factors that might explain differences in observed outcomes over time, across regions and households. The concept of pro-poorness provides a basis for a normative evaluation of these outcomes. The analysis of changes in the size distribution of economic welfare reveals that formal sector employment, access to credit, education, and urban residence are characteristics that bring significantly high returns to households. Employment in smallholder agriculture has a negative impact on welfare across quantiles. Economic growth was accompanied by significant poverty reduction between 1996 and 2001. But poverty barely decreased between 2001 and 2007 due to very weak growth. Over the same period...

Sustaining and Sharing Economic Growth in Tanzania

Utz, Robert J.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
This book is designed to contribute to the government's thinking on how best to translate broad MKUKUTA (the government of Tanzania's National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty) policy objectives into practical tactics and programs well suited to Tanzania's economic priorities and to the removal of key institutional and infrastructure bottlenecks. The book aims to respond to three fundamental questions: (a) what factors explain Tanzania's recent acceleration in economic growth, (b) how well has the accelerated growth translated into reduced poverty, and (c) what needs to be done to sustain growth that is also pro-poor. This book focuses on three issues that are central to the success of Tanzania's poverty reduction efforts: What factors explain Tanzania's recent acceleration in economic growth? Has the accelerated economic growth translated into reduced poverty? What must be done to sustain economic growth that is pro-poor? The book presents evidence from the macroeconomic, sectoral, firm...

Belarus : Window of Opportunity to Enhance Competitiveness and Sustain Economic Growth, A Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) for the Republic of Belarus, Volume 1, Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) for the Republic of Belarus takes stock of the growth trends in the country's economy since 1996, reviews the evidence of the accumulated challenges and risks within the existing growth patterns, and provides recommendations aimed at strengthening growth sustainability. In sum, while economic growth in the last nine years has been impressive, the report argues that maintaining the current growth strategy would lead to a gradual erosion of economic competitiveness. The government should make significant policy adjustments by reorienting its policies toward ensuring a better business environment, and a smaller sized government. Current international and domestic environment are favorable for supporting a policy shift toward the acceleration of structural reforms. At the moment, the government is well equipped to mitigate the potential costs of these reforms, because the policy settings are largely determined by the growing economy, the positive trends in both the enterprise and the household sectors, favorable developments in the global economy, low debt, and the strong administrative capacity of the state. This situation could change: various pressures might become stronger, and then these same reforms would become politically more costly...

Poverty and Economic Growth in Egypt, 1995-2000

El-Laithy, Heba; Lokshin, Michael; Banerji, Arup
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
After a decade of slow economic growth Egypt's rate of growth recovered in the late 1990s, averaging more than five percent a year. But the effect of this growth on poverty patterns has not been systematically examined using consistent, comparable household datasets. In this paper, the authors use the rich set of unit-level data from the most recent Egyptian household surveys (1995-96 and 1999-2000) to assess changes in poverty and inequality between 1995 and 2000. Their analysis is based on household-specific poverty lines that account for the differences in regional prices, as well as differences in the consumption preferences and size and age composition of poor households. The results show that average household expenditures rose in the second half of the 1990s and the poverty rate fell from 20 percent to less than 17 percent. But, in addition to the ongoing divide in the urban-rural standard of living, a new geographical/regional divide emerged in the late 1990s. Poverty was found predominantly among less-educated individuals...

Sources of China's Economic Growth, 1952-99 : Incorporating Human Capital Accumulation

Wang, Yan; Yao, Yudong
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
China's performance in economic growth, and poverty reduction has been remarkable. There is an ongoing debate about whether this growth is mainly driven by productivity, or factor accumulation. But few past studies have incorporated information on China's human capital stock, and thus contained an omission bias. The authors construct a measure of China's human capital stock from 1952 to 1999, and, using a simple growth accounting exercise, incorporate it in their analysis of the sources of growth, during the pre-reform (1952-77), and the reform period (1978-99). They find that the accumulation of human capital in China (as measured by the average years of schooling for the population aged 15 to 64) was quite rapid, and contributed significantly to growth, and welfare. After incorporating human capital, they also find that the growth of total factor productivity, still plays a positive, and significant role during the reform period. In contrast, productivity growth was negative in the pre-reform period. The results are robust to changes in labor shares in GDP. The recent declining rate of human capital accumulation is a cause for concern...

The sustainability and some consequences of Chinese economic growth

Garnaut, Ross
Fonte: Carfax Publishing, Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Carfax Publishing, Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.94%
During the past 27 years, China's economy and relationship with the outside world has been transformed. The magnitude of annual economic growth and rapid increase in the volume of output of goods and services raise unsettling questions about potential threats to the sustainability of current growth levels and implications for economic and political stability. This paper examines the sources of economic growth and concludes the strong state system, high rates of saving and investment and demographic structure will sustain growth. Chinese authorities must be aware that a failure to maintain the process of financial and political institutional reform or to address the widening regional income inequalities poses potential domestic threats to sustainable growth. Tensions remain in China's international relationships, forcing China to consider further adjustment and accommodation in its regional security and economic relationships.