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Requisitórios: precatórios e requisição de pequeno valor: um tema de direito financeiro; Payments of money owed by public treasury by virtue of a court decision, writ of execution against public treasury and writ of execution of a small amount of money agains public treasury as seen by public financial law.

Faim Filho, Eurípedes Gomes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/05/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.82%
Esta tese de doutorado estuda os requisitórios: precatórios e requisições de pequeno valor, sob o prisma do Direito Financeiro. Com esse objetivo se estuda o desenvolvimento dos requisitórios e suas regras atuais, tanto em termos de determinações constitucionais, quanto nas questões orçamentárias, da dívida pública e do controle das finanças públicas, questionando também a forma como se dá a execução contra a Fazenda Pública por quantia certa em outros países do mundo.; This doctoral thesis studies, through the prism of Financial Law, the payments of money owed by the Federal Treasury, by State Treasury, by Federal District Treasury, or by Municipal Treasury, by virtue of a court decision (writ of execution against Public Treasury or writ of execution of a small amount of money against Public Treasury). For this purpose we study the development of payments of court decisions and its current rules, both in terms of constitutional provisions, budget issues, public debt and internal and external audit of public money used to pay court decisions, also questioning how this payment is done by Public Treasury in other countries.

“Selling” Value: The Influence of Language on Willingness-to-Accept

Manson, Kirk F.; Levy, Ifat
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.69%
In behavioral economics, the “endowment effect” describes the robust finding that prices people are willing to accept (WTA) for a good exceed prices people are willing to pay (WTP) for the same good. The increase in WTA values is often explained by the sellers’ negative hedonic response to losing their item. Recent studies, however, show that subtle cues may change participants’ perspective, influencing their valuations. We hypothesized that implicit connotations of instructional language may be one of those cues. To test this hypothesis we manipulated the wording of instructions in two conditions: in the Sell condition, subjects were endowed with a set of pens and asked to select an amount of money for which they would sell the pens back and in the Take condition, subjects were endowed with the pens and asked to select an amount of money they would take for the pens. Participants in each condition also estimated the market value of the pens. Consistent with our hypothesis, WTA in the Sell condition was higher than in the Take condition, though there were no differences in market values between conditions. These findings show that instructional language does influence participant valuations. Furthermore, we suggest that those being asked to “sell” use their market estimations as the salient reference point in the transaction.

Active control of extremely prestressed simple supported composite bridges

Dagher, Bahjat (Bahjat Nouhad)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 67 leaves
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.49%
More than 600,000 US bridges are considered to be in need of rehabilitation. More than 90 Billion US Dollars is the estimated amount of money required. According to the National Bridge Inventory, 18.5% of those bridges are structurally deficient. Many methods of rehabilitation have been sought out by engineers throughout the years. Perhaps the most interesting of all solutions is utilizing external post tensioning cables to add to the stiffness of the system. External post tensioning can be considered to be a cheap solution that is easy to install, and easy to fix in the future. What has not been discussed among engineers is the possibility of controlling the tendon force. Vertical deflections could be monitored and assessed, and a consequent axial prestressing force could be applied on the cables. This report investigates in detail the issues involved in the design of externally prestressed tendons on a simply supported composite bridge of specific properties, and touches on the reasoning behind active control and the limitations that the current technology has.; by Bahjat Dagher.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 2007.; Includes bibliographical references (leaf 67).

Payment Systems, Inside Money and Financial Intermediation

Merrouche, Ouarda; Nier, Erlend
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.82%
This paper assesses the impact of introducing an efficient payment system on the amount of credit provided by the banking system. Two channels are investigated. First, innovations in wholesale payments technology enhance the security and speed of deposits as a payment medium for customers and therefore affect the split between holdings of cash and the holdings of deposits that can be intermediated by the banking system. Second, innovations in wholesale payments technology help establish well-functioning interbank markets for end-of-day funds, which reduces the need for banks to hold excess reserves. The authors examine these links empirically using payment system reforms in Eastern European countries as a laboratory. The analysis finds evidence that reforms led to a shift away from cash in favor of demand deposits and that this in turn enabled a prolonged credit expansion in the sample countries. By contrast, while payment system innovations also led to a reduction in excess reserves in some countries...

Are There Diminishing Returns to Transfer Size in Conditional Cash Transfers?

Filmer, Deon; Schady, Norbert
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.57%
There is increasing evidence that conditional cash transfer programs can have large impacts on school enrollment, including in very poor countries. However, little is known about which features of program design -- including the amount of the cash that is transferred, how frequently conditions are monitored, whether non-complying households are penalized, and the identity or gender of the cash recipients -- account for the observed outcomes. This paper analyzes the impact of one feature of program design -- namely, the magnitude of the transfer. The analysis uses data from a program in Cambodia that deliberately altered the transfer amounts received by otherwise comparable households. The findings show clear evidence of diminishing marginal returns to transfer size despite the fact that even the larger transfers represented on average only 3 percent of the consumption of the median recipient households. If applicable to other settings, these results have important implications for other programs that transfer cash with the explicit aim of increasing school enrollment levels in developing countries.

