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DDesenvolvimento de eletrodos modificados e métodos analíticos; Development of modified electrodes and analytical methods

Azevedo, Carla Maria Nunes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/04/1999 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.91%
Neste trabalho foram desenvolvidos eletrodos modificados e procedimentos para a sua utilização na determinação de diversas espécies químicas de interesse analítico, dentre as quais sulfito, ácido ascórbico, nitrito, dopamina, NADH e peróxido de hidrogênio. Foram realizados estudos envolvendo eletrodos de carbono vítreo modificados com filmes contendo uma única metaloporfirina tetrarrutenada (catiônica) e aplicações analíticas destes sensores associando-os à análise por injeção em fluxo (FIA). Estes eletrodos apresentaram efeitos catalíticos sobre a oxidação de vários analitos, intensificando o sinal de corrente e deslocando seus picos de oxidação para a região de oxidação dos átomos de Ru(II) à Ru(III), sítios ativos das porfirinas. Contudo, para a obtenção de sensores estáveis, foi necessária a utilização de uma elevada concentração do contra-íon trifluorometanossulfonato em solução, prevenindo a gradual solubilização do filme modificador. Tal dificuldade foi contornada recobrindo-se os eletrodos com filmes laminares contendo simultaneamente pares de porfirinas catiônicas e aniônicas. Estes sensores apresentaram ação catalítica igual aos eletrodos recobertos por uma única porfirina...

Recuperação de óleo por injeção de polímeros : abordagens experimental, analítica e numérica em pequena escala; Oil recovery by polymer flooding - experimental, analytical and numerical approaches

Vinicius de Souza Rios
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/07/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.99%
Dadas as práticas atuais de gerenciamento de reservatórios, motivadas pelos altos preços do petróleo e baixa eficiência de métodos convencionais de recuperação, as empresas operadoras têm considerado a aplicação de métodos de recuperação avançada (EOR) cada vez mais cedo na vida produtiva dos seus campos. Neste contexto, a importância de pesquisas e desenvolvimento de métodos avançados como injeção de polímeros tem aumentado fortemente nas últimas décadas. A injeção de polímero é um método químico de recuperação indicado para casos de reservatórios heterogêneos ou em que a razão de mobilidades entre água e o óleo é alta, dita desfavorável. Este método mostra-se bastante eficaz, atuando no aumento da viscosidade da água, que reflete em deslocamentos mais eficientes devido à redução da razão de mobilidades. Visando avaliar o desempenho deste método de recuperação, este trabalho apresenta um estudo da técnica de injeção de polímeros através de três abordagens: experimental, analítica e numérica. O trabalho experimental envolveu testes utilizando uma amostra de arenito, em que se realizou o deslocamento de óleo mineral grau SAE 15W-40, com viscosidade acima de 200 cP em condição ambiente. Como fluido deslocante...

Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) : Reviewing the Link with In-Country Policy and Planning Processes - Synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
The synthesis report concerns to go beyond a summary of the country studies to provide lessons and recommendations on how to further improve Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) effectiveness. To do so, it draws on findings from country case studies, the literature and recent internal Bank reviews (World Bank 2006, 2008) on PSIA. The synthesis is structured in three parts. Section two reviews the role of PSIA in country work drawing on internal guidance from the Bank and the wider literature. It introduces the PSIA framework and the main elements of an effective PSIA. Section two ends with a presentation of the review framework and the approach to sampling and methodology for the country studies. Section three presents the bulk of the review findings and lessons learned with a focus on lessons for embedding PSIA into country processes. Section four addresses the future of PSIA with recommendations aimed at: (i) improving the influence that PSIA has on policy and planning processes in-country, and (ii) ensuring that it is applied more routinely by partner governments and Bank programs.

Together We Stand, Divided We Fall : Levels and Determinants of Social Capital in Argentina

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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45.77%
The study looks at recent analytical work concerning social issues in Argentina, which suggest both inequality, and unemployment are worsening, aggravated by pessimism and despair - partly shaped by a recession of almost three years - as well as by the inadequacy of public institutions. This study examines the case of Argentina, and draws on its existing social capital as an immediate strategy, and an investment for the future, to assess the role social capital can play within its context. The study finds that aggregate levels of social capital in Argentina are low, outlining that while the social capital of the poor in the country, may enable protection among themselves in times of hardship, it does not help them get ahead in the long-term. Civic associations have proved vulnerable to deep changes in the local social, economic, and political landscape, seemingly due to a historic heritage of authoritarian relations with the state. Thus, the study attempts to promote a dialogue among national actors, and policy makers on the implications of the determinants of social participation...

Bolivia : Poverty Diagnostic 2000

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
The report presents a diagnostic of poverty, human development, and access to social infrastructure in Bolivia, based on analytical work, to serve as an input for the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). Findings suggest that poverty affects half of the population in large cities, two thirds in other urban areas, and eighty percent in rural areas. Nonetheless, there is seemingly a recent decrease in inequality, although this does not imply a long-term trend. The complex determinants of poverty, are also increased by the fact of being from an indigenous population, and of having a household head unemployed, underemployed, and/or female. Since poverty decreases with education, and employment in non-agricultural occupations, and geography affects poverty, migration becomes a poverty-reducing tool. A qualitative study of farmers in the Altiplano suggest decreased rural productivity, intensified by climatic, demographic, and environmental pressures, with little gain from most development projects. Hence...

How Does Knowledge on Public Expenditures Integrate with the Design of Development Policy Operations?

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.91%
Integration of knowledge with lending is an enduring theme in World Bank strategies at the corporate and country levels. It rests on the widely shared proposition that Bank lending instruments could be more relevant and produce better results if they incorporate key analytical, country level knowledge. To be successful, development interventions must be informed by evidence, and evidence comes from knowledge. This is the idea behind Bank as a ‘solutions bank,’ integrating financial instruments and knowledge products into ‘development solutions’ that deliver results. A recent Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) evaluation suggests that the Bank’s broad economic and sector work and technical assistance strongly inform Bank lending strategies (IEG 2008). PERs, for the purpose of this learning product, are identified as Bank knowledge products with a specific reference in their titles as Public Expenditure Review, whether they are multi-sector or single sector public expenditure reviews. They also include other analytical documents which deal with public expenditure issues...

Multianalyte Quantifications by Means of Integration of Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms and Chemometrics for Time-Resolved Analytical Data; Multi-Analyt Quantifizierungen mit Hilfe der Integration von künstlichen neuronalen Netzen, genetischen Algorithmen und der Chemometrie für zeitaufgelöste analytische Daten; Multianalyte Quantifications by Means of Integration of Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms and Chemometrics for Time-Resolved Analytical Data

Dieterle, Frank Jochen
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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During the last decade the application of sensors for the detection and determination of various substances has gained an increasing popularity not only in the field of analytical chemistry but also in our daily life. Most sensor systems such as exhaust gas sensors for automobiles are based on single sensors, which are as selective as possible for the analyte of interest. The problems of interfering cross-reactive analytes and the lack of specific sensors for many analytes have ended up in the development of so-called sensor-arrays. Thereby, several analytes can be simultaneously quantified by the multivariate data analysis of the signal patterns of several cross-reactive sensors. Yet, this approach is also limited since the number of sensors in the array has to exceed the number of cross-reacting analytes. In this work, a new approach is presented, which allows multi-analyte quantifications on the basis of single-sensor systems. Thereby, differences of interaction kinetics of the analytes and sensor are exploited using time-resolved measurements and time-resolved data analyses. This time-resolved evaluation of sensor signals together with suitable sensor materials combines the sensory principle with the chromatographic principle of separating analytes in space or time. The main objectives of this work can be subsumed into two focuses concerning the measurement principle and the data analysis. The first focus is the introduction of time-resolved measurements in the field of chemical sensing. In this work the time-resolved measurements are based on the microporous polymer Makrolon as sensitive sensor coating...

Bangladesh : Development Forum Economic Update

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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45.84%
The report reviews recent economic developments, showing economic growth continues to its path, and, aided by global economic recovery, export growth remains strong. The forex market has been stable since the national currency (taka) was floated in by the end-May 2003. The fiscal stance for FY04 remains expansionary, but within prudent limits, and without straining fiscal sustainability, whereas the monetary policy stance - tightened considerably last summer to facilitate exchange rate liberalization - is becoming increasingly adaptable, in recognition of the favorable macro-financial conditions, seemingly on a prudent course. Higher growth in the 1990s also translated into sharper declines in income poverty. Notwithstanding the impressive gains thus far, the magnitude of remaining development challenges is enormous. In June 2003, the Government adopted its first ever medium-term macroeconomic framework, which underpins its poverty reduction strategy, and should contribute to high growth, and fast-paced poverty reduction. The path of the fiscal policy in the medium-term framework...

Case Study 3 - Gujarat, India : Participatory Approaches in Budgeting and Public Expenditure Management

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
The state of Gujarat hosts almost a tenth of India's 80 million tribal people. Despite official rhetoric of significant investment in tribal development projects, results on the ground were questionable. This prompted DISHA (Development Initiatives for Social and Human Action) to get into the business of budget analysis in 1992 to ascertain what actually was happening to funds allotted in the name of the tribals under the Tribal Area Sub-plan. DISHA thus began by first taking up the issue of the state's 7.3 million forest laborers, not recognized as a formal professional group, but have since broadened the scope of their work to cover most aspects of budget analysis of general topics. Described as an attempt at "democratizing the budget process"2, DISHA obtains budget documents, reviews and disaggregates departmental allocations for different beneficiaries, researches the discrepancy between proposed and actual spending, and prepares briefs on synthesized findings for informed public debates. DISHA is one of the five largest membership-based NGOs in India with most of its 80...

The Impact of Vulnerability and Shocks on the Poor : The GUAPA Program in Guatmala; GUAPA : vulnerabilidad y crisis

Tesliuc, Emil; Lindert, Kathy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
The Guatemala Poverty Assessment (GUAPA) report was part of a broader, multi-year program of analytical work and technical assistance that signals the commitment of the World Bank to poverty reduction and seeks to: (a) contribute to filling the crucial information gaps on poverty and living conditions; (b) deliver timely outputs on a regular and on-going basis in response to the Government's requests and data availability; and (c) provide longer-term partnering and collaboration on poverty analysis and strategy. One of the major components of the study examined how the limited assets of the poor make them particularly vulnerable to adverse shocks. In the wake of recent shocks in Guatemala (Hurricane Mitch in 1998, the recent coffee crisis, droughts and deaths from extreme acute malnutrition), the issue of vulnerability has taken center stage in policy discussions. As such, the World Bank conducted a Risk and Vulnerability Assessment (RVA) as part of the broader GUAPA. The RVA brings a "vulnerability lens" to poverty analysis. Instead of a passive...

Colombia : Reforming the Social Safety Net; Colombia : reforma de la red de proteccion social

Rawlings, Laura B.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.77%
Historically, Colombia's "safety nets" were economic growth and a now unsustainable expansion of social services, notably in health, education, and pensions. Social assistance (SA) was not included in the dramatic social sector reforms of the 1990s, implying that the social safety net did not benefit from increased spending, decentralization and the strategic prioritization afforded to other social sector areas. SA remains under-financed compared to national demands and international norms (Box 1). Furthermore, the SA programs that could have provided a safety net during the crisis were hampered by structural constraints, including poor poverty targeting in certain programs, institutional inflexibility, and unfocused mandates. The Government of Colombia asked the World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) to help craft Colombia's social safety net was reviewed and a number of steps taken, including: (i) rapid crafting of a short-term emergency safety net investment program called the Social Support Network (Red de Apoyo Social...

Honduras : Poverty Diagnostic 2000

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
This report uses household surveys to provide a diagnostic of poverty, human development, and access to basic infrastructure. The report is based on analytical work conducted by a team comprising staff from the World Bank, Honduras' "Programa de Asignacion Familiar (PRAF), and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). The objective of the present report is limited. It provides a diagnostic of the state of poverty and other indicators of well-being instead of suggesting an overall poverty reduction strategy or providing detailed policy reform options. It is intended as an imput for the Government's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) within the context of the country's participation in the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative for debt relief. Some key findings are: There is uncertainty as to the change in poverty because different assumptions used for poverty measurement have lead to different conclusions as to the trend in poverty in the 1990s. The probability of being poor increases with the number of babies and children...

Risk Management in South Asia : A Poverty Focused Approach

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
In recognition that poverty and vulnerability are mutually reinforcing, because the poor lack the ability to insure against risks, often shaping behavior and decision making to minimize exposure to risks, even at the cost of economic efficiency, and long-term interest, this paper reviews what is known about the risk-coping, and risk-mitigating behavior of the poor in South Asia. It examines the support received from the governments, and nongovernmental organizations, as well as the Bank's contributions, and, presents suggestions for a strategy to reduce poverty, and efforts to overcome risk. Analytical work classifies the risks that threaten different vulnerable groups, or poor households, according to poverty incidence and severity, and, a similar effort evaluates both the risk-reducing impact of anti-poverty programs, and the performance and potential of less traditional approaches, such as micro-finance. On assessing government programs, the study evaluates the role, impact, and potential of policy mechanisms...

Progress in Public Expenditure Management in Africa : Evidence from World Bank Surveys; Progres realises dans la gestion des depenses publiques en Afrique : evidence des enquetes de la Banque mondiale

Mohan, Prasad C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.88%
One of the World Bank's key advisory roles is to assist its partner countries to make strategic decisions about the use of their public funds. Governments and the Bank together assess the public sector's potential role as a provider, financier, or regulator of services, or simply as a catalyst for private sector activity. The Bank's traditional vehicle for contributing to this kind of analytical work is the Public Expenditure Review (PER). The Africa Region undertook a survey of 20 task managers of PERs in 1997/98. This Note summarizes the main survey findings and key recommendations.

Kenya - Community Driven Development : Challenges and Opportunities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
The overall objective of this analytical work is to assess the possibilities for using a community driven development approach in Kenya, to increase formal linkages, downward accountability of service delivery mechanisms, and social inclusiveness in the poverty reduction effort. The report explores relevant policy, and institutional features which color the community driven development (CDD) experience in the country. In the attempt to summarize existing data, and experience on CDD, the focus remains on the various institutional approaches used by different programs. These include a wide spectrum from government and non-government, including a look at the enabling legal, and administrative environment for community mobilization, and civic engagement. Initially, the report provides a background, and introduction to the study, and in analyzing the CDD, aims to inform the Government's the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper process, and the Bank's Country Assistance Strategy. It then reviews major policies which had impacted the present socioeconomic circumstances...

Lesotho : Development in a Challenging Environment

Hassan, Fareed M.A.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
The report reviews the Bank's development assistance to Lesotho, a poor country, of predominantly rural populations, landlocked and completely surrounded by, and economically dependent on, South Africa. Not surprisingly, a major development challenge for the country is that half the population lives below the poverty line, and income inequality is among the highest in the world. Other challenges are low quality of education, and health services, widespread HIV/AIDS, weak institutions, and lagging private sector development. Given the circumstances, Bank assistance evolved from an emphasis on stabilization and growth, to a focus on poverty reduction and private sector development towards the end of the 1990s. Throughout this period, the Bank supported joint work with the Government, and the International Monetary Fund on successive Policy Framework Papers, as well a Poverty Assessment, and a Strategic Economic Options Report; regrettably, other analytical work was not fully completed, and, notably absent were periodic reviews of public expenditures. Although the Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP) featured substantial macroeconomic impact...

