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Fatores associados à percepção de suficiência de renda entre a população idosa do município de São Paulo - Estudo SABE; Factors associated with perception of sufficiency of income among the elderly in São Paulo - SABE Study

Bento, Jorge Avelino
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/10/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.68%
Objetivos: Identificar fatores associados à percepção de suficiência de renda dos idosos do município de São Paulo, que relataram alguma vez ter trabalhado com remuneração e que possuíam renda. Métodos: A partir da entrevista com 2.143 idosos (60 anos e mais), em 2000, foram identificados 1.300 que não precisaram de ajuda para responder o questionário, com 13 pontos ou mais no MEEM (Mini Exame de Estado Mental), que exerceram algum tipo de trabalho remunerado, que tinham algum tipo de renda e que, esta coincidisse com a quantidade de fontes de renda informada. Utilizou-se na análise estatística o teste de associação para amostras complexas (Rao-Scott), análise univariada e multivariada de regressão logística, sendo construído através desta última o modelo final, ao nível de significância de 5 por cento . Resultados e discussão: Perceberam como suficiente sua renda, 31 por cento dos idosos. Aqueles com renda acima dos patamares analisados (per capita acima de ½ salário mínimo e renda total acima do mínimo necessário para atendimento das necessidades básicas) apresentaram maiores chances de percepção satisfatória. Independente da renda, os seguintes fatores estiveram associados com uma melhor percepção de suficiência de renda: ter trabalhado predominantemente em atividades não físicas...

Impactos dos programas de transferência de renda Benefício de Prestação Continuada (BPC) e Bolsa Família sobre a economia brasileira: uma análise de equilíbrio geral; Impacts of income transfers Benefício de Prestação Continuada (BPC) and Bolsa Família program on the Brazilian economy: a general equilibrium model analysis

Silva, Daiana Inocente da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/08/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.56%
Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar os desdobramentos econômicos dos programas de transferência de renda Benefício de Prestação Continuada e Bolsa Família, à luz do modelo de equilíbrio geral computável TERM-BR. A partir de dados do Ministério do Desenvolvimento Social e Combate à Fome foram calculados o crescimento real dessas transferências no período entre 2005 e 2012, representando o choque a ser inserido no modelo. Utilizaram-se quatro fechamentos distintos para calcular três simulações de longo prazo e uma de curto prazo, que diferem na escolha das varáveis de ajuste. Os resultados agregados do modelo mostram que há retração do PIB real quando o ajuste macroeconômico do modelo é via investimentos ou balança comercial. O PIB só cresce quando há endividamento externo. O consumo real das famílias aumenta em todas as simulações. O PIB das regiões com maior número de pobres também aumenta, devido ao montante de recursos recebidos. O trabalho conclui que tais programas não podem ser vistos como políticas de crescimento econômico, mas aumentam o consumo das regiões e das famílias mais pobres.; In this study the economic impacts of two income transfer programs in Brazil, namely the Programa de Benefício de Prestação Continuada (BPC) and the Programa Bolsa Familia were analyzed with the aid of a computable general equilibrium model of Brazil (the TERM-BR model). The values transferred by the programs in the 2005 to 2012 period were calculated...

Planejamento financeiro pessoal : um estudo sobre a renda pós-aposentadoria; Personal financial planning: a study on post retirement income

Garcia, Andréia Cristina Dias; Kloeckner, Gilberto de Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.78%
A incerteza sobre qual o valor da renda para o período pós-aposentadoria pode levar o indivíduo a constituir um plano de acumulação de capital com o intuito de garantir antecipadamente a existência e o nível da mesma. Esse estudo se propõe a analisar alguns modelos atuariais utilizados para o cálculo do valor a ser poupado para a geração da renda na fase da aposentadoria. Nos modelos apresentados, o indivíduo escolhe o tipo de contribuição e a taxa de juro. A partir dessas premissas, calcula-se o valor a ser poupado a partir do valor da renda desejada. Para calcular a probabilidade de ocorrência do valor da renda esperada, cada plano é simulado em dois cenários distintos para uma determinada idade, contemplando, também, a aplicação do fundo acumulado somente em ativos livres de risco e, numa segunda etapa, permitindo o investimento em ativos com risco. Observa-se que uma atitude conservadora em relação à escolha da taxa de juro, ou seja, a preferência por uma taxa de juro menor, apresenta um melhor resultado do que a opção por uma taxa maior e, também, que a aplicação do capital acumulado em ativos de risco contribui, em geral, para a melhoria dos resultados obtidos nos planos simulados. A matemática atuarial é a ferramenta utilizada para o desenvolvimento dos modelos.; The uncertainty about the amount of income for the retirement stage may lead an individual to implement a capital accumulation plan in order to guarantee beforehand the desired income. This study approaches a series of factors that influence this decision making process: the person’s income...

The Impact of income support programs on transitions to employment

Simões, Sara Margarida Fragoso
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /01/2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.62%
The income support programs are created with the purpose of fighting both, the poverty trap and the inactivity trap. The balance between both is fragile and hard to find. Thus, the goal of this work is to contribute to solve this issue by finding how income support programs, particularly the Portuguese RSI, affect transitions to employment. This is made through duration analysis, namely using Cox and Competing Risks models. A particular feature is introduced in this work as it incorporates the possibility of Defective Risks. The estimated hazard elasticity with respect to the amount of RSI received for individuals who move to employment is -0,41. More than a half of RSI receivers stays for more than a year and the probability of never leaving to employment is 44%. The results appear to indicate that RSI has affected negatively transitions to employment.

The economics of personal bankruptcy

Link, Frederick, 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 183 p.; 6888475 bytes; 6888281 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.54%
This thesis examines the effect of bankruptcy law on consumer borrowing and welfare. The thesis consists of four theoretical chapters and two empirical chapters. Chapter 1 presents a simple model of consumer borrowing where the repayment of debt is governed by a bankruptcy law which allows a consumer to protect income below a given exemption level from creditors. Increasing bankruptcy exemption levels are found to increase borrowing and to increase consumer welfare so long as the consumer is borrowing less than the maximum amount possible. If consumers are borrowing the maximum amount possible, increasing exemption amounts increases credit constraints and decreases borrowing. Consumer welfare is maximized at the point where the marginal benefit the amount of insurance provided by the bankruptcy regime equals the marginal cost to reducing borrowing. Chapter 2 expands the model described in chapter 1 to include consumers who differ as to either their demand for credit or their ability to repay loans. The optimal exemption level is found to occur where the marginal cost due to increasing credit constraints to consumers with a higher demand for credit or a lower ability to repay is balanced against the increased insurance benefit provided to other borrowers.; (cont.) Chapter 3 considers the effect of bankruptcy law on credit markets with asymmetric information. I find that the possibility to receive a discharge of debt provided by bankruptcy law may cause consumers to distort their borrowing choices. Optimal exemption levels balance costs due to distortions in borrowing with benefits associated with increases in insurance. Chapter 4 presents a model of the effect of bankruptcy law on incentives to work. I find that increasing exemption levels may either increase or decrease incentives to work or to take risk. Chapter 5 examines the effect of exemption levels on household borrowing. I find that increasing personal property exemption levels are associated with higher levels of home mortgage debt and decreased probabilities that non-homeowners have greater than $50...

Assessing the Redistributive Effect of Fiscal Policy

Essama-Nssah, B.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.78%
Who benefits from public spending? Who bears the burden of taxation? How desirable is the distribution of net benefits from the operation of a tax-benefit system? This paper surveys basic concepts, methods, and modeling approaches commonly used to address these issues in the context of fiscal incidence analysis. The review covers the incidence of both taxation and public spending. Methodological points are supported by country cases. The effective distribution of benefits and burdens associated with fiscal policy depends on the size of the government, the distributive mechanisms involved, and the incentives properties of the policy under consideration. This creates a need for analytical methods to account for both individual behavior and social interaction. The approaches reviewed include simple reduced form regression analysis, microsimulation models (both the envelope and discrete choice models), computable general equilibrium modeling, and approaches that link computable general equilibrium models to microsimulation models. Explicit modeling facilitates the construction of counterfactuals to back up causal analysis. Social desirability is assessed on the basis of progressivity along with deadweight loss.

International Remittances and the Household : Analysis and Review of Global Evidence

Adams, Richard H., Jr.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.73%
This paper examines the economic impact of international remittances on countries and households in the developing world. To analyze the country-level impact of remittances, the paper estimates an econometric model based on a new data set of 115 developing countries. Results suggest that countries located close to a major remittance-sending region (like the United States, OECD-Europe) are more likely to receive international remittances, and that while the level of poverty in a country has no statistical effect on the amount of remittances received, for those countries which are fortunate enough to receive remittances, these resource flows do tend to reduce the level and depth of poverty. At the household level, a review of findings from recent research suggest that households receiving international remittances spend less at the margin on consumption goods-like food-and more on investment goods-like education and housing. Households receiving international remittances also tend to invest more in entrepreneurial activities.

Labor Market Policy in Developing Countries : A Selective Review of the Literature and Needs for the Future

Fields, Gary S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.65%
This paper presents a selective overview of the literature on modeling labor market policies in developing countries. It considers welfare economics, theoretical models, and empirical evidence to highlight the three general features needed in future research on labor market policy in developing countries. The author identifies desirable research components (welfare economics, theoretical modeling, and empirical modeling) and pitfalls in the literature (inappropriate use of productivity, reliance on wrong kinds of empirical studies, lack of cost-benefit analysis, attention to only a subset of the goods and bads, and fallacy of composition). The paper concludes with suggested topics and methods for future research. The author states that sound labor market policy requires sound labor market models. The paper makes a case for developing policy based on explicit evaluation criteria, specific theoretical models, and comprehensive empirical evidence.

Measuring the Pro-Poorness of Income Growth within an Elasticity Framework

Essama-Nssah, B.; Lambert, Peter J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.68%
Poverty reduction has become a fundamental objective of development, and therefore a metric for assessing the effectiveness of various interventions. Economic growth can be a powerful instrument of income poverty reduction. This creates a need for meaningful ways of assessing the poverty impact of growth. This paper follows the elasticity approach to propose a measure of pro-poorness defined as a weighted average of the deviation of a growth pattern from the benchmark case. The measure can help assess pro-poorness both in terms of aggregate poverty measures, which are members of the additively separable class, and at percentiles. It also lends itself to a decomposition procedure, whereby the overall pattern of income growth can be unbundled, and the contributions of income components to overall pro-poorness identified. An application to data for Indonesia in the 1990s reveals that the amount of poverty reduction achieved over that period remains far below what would have been achieved under distributional neutrality. This conclusion is robust to the choice of a poverty measure among members of the additively separable class, and can be tracked back to changes in expenditure components.

Turkey - Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) : Sustaining High Growth - The Role of Domestic savings : Synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.77%
Domestic savings in Turkey declined significantly in the 2000s. The domestic savings rate declined from an average of 23.5 percent of gross national income in the 1990s to an average of 17 percent over the 2000-2008 period, and further to 12.7 percent in 2010. This decline was driven by the sharp fall in private saving, while public saving increased through most of the period. A strong fiscal adjustment underpinned the improvement in public savings in the post-2001 period. The adjustment was pursued to correct the fiscal expansion of the previous decade, and it led to a sharp reduction in the public debt to gross domestic product (GDP) ratio. This improved the public saving-investment balance and helped reduce the vulnerability of the economy to external shocks. With an expected increase in future investment needs, continued fiscal discipline will be vital for sustainable growth. The fall in private savings after 2001 was mostly a result of the decline in macroeconomic vulnerabilities. While the economy was growing fast...

Economics of Tobacco Toolkit, Tool 6 : Equity Issues, Tobacco, and the Poor

Peck, Richard M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.69%
Currently there are approximately 4 million tobacco related deaths annually. If present trends continue, by the year 2030 the number of deaths will soar to about 10 million annual deaths, with 7 million in low-income countries. However, government action to establish various tobacco control initiatives can prevent this from happening and save a significant number of lives. Tobacco control measures include: i) raising tobacco prices by imposing higher excise taxes; ii) advertising and marketing bans and restrictions; and iii) clean indoor air provisions. A popular and valid concern holds that raising tobacco excise taxes for the purposes of tobacco control imposes an untenable and unfair burden on the poor. In short, it is argued that higher tobacco excise taxes increase inequality in the post-tax distribution of income and reduces the real incomes of a particularly vulnerable group, the poor. This tool discusses a number of approaches in which to examine the validity of this argument. Techniques to analyze the impact of tobacco consumption and tobacco taxes on the poor are explained. And analytical methods using country-specific data are examined so that policy analysts can effectively address concerns about the poor...

The Transmission of Banking Crises to Households : Lessons from the 2008-2011 Crises in the ECA Region

Brown, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.7%
This paper examines the impact of the recent banking crises in Europe and Central Asia with an emphasis on household income and consumption patterns. The analysis is based on the 2010 wave of the Life in Transition Survey, which covers 12,704 households in eleven countries that experienced a banking crisis between 2008 and 2011. It finds that households in middle-income crisis countries are more than twice as likely to be hit by an income shock as households in high-income crisis countries. The labor market channel is the predominant source of income shocks, with wage reductions more widespread than job-losses. In reaction to income shocks, households reallocate spending from non-essential goods to staple foods. Reductions in staple-food consumption are, however, prevalent among low-income households. The paper examines potential crisis mitigators and finds that at the macro level a flexible monetary regime is associated with fewer cutbacks in household consumption. At the meso level, it finds no evidence that foreign bank ownership amplified the transmission of banking crises to households in Europe. With respect to micro-level mitigators, the analysis finds that diversified income sources as well as stocks of non-financial and financial assets help households to cushion income shocks. Access to informal and formal credit also mitigates the impact of income shocks on household consumption...

Proving Incentives for Long-Term Investment by Pension Funds : The Use of Outcome-based Benchmarks

Stewart, Fiona
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.75%
A fundamental goal of any pension system is to ensure that members receive an adequate income when they retire. Although traditional defined benefit pension plans set out how pension income will be determined in advance and then strive to deliver this, the growing number of defined contribution plans accumulate a sum of assets which can then be turned into a pension income on retirement. However, the amount of this retirement income is not predefined This frequently leads to a focus by not only most pension providers, but also regulators and pension plan members themselves on the short-term accumulation of pension assets rather than the longer-term goal of securing an adequate retirement income. This paper discusses a possible solution to this challenge: the use of benchmarks to encourage pension funds to invest with the longer-term goal of delivering adequate retirement income in mind. Examples are provided of leading pension funds that already work with long-term, outcome-based benchmarks. The paper suggests a methodology for pension regulators to use in order to incentivize pension funds in their jurisdictions to adopt a similar approach.

The Role of Transnational Family Distribution in Shaping Remittance Flows

Bartolini, Laura
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.66%
Migration experiences are often associated with some sort of transnational economic activity which connects the past and the present of migrants abroad, and specifically with remittances. Motivations to send money at origin have been deeply investigated at the micro as well as at the macro level, as remittances can affect recipient households’ well-being, investment and consumption levels in the receiving countries and play an insurance role against external shocks. This paper contributes to the literature on migrants’ remittances providing evidence for migrants from Morocco, Peru and Romania, three traditional labor-exporting countries with a medium level of economic development, from three different geographical areas and with different migration patterns to Italy. Exploiting a relatively rich, albeit small-scale, dataset we analyze the spatial distribution of migrants’ nuclear families and households and we build three different migratory profiles, Loners, Pioneers and followers, characterized by the timing and sequence of the migration event with respect to the rest of the nuclear family. Then author test a negative binomial model to describe the variation in the variable ‘remittances amount’. Beyond cross-country variations and after controlling for the most commonly used individual demographic and economic characteristics...

Impact of cost of medicines for chronic conditions on low income households in Australia

Kemp, A.; Preen, D.; Glover, J.; Semmens, J.; Roughead, E.
Fonte: Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd. Publicador: Royal Society of Medicine Press Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.67%
OBJECTIVES: To determine the cost of medicines for selected chronic illnesses and the proportion of discretionary income this would potentially displace for households with different pharmaceutical subsidy entitlements and incomes. METHODS: We analysed household income and expenditure data for 9,774 households participating in two Australian surveys in 2009-10. The amount of 'discretionary' income available to households after basic living and health care expenditure was modelled for households with high pharmaceutical subsidies: pensioner and non-pensioner concessional (social security entitlements); and households with general pharmaceutical subsidies and low, middle or high incomes. We calculated the proportion of discretionary income that would be needed for medicines if one household member had diabetes or acute coronary syndrome, or if one member also had two co-existing illnesses (gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and depression, or asthma and osteoarthritis). RESULTS: Pensioner and low income households had little discretionary income after basic living and health care expenditure (AUD$92 and $164/week, respectively). Medicines for the specified illnesses ranged from $11-$42/month for high subsidy households and $34-$186/month for low subsidy households. Costs reduced substantially once patients reached the annual pharmaceutical cap (safety net)...

Kenya Social Protection Sector Review : Executive Report

World Bank; Republic of Kenya Ministry of State for Planning
Fonte: Nairobi Publicador: Nairobi
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.65%
There is now broad consensus among policymakers that social protection is a powerful way to fight poverty and promote inclusive growth. This international consensus is most clearly articulated in the African Union's Social Policy Framework (SPF), which was endorsed by all African heads of state in 2009. The SPF explains that social protection includes 'social security measures and furthering income security; and also the pursuit of an integrated policy approach that has a strong developmental focus, such as job creation' the SPF commits governments to progressively realizing a minimum package of essential social protection that covers essential health care and benefits for children, informal workers, the unemployed, the elderly, and people with disabilities. Kenya has a long history of investing in social protection. Social protection in Kenya is defined as 'policies and actions, including legislative measures, that enhance the capacity of and opportunities for the poor and vulnerable to improve and sustain their lives...

Jamaica : Poverty and Social Impacts of Fiscal Reforms

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.67%
This Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) explores the distributional effects of a package of fiscal reforms initiated by the Government of Jamaica and supported by the World Bank under the programmatic fiscal sustainability Development Policy Loan (DPL) series. The DPL series supports improved budget and debt management in order to reduce the debt overhang and create additional fiscal space for productive public spending, including social expenditures. The PSIA discusses the poverty and distributional impacts of the prior actions supported under the DPL, with a particular focus on two reform actions likely to have the most significant impacts: (1) tax reform and (2) public sector reform, focusing on rationalization of public bodies. The report offers both quantitative and qualitative assessments of the potential poverty and distributional effects of these policy changes. The report is structured as follows: section two analyzes the expected impact of changes in tax policy; section three investigates the potential impacts of public bodies' rationalization...

Egyptian National Postal Organization : Review of Asset Management Operations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.71%
This report presents the missions observations and recommendations. The mission has not been able to review the investment manual and current investment procedures as the relevant documents have not been yet forwarded by Egyptian National Postal Organization (ENPO) as requested. ENPO was established in 1865 and since its creation it has always had a clear mandate of public service that remains dominant until today despite the growing competitive pressures that the organization is facing in most of its markets. ENPO's activities center around two major categories: postal and other services, and financial services. Postal services include letters (regular and express mails) and parcels. Other services are public services, such as bills payments (telecom, car insurance, and taxes) and government services, including pension payment and government money orders. ENPO currently holds 18 million savings accounts, against 8 million for the rest of the banking sector, making it the first financial institution in the country in terms of number of accounts. In terms of deposits however...

Geographic Inequity in a Decentralized Anti-Poverty Program : A Case Study of China

Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.69%
The central governments of many developing countries have chosen to decentralize their anti-poverty programs, in the expectation that local agents are better informed about local needs. The paper shows that this potential advantage of decentralized eligibility criteria can come at a large cost, to the extent that the induced geographic inequities undermine performance in reaching the income- poor nationally. These issues are studied empirically for (probably) the largest transfer-based poverty program in the world, namely China's Di Bao program, which aims to assure a minimum income through means-tested transfers. Poor municipalities are found to adopt systematically lower eligibility thresholds, reducing the program's ability to reach poor areas, and generating considerable horizontal inequity.

The economics of income tax evasion.

Bayer, Ralph C
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.64%
This thesis consists of three extended essays on the evasion of income tax. The main purpose of this thesis is to refine the existing tax evasion models in a way that makes it possible to explain empirically established stylized facts that could not be explained before. In the first part we use a standard neoclassical framework in order to analyse the impact of risk preferences on evasion behaviour. We argue that expected value maximization with some fixed and variable costs incurred during the evasion process (moral cost, cost of coverage action etc.) is an appropriate framework to explain the stylised fact that higher tax rates and a higher income lead to more tax evasion. This resolves one of the puzzles concerning tax evasion that was unsolved so far. The second part uses this finding to examine the effect of tax rates on the resources wasted during the process of tax sheltering and evasion detection. We model a declaration detection process, where both, tax inspector and taxpayer, can invest into the probability that the true income from different potential income sources is verified We show that in this contest a higher tax rate leads to more resources that are waste- fully invested in the cat and dog play between authority and taxpayer. The positive effect of rising tax rates and rising income on tax evasion is maintained. The final part of the thesis explains why the tax authority in reality audits sequentially. I.e. it audits single sources at the beginning to conduct a full-scale audit...