Assessing the Redistributive Effect of Fiscal Policy

Essama-Nssah, B.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.57%
Who benefits from public spending? Who bears the burden of taxation? How desirable is the distribution of net benefits from the operation of a tax-benefit system? This paper surveys basic concepts, methods, and modeling approaches commonly used to address these issues in the context of fiscal incidence analysis. The review covers the incidence of both taxation and public spending. Methodological points are supported by country cases. The effective distribution of benefits and burdens associated with fiscal policy depends on the size of the government, the distributive mechanisms involved, and the incentives properties of the policy under consideration. This creates a need for analytical methods to account for both individual behavior and social interaction. The approaches reviewed include simple reduced form regression analysis, microsimulation models (both the envelope and discrete choice models), computable general equilibrium modeling, and approaches that link computable general equilibrium models to microsimulation models. Explicit modeling facilitates the construction of counterfactuals to back up causal analysis. Social desirability is assessed on the basis of progressivity along with deadweight loss.

Efficiency Drivers of MFIs : The Role of Age

Kneiding, Christoph; Mas, Ignacio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.61%
Microfinance institutions (MFIs) are becoming more efficient. This brief sheds light on how the age of individual MFIs and the age of the industry affect efficiency improvements. On an MFI level the authors look into scale economies, cost structure, and process durations as potential efficiency drivers. On an industry level the authors look into knowledge spillovers from one MFI to the other and market wide learning effects.

Banking and Regulation in Emerging Markets : The Role of External Discipline

Vives, Xavier
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.61%
This article reviews the main issues of regulating and supervising banks in emerging markets with a view toward evaluating the long-run options. Particular attention is paid to Latin America and East Asia. These economies face a severe policy commitment problem that leads to excessive bailouts and potential devaluation of claims of foreign investors. This exacerbates moral hazard and makes a case for importing external discipline (for example, acquiring foreign short-term debt). However, external discipline may come at the cost of excessive liquidation of entrepreneurial projects. The article reviews the tradeoffs imposed by external discipline and examines various arrangements, such as narrow banking, foreign banks and foreign regulation, and the potential role for an international agency or international lender of last resort.

The Role of Transnational Family Distribution in Shaping Remittance Flows

Bartolini, Laura
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.82%
Migration experiences are often associated with some sort of transnational economic activity which connects the past and the present of migrants abroad, and specifically with remittances. Motivations to send money at origin have been deeply investigated at the micro as well as at the macro level, as remittances can affect recipient households’ well-being, investment and consumption levels in the receiving countries and play an insurance role against external shocks. This paper contributes to the literature on migrants’ remittances providing evidence for migrants from Morocco, Peru and Romania, three traditional labor-exporting countries with a medium level of economic development, from three different geographical areas and with different migration patterns to Italy. Exploiting a relatively rich, albeit small-scale, dataset we analyze the spatial distribution of migrants’ nuclear families and households and we build three different migratory profiles, Loners, Pioneers and followers, characterized by the timing and sequence of the migration event with respect to the rest of the nuclear family. Then author test a negative binomial model to describe the variation in the variable ‘remittances amount’. Beyond cross-country variations and after controlling for the most commonly used individual demographic and economic characteristics...

Perceptions of inequity and its influence on the reservation wage; Perceções de iniquidade e a sua influência no salário de reserva

Oliveira, Daniel Faria Gomes de
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.73%
Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Psicologia; We know that the reservation wage, a variable well studied on unemployed individuals, stands for the minimum amount of money that we are willing to accept for our work. However, we don’t have much information about the possible changes in our reservation wage while we are employed or performing a task. Our objective is to verify if these changes exist when we perceive inequity in our salary, in comparison with others. Our hypotheses predict a behavioral and cognitive change in order to restore equity, as stated in the theory of inequity. We modified a task used in Ariely and colleagues’ study, with two experimental groups: in one condition the subjects perceived positive inequity, by being told that they were earning more money for the task, and in the other, subjects perceived negative inequity, by being told that they were earning less money for the same task, and one control group whose subjects didn’t perceive any inequity. Contrary to predictions, subjects from the first group showed a lower reservation wage while subjects from the second group seem to restore equity by other means. Future research suggestions were given to confirm possible explanations for the results.; Sabemos que o salário de reserva corresponde à menor quantia de dinheiro que estamos dispostos a receber pelo nosso trabalho...

Fungibility and the Impact of Development Assistance : Evidence from Vietnam's Health Sector

Wagstaff, Adam
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.61%
How can the impact of aid be estimated in the presence of fungibility? And how far does fungibility reduce its benefits? These questions are analyzed in a context where a donor wants to target its efforts on a specific sector and specific geographic areas. A traditional differences-in-differences method comparing the change in outcomes between the target and nontarget areas before and after the project risks misestimating the project's benefits. The paper develops an alternative estimation method in which intersectoral fungibility reduces project benefits insofar as government spending has a smaller impact in the sector to which the funds leak than in the target sector, while intrasectoral fungibility reduces benefits insofar as the donor is able to leverage productivity increases in government spending in the target areas. The methods are applied to two contemporaneous World Bank health projects that set out to target assistance on approximately one-half of Vietnam's provinces. Aid is not apparently fungible between Vietnam's health sector and other sectors...

Egyptian National Postal Organization : Review of Asset Management Operations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.8%
This report presents the missions observations and recommendations. The mission has not been able to review the investment manual and current investment procedures as the relevant documents have not been yet forwarded by Egyptian National Postal Organization (ENPO) as requested. ENPO was established in 1865 and since its creation it has always had a clear mandate of public service that remains dominant until today despite the growing competitive pressures that the organization is facing in most of its markets. ENPO's activities center around two major categories: postal and other services, and financial services. Postal services include letters (regular and express mails) and parcels. Other services are public services, such as bills payments (telecom, car insurance, and taxes) and government services, including pension payment and government money orders. ENPO currently holds 18 million savings accounts, against 8 million for the rest of the banking sector, making it the first financial institution in the country in terms of number of accounts. In terms of deposits however...

Collective economics : leveraging purchasing power of low-income communities for collective gain : Lawrence Community Works and the Network Advantage Program; Leveraging purchasing power of low-income communities for collective gain : Lawrence Community Works and the Network Advantage Program

Espino, Eric V
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 88 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.61%
This thesis focuses on the concept of Collective Economics and develops a set of recommendations by which groups with common interests can effectively utilize their purchasing power for collective benefits. Working with Lawrence Community Works (LCW), the thesis provides an economic profile of the organization's membership as the basis for proposing partnerships that seek to leverage the purchasing power of members for collective benefits. Based in Lawrence, MA, LCW is a community development corporation dedicated to investing in both people and place as well as increasing ownership in the community by the community. As an immigrant city and one of the poorest in the Commonwealth, there are few opportunities for residents to break out of an economic cycle all too common among a large portion of the citizenry. In an effort to counter this cycle and provide hope for members, LCW is looking to use their established Network as the vehicle to promote a demand-oriented environment where group size and economic characteristics can be leveraged for group discounts and benefits.; (cont.) Through the use of survey data and a discussion of lessons learned from a handful of interviews, I propose partnership ideas centered on marker-oriented approaches to using LCW's size...

The medial prefrontal cortex exhibits money illusion

Weber, Bernd; Rangel, Antonio; Wibral, Matthias; Falk, Armin
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.91%
Behavioral economists have proposed that money illusion, which is a deviation from rationality in which individuals engage in nominal evaluation, can explain a wide range of important economic and social phenomena. This proposition stands in sharp contrast to the standard economic assumption of rationality that requires individuals to judge the value of money only on the basis of the bundle of goods that it can buy—its real value—and not on the basis of the actual amount of currency—its nominal value. We used fMRI to investigate whether the brain's reward circuitry exhibits money illusion. Subjects received prizes in 2 different experimental conditions that were identical in real economic terms, but differed in nominal terms. Thus, in the absence of money illusion there should be no differences in activation in reward-related brain areas. In contrast, we found that areas of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), which have been previously associated with the processing of anticipatory and experienced rewards, and the valuation of goods, exhibited money illusion. We also found that the amount of money illusion exhibited by the vmPFC was correlated with the amount of money illusion exhibited in the evaluation of economic transactions.

An ERP Study on Decisions between Attractive Females and Money

Zeng, Jianmin; Wang, Yujiao; Zhang, Qinglin
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.78%
To investigate the neural processes of decision-makings between attractive females and money, we recorded 18 male participants' brain event-related potentials (ERPs) when they performed a novel task of deciding between viewing an attractive female's fuzzy picture in clear and gaining a certain amount of money. Two types of attractive females were included: sexy females and beautiful females. Several new electrophysiological discoveries were obtained as following. First, the beautiful females vs. money task (task B) elicited a larger positive ERP deflection (P2) than the sexy females vs. money task (task S) between 290 and 340 ms, and this probably related to the perception matching process between a visual input and an internal representation or expectation. Second, task S evoked greater negative ERP waves (N2) than task B during the time window of 340–390 ms, and this might relate to response conflict and cognitive monitoring for impulsive tendency. Third, the ERP positivity in task S was larger than task B in the time interval of 550–1000 ms, reflecting that sexy female images may have higher decision value for males than beautiful female images. Fourth, compared with choosing to gain money, choosing to view an attractive female evoked a larger late positive component (LPC) during the same time window...

Statistical mechanics of money

Dragulescu, Adrian; Yakovenko, Victor M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.72%
In a closed economic system, money is conserved. Thus, by analogy with energy, the equilibrium probability distribution of money must follow the exponential Gibbs law characterized by an effective temperature equal to the average amount of money per economic agent. We demonstrate how the Gibbs distribution emerges in computer simulations of economic models. Then we consider a thermal machine, in which the difference of temperatures allows one to extract a monetary profit. We also discuss the role of debt, and models with broken time-reversal symmetry for which the Gibbs law does not hold.; Comment: 7 pages, 5 figures, RevTeX. V.4: final version accepted to Eur. Phys. J. B: few stylistic revisions and additional references

A model-insensitive determination of First-hitting-time densities with Application to Equity default-swaps

Langnau, Alex
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.61%
Equity default-swaps pay the holder a fixed amount of money when the underlying spot level touches a (far-down) barrier during the life of the instrument. While most pricing models give reasonable results when the barrier lies within the range of liquidly traded strikes of plain-vanilla option prices, the situation is more involved for extremely out-of-the money barriers. In this paper we discuss a model-insensitive approach for the determination of first hitting times that does not rely on the full a priori knowledge of the stochastic process for the price dynamics. Hence more robust pricing and hedging results are expected as a result of this analysis. In contrast to stochastic volatility-models our approach is well suited for the conservative pricing of equity default-swaps.; Comment: keywords: Equity default swaps, hitting probability, stopping time density, barrier options, forward volatility,forward volatility skew, american digital put

Distributions of money in model markets of economy

Chakraborti, Anirban
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/05/2002
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.78%
We study the distributions of money in a simple closed economic system for different types of monetary transactions. We know that for arbitrary and random sharing but locally conserving money transactions, the money distribution goes to the Gibb's distribution of statistical mechanics. We then consider the effects of savings, etc. and see how the distribution changes. We also propose a new model where the agents invest equal amounts of money in each transaction. We find that for short time-periods, the money distribution obeys a power-law with an exponent very close to unity, and has an exponential tail; after a very long time, this distribution collapses and the entire amount of money goes to a tiny fraction of the population.; Comment: 9 pages, 4 postscript figures. To appear in IJMPC 13 (2002)

The medial prefrontal cortex exhibits money illusion

Weber, Bernd; Rangel, Antonio; Wibral, Matthias; Falk, Armin
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 31/03/2009
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.91%
Behavioral economists have proposed that money illusion, which is a deviation from rationality in which individuals engage in nominal evaluation, can explain a wide range of important economic and social phenomena. This proposition stands in sharp contrast to the standard economic assumption of rationality that requires individuals to judge the value of money only on the basis of the bundle of goods that it can buy—its real value—and not on the basis of the actual amount of currency—its nominal value. We used fMRI to investigate whether the brain's reward circuitry exhibits money illusion. Subjects received prizes in 2 different experimental conditions that were identical in real economic terms, but differed in nominal terms. Thus, in the absence of money illusion there should be no differences in activation in reward-related brain areas. In contrast, we found that areas of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), which have been previously associated with the processing of anticipatory and experienced rewards, and the valuation of goods, exhibited money illusion. We also found that the amount of money illusion exhibited by the vmPFC was correlated with the amount of money illusion exhibited in the evaluation of economic transactions.

Money, reputation and inventories under credit market imperfections.

Haegler, Urs
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.76%
This thesis analyses the way in which credit market imperfections affect the behaviour of economic agents, and examines how a variety of tangible or intangible assets such as fiat money, reputation and inventories, facilitate bilateral exchange and influence investment decisions of firms under such circumstances. The first chapter of the thesis deals with the role of fiat money as a medium of exchange in a model in which agents hold consumable goods or nonconsumable cash. The physical environment of pairwise random matching for bilateral trade, however, prevents them from issuing debt certificates. Unlike fiat money, consumables have uncertain quality characteristics, and agents can only detect the quality of a subset of goods. As a consequence, barter is plagued by asymmetric information, whereas monetary exchange involving generally recognisable legal tender is not. This suggests that it is because of, rather than despite, its intrinsic uselessness that, as a medium of exchange, fiat money is superior to goods or assets subject to some form of quality uncertainty. The second chapter examines the effects of reputation and internal finance on a firm's investment incentives. An entrepreneur with unknown productivity finances risky production with a combination of internal finance and funds from external investors who...