The Poor and Health Services Use in India

Mahal, Ajay; Yazbeck, Abdo S.; Peters, David H.; Ramana, G.N.V.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.77%
This paper summarizes empirical findings from recent World Bank financed analysis on the use of health services by the poor in India (Mahal et al 2000) and some additional analysis conducted with the same data. Three factors motivate the choice of approach taken here and in the background paper. First, the size of the population, the diversity within India, and the unique governance structure provide an opportunity for comparative analysis to support learning about equity in health service use. This led to analysis below the national level where state-level comparisons are used. This paper and the analytical work supporting the findings summarized in it are part of a set of studies intended to provide information for public and professional discussion around the shape of India's future health system. Other studies included private health sector analysis, consumer protection in the health sector, health insurance, pharmaceutical sector analysis, and analysis of the quality of health services. The underlying purpose is to find ways to improve health outcomes in India...

Lessons from Armenia's Institutional and Governance Review

Mukherjee, Amitabha; Shahzadeyan, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.84%
Institutional and Governance Reviews (IGRs) are a new tool in the Bank's package of analytical and advisory activities (see PREMnote 75). Because they are politically sensitive, the development of these reviews involves careful tradeoffs. Though each requires thorough analysis of a country's institutional shortcomings, the final product must be acceptable to country authorities and other development partners. To be credible and acceptable, an IGR must reflect extensive participation by a variety of national stakeholders. In Armenia the Bank's IGR team engaged the government (executive, legislature, judiciary), civil society (nongovernmental organizations, political parties, trade unions, academics), and other development partners from the outset. This approach resulted in widespread acceptance of the report's analysis and recommendations within both Armenia and the Bank. Armenia's IGR was a pioneering effort by the Bank's Europe and Central Asia Region to systematically evaluate a country's public institutions and develop a program of reforms supported by follow-up operations. The IGR had two main objectives. First...

Composição pelo som : trabalho composicional e analitico de repertorio instrumental por metodos de analise da musica eletroacustica; Composition by sound : compositional and analytical work of instrumental repertoire by analysis tools of eletroacoustic music

Alexandre Remuzzi Ficagna
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/08/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.93%
O que será tratado nesta pesquisa é a busca de uma estratégia composicional para a música instrumental que conceba o material orientado às suas qualidades sonoras, ou seja, o princípio diretivo composicional é o estudo do material em seus aspectos e variações tímbricos, espectrais, morfológicos, dentre outros, princípio este que orientou o processo compositivo. Para o enriquecimento deste modelo, elaborou-se uma metodologia analítica baseada no ferramental advindo da música eletroacúsica com o intuito de priorizar modelos qualitativos (compreendendo esta como um importante paradigma na atenção ao som), em especial a tipomorfologia de Schaeffer (1966) e a morfologia espectral de Smalley (1997). O trabalho analítico, contudo, não pretendeu excluir as especificidades do suporte instrumental, agregando outras ferramentas de análise quando necessário, mas priorizando aspectos inerentes ao repertório selecionado, cujo trabalho no plano da sonoridade é flagrante, apesar de historicamente pouco explorado nas análises musicais: as obras estudadas são Hyperprism, de Edgard Varèse; e .Lento e Deserto., movimento II do Concerto para Piano...

A comprehensive numerical and analytical study of two holes doped into the 2D t-J model

Chernyshev, A. L.; Leung, P. W.; Gooding, R. J.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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We report on a detailed examination of numerical results and analytical calculations devoted to a study of two holes doped into a two-dimensional, square lattice described by the t-J model. Our exact diagonalization numerical results represent the first solution of the exact ground state of 2 holes in a 32-site lattice. Using this wave function, we have calculated several important correlation functions, notably the electron momentum distribution function and the hole-hole spatial correlation function. Further, by studying similar quantities on smaller lattices, we have managed to perform a finite-size scaling analysis. We have augmented this work by endeavouring to compare these results to the predictions of analytical work for two holes moving in an infinite lattice. This analysis relies on the canonical transformation approach formulated recently for the t-J model. From this comparison we find excellent correspondence between our numerical data and our analytical calculations. We believe that this agreement is an important step helping to justify the quasiparticle Hamiltonian, and in particular, the quasiparticle interactions, that result from the canonical transformation approach. Also, the analytical work allows us to critique the finite-size scaling ansatzes used in our analysis of the numerical data. One important feature that we can infer from this successful comparison involves the role of higher harmonics in the two-particle...