This thesis describes the role of short sea shipping within the transportation network in the European Union. It examines the existence of externalities relating to congestion, infrastructure, air pollution, noise, and accidents in the transportation sector. It evaluates the level of these externalities and also their effects on the Community. It then explains current attempts to internalize these factors, or incorporate them into the cost of transportation that the user pays. It concludes that current efforts are lacking and do not produce the most beneficial situation for the citizens of Europe. Consequently, the thesis investigates other possible methods of internalization that may produce more advantageous results and analyzes their possible effects on the transportation sector. The value of short sea shipping is examined in regards to the previously mentioned externalities. It concludes that, with the exception of the emission of sulfur dioxide, maritime transportation outperforms other modes of transportation by producing relatively few external effects.; (cont.) The current status of the short sea shipping industry is then described, followed by a discussion of intermodal transportation and the initiative within the European Community to increase the use of intermodal transportation. Two case studies are then reviewed...
General aviation is an underutilized transportation mode, particularly when compared to
alternative modes such as the automobile and the commercial airlines. In this research, barriers to
the utility of general aviation were identified through a web-based survey of active general
aviation pilots, with 1,471 surveys returned and suitable for analysis. The survey data indicated
five key barriers which were thought by pilots to be currently reducing their ability to utilize
general aviation transportation to its fullest extent: weather, expense of the travel mode, a lack of
mobility at the destination, doorstep-to-destination travel time, and reduced access to general
aviation transportation.; Raytheon Aircraft Company
In developing countries, growth frequently parallels increasing motorization rates, and visions of mobility are often centered on the private automobile as the most flexible form of personal transportation and a symbol of increasing wealth. The pursuit of mobility in this form has severe social, environmental, and economic consequences, some of which can be mitigated by the promotion of alternative modes of transportation Cycling and other forms of human-powered transportation have benign environmental effects, improve physical health, and can positively affect the psychology of people who, by choosing this mode, are more active and spend time outside and engaged in their environment. Given these benefits, it not surprising that some medium-sized, developing cities are including cycling in their transportation plans.These cities experience significant barriers, however, in promoting cycling as a form of sustainable transportation. Much of the challenge involves effectively utilizing planning processes and tools, which are often imported and applied in a context where they were not designed to be used, to elicit more sustainable transportation behavior in the midst of rapid change. Solutions that come from these planning processes and tools (particularly infrastructure and other engineering- focused solutions) can be ineffective in promoting an alternative form of transportation.Addressing these shortcomings to elicit a change in behavior toward cycling as a form of sustainable transportation requires a new combination of planning tools and processes that can produce effective solutions.; (cont.) In this thesis...
A case study is presented of a successful quick serve fast food restaurant chain that uses inventory throughout the supply chain as a buffer against uncertainty in supply and demand. This is a common operational strategy in many industries, but it limits options for the supply chain to become more agile, adaptable, and aligned to the dynamic needs of the enterprise. Trade-offs between transportation and holding costs are illustrated. The drawbacks of assuring supply by maintaining inventory at the distribution center level are discussed. Supply chain alternatives are presented including lateral transfers, forward warehouses, alternative modes of transportation, and multiple suppliers. An analytical approach is presented which provides a total relevant supply chain cost at the distribution center level. The approach is illustrated in the decision between two alternative transportation modes with different average lead times, lead time variabilities, and transportation costs.; by Daniel Jonathon Stanton.; Thesis (M. Eng. in Logistics)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Engineering Systems Division, 2008.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 61-63).
The National Mobilization is a set of activities that aims to enable Brazil to plan and execute actions in the field of National Defence toensure the security and sovereignty of the country. When it is ordered by the state organs that are part of the System of National Defense must be prepared and equipped to execute its functions. The Brazilian Army, one of these agencies, in 2006, purchased 250 armored combat vehicles, of which 216 to be distributed among their cavalry units in Brazil. The aim of this study is to present the best alternative transportation logistics to carry these tanks in a military organization, from a given scenario, with lower cost and / or time. To achieve the goal consultations through interviews and correspondence with experts in transport, military transport and armored vehicles. The consultations allowed to define the main advantages and disadvantages of transportation modes and factors relevant to transport armored vehicles, permitting the formulation of the transport network and development of an instrument feasibility of transportation modes (check list) to be applied to routes of transport. A problem of transporting armored vehicles, from a hypothetical scenario, was solved by a mathematical model with the objective of minimizing cost or time. It was concluded that the mathematical model is a tool that can aid decision making in the transport of armored vehicles...
Transportation is vital to economic and
social development, but at the same time generates undesired
consequences on local, regional, and global scales. One of
the largest challenges is the mitigation of energy-related
carbon dioxide emissions, to which this sector already
contributes one-quarter globally and one-third in the United
States. Technology measures are the prerequisite for
drastically mitigating energy use and all emission species,
but they are not sufficient. The resulting need for
complementing technology measures with behavioral change
policies contrasts sharply with the analyses carried out by
virtually all energy / economy / environment (E3) models,
given their focus on pure technology-based solutions. This
paper addresses the challenges for E3 models to simulate
behavioral changes in transportation. A survey of 13 major
models concludes that especially hybrid energy models would
already be capable of simulating some behavioral change
policies, most notably the imposition of the full marginal
societal costs of transportation. Another survey of major
macroscopic transportation models finds that key
specifications required for simulating behavioral change
have already been implemented and tested...
Maritime transport costs significantly
impede international trade. This article examines why these
costs are so high in some countries and quantifies the
importance of two explanations: restrictive trade policies
and private anticompetitive practices. It finds that both
matter, but the latter have a greater impact. Trade
liberalization and the breakup of private carrier agreements
would lead to an average of one-third lower liner transport
prices and to cost savings of up to US dollar 3 billion on
goods carried to the United States alone. The policy
implications are clear: there is a need not only for further
liberalization of government policy but also for
strengthened international disciplines on restrictive
business practices. The authors propose an approach to
developing such disciplines in the current round of services
negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO).
This paper examines how policy governing
the liner shipping sector affects maritime transport costs
and seaborne trade flows. The paper uses a novel data set
and finds that restrictions, particularly on foreign
investment, increase maritime transport costs, strongly but
unevenly. The cost-inflating effect ranges from 24 to 50
percent and trade on some routes may be inhibited
altogether. Distance increases maritime transport costs, but
also attenuates the cost impact of policy barriers. Overall,
policy restrictions may lower trade flows on specific routes
by up to 46 percent and therefore deserve greater attention
in national reform programs and international trade negotiations.
As the developing world rapidly
urbanizes, the demands on transport systems also grow often
at a faster pace than the population. Given the above
tendency, an effective and coordinated approach to urban
transport requires that sound policies be put into place.
Such policies enunciate the direction that a government
wants to take; they lay the basic framework for downstream
planning as well as project identification and
prioritization. This document policy lays out the guiding
principles for more detailed downstream planning. The
objective of this guideline is to improve mobility,
environmental quality, universal access, safety, and energy
security of any urban transport policy. This guidebook is
intended to be a practical support for formulating urban
transport policies at the national, provincial, and local
levels. To this end, it highlights some of the important
issues that arise when creating an urban transport policy.
The report is organized as follows: section one gives
introduction. Section two presents a framework of possible
Natural hazards regularly impact the performance of
transport systems and their ability to provide safe,
reliable, efficient, and accessible means of transport
for all citizens, especially in emergency situations.
Despite the frequency of natural hazards, and the
threat of more extreme and variable weather as a
result of climate change, there is still no systematic
approach to addressing natural disasters in the
transport sector and there is little knowledge that has
been disseminated on this topic. This report offers a
framework for understanding the principles of
resilience in transport. It provides practical examples,
gathered from an extensive secondary literature
review and interviews, of the measures that transport
professional can implement in transport projects.
CIVINS; Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; Many problems plague the United States' transportation infrastructure: congestion, poor roadway conditions, obsolescence, and maintenance cost not the least among these. In recent years, the Department of Transportation, through its Maritime Administration (MARAD), has begun a program for partial solution to this complex transportation issue. MARAD, acting on tasks assigned to it in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, has established the Marine Highways Initiative to spur development of alternative and supplemental transportation modes that utilize inland waterways and coastlines of the United States. At the same time, the U.S. Department of Defense is investigating ways to fulfill its sealift requirements, while at the same time reducing its inventory of government owned vessels that do not trade. This paper explores the issues surrounding the current state of transportation and transportation infrastructure. It also seeks to determine the feasibility of a truck ferry that would accomplish both MARAD's Marine Highway as well as the Department of Defense's sealift goals. The feasibility study examines the hypothetical business' profitability through different funding and operating scenarios. The analysis also sets a framework for other studies by using open-source data to determine freight flows...
The Government of Georgia is considering
options for reducing fossil fuel imports in favor of
introducing large scale use of domestic energy sources for
public and private transportation. However, this must be
considered within the overall context of green
transportation-which will generate benefits well beyond the
substitution of fossil fuels with domestic energy sources.
The concept of green transportation has emerged in response
to growing concerns about climate change; typically this
refers to a transportation system characterized by low
carbon emissions, i.e., Green House Gasses (GHG). In the
context of Georgia, two other important development issues
in green transportation in addition to GHG emissions are
fossil fuel consumption and air pollution. For the purpose
of this study, therefore, green transportation in Georgia
refers to reducing the intensity of fossil fuel use and
increasing reliance on indigenous energy sources (mainly
hydropower), as well as minimizing adverse impacts on the
global and local environment through reduced emissions of
GHG and local pollutants. Greening transportation will
create 'co-benefits': reducing fossil fuel use
will help improve the balance of trade and energy security;
and employing measures to avoid unnecessary trips and using
fewer vehicles for the same number of trips (i.e....
The aim of this paper is to review the
state of the productive infrastructure of Uruguay and the
development policies that govern it and to propose policy
options for the long term contribution to achieving a higher
level of economic and sustainable development, based on the
premise that there is a link between the development of a
country's infrastructure and its economic growth. The
study analyzes the institutions and pertinent regulations.
The study examines in greater depth the factors related to
infrastructure production that affect the country in a
quantum leap in economic growth. The first study concludes
that while no one can assert that the sectors of
Uruguay's electricity and transportation are
inefficient, there are potential sectoral gains. The policy
options have been framed by strategic pillars for each
sector and can be summarized as follows: Increase the
capacity of transport infrastructure and land ports.
Maximize efficiency in providing service transport.
Strengthen efficient allocation of resources through a
multimodal vision. Improve efficiency and regulation.
Position as a logistics center in Uruguay the MERCOSLJR.
This report is designed to provide
policymakers with estimates of the likely outcomes of an
array of potential changes in transportation sector policy.
To this end, the report uses a variety of economy-wide
models to simulate alternative cost reductions and
efficiency improvements. A detailed discussion of the
various policies that may yield efficiency gains and cost
reductions, as well as the specifics of their
implementation, is beyond the scope of the report. The
report is structured to move from a general description of
Brazil's transportation sector to more specific
analyses and simulations of individual and concerted
changes. The first chapter sets the stage by providing a
summary discussion of Brazil's transportation sector
that includes both an overview of its historical development
and a look at the recent evolution of government policies.
In the second chapter, the fiscal and economic effects of
shifts in public investment between alternative and
competing transportation modes (roads, railroads...
This paper seeks to shed some light on
the extent to which infrastructure sub-sectors - energy,
telecommunications, water supply, sanitation, and transport
- contributed to growth in East Asia during 1985-2004. It
also attempts to provide additional insights on whether the
relationship between infrastructure and growth depends on
five additional variables: the degree of private
participation in infrastructure, the quality of governance,
the extent of rural-urban inequality in access to
infrastructure services, country income levels, as well as
geography. The findings show that greater stocks of
infrastructure were indeed associated with higher growth.
However, a more nuanced look at the sensitivity of
infrastructure impacts on the five additional variables
yields different results, with some sectors supporting
conventional expectations and others yielding mixed or
counter-intuitive results. In particular, the telecom and
sanitation sectors yield statistically significant results
supporting the a priori hypotheses; electricity and water
infrastructure provide mixed results; and road
infrastructure consistently contradicts a priori
expectations. The results are consistent with the
widely-accepted idea in policy research that infrastructure
plays an important role in promoting growth...
The transport sector is an important
economic sector in Belarus, contributing 6.7 percent of
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2008 and 6.6 percent in
2009. Belarus has been a net exporter of practically all
modes of transport services. The country serves as a transit
transport corridor between the European Union (EU) and
Russia and potentially between the EU and Asia; thus, the
strategic geographical location of Belarus places the
country on two of the Pan-European corridors that the EU has
committed to promote. In addition to a high geographical
concentration of international trade, the trade patterns for
specific commodity groups are also concentrated in Belarus.
A relatively small number of industrial producers and main
export companies dominate the market and generate a
corresponding transport demand. The trade logistics
environment in Belarus has been improving in many areas. The
evolution of freight and passenger transport markets shows
that freight traffic movements have grown in line with GDP.
Belarus does have the equivalent of a National Transport
Strategy and Action Plan. The program for ensuring efficient
use of transit potential of the Republic of Belarus for 2006
Esta dissertação tem por objetivo realizar uma análise do da mobilidade urbana da cidade de Campinas - SP sob o ponto de vista de seu processo de urbanização e seu sistema de circulação. Com este fim, será estudado a estrutura atual do sistema de transporte público e como este se relaciona com o processo temporal de crescimento e desenvolvimento urbano. Composto por diversos períodos significativos (que são abordados de maneira distinta entre os estudiosos do assunto), tal processo será objeto de reflexão crítica utilizando como método a análise geográfica de circulação. Pretende-se debater o processo de crescimento e estruturação da área urbana do ponto de vista da Geografia com relação aos sistemas de circulação urbana, de modo a compreender melhor a dinâmica da questão do transporte público na cidade. Para tanto, é necessário compreender como se deu e como se dá a distribuição espacial dos principais eixos de circulação utilizados pela população a partir do transporte público a fim de subsidiar propostas para a melhoria de sua circulação pelo espaço urbano, considerando principalmente as pessoas que mais necessitam deste transporte, e, portanto, de políticas públicas que priorizem esta parcela da população. O objetivo do trabalho...
Current projections show that U.S. international trade is expected to reach nearly two billion tons by 2020, approximately double today's level. With such a large forecasted growth in trade coming through the United States and growing problems associated with highway congestion, air pollution, and national security, building short sea shipping networks will be difficult, but possible, and potentially of great benefit to the nation. By bringing together shipping providers, customers, and with support from the federal government, short sea shipping can become a reality. This paper outlines the need for a change in our maritime transportation system. It takes a look at the current uses of short sea shipping in the United States as well as the system used in Europe. The technology associated with this concept is described and high-speed vessel design is investigated. Issues relating to the integration of short sea shipping are brought to light, including customer requirements, capital financing, and government policy. A computer-based simulation model calculates a total cost analysis for two modes of transporting goods, trucking and short sea shipping. The model is applied to a group of products of different size, weight, and value.; (cont.) The quantitative results of the model show that in most cases...
In the US, automobile use is responsible for 25% of air pollution, resulting in health and respiratory problems, and increasing the likelihood of climate change. In order to limit these negative impacts of automobile use, governmental bodies and transportation agencies employ a number of different strategies including changes in transportation policy, infrastructure, and technology. Marketing and advertising campaigns represent another strategy which is used extensively, but which has not been thoroughly evaluated. This thesis investigates how to develop marketing campaigns that will encourage people to voluntarily switch to alternative modes of transportation such as walking, biking, or using transit. The field of Social Marketing provides valuable insight into how marketing and promotional strategies can be used more generally to encourage the adoption of behavior changes that benefit health, the environment, and the social condition; a model of the Social Marketing process and principles is assembled and used to evaluate three examples of transportation marketing campaigns in the US: San Francisco's "Spare the Air" campaign, the Chicago Transit Authority's New Residents program, and the federal "It All Adds Up to Cleaner Air" campaign. While the specific campaigns vary greatly in terms of the tactics they employ...
Nowadays, many logistics managers confront tradeoffs among keeping costs low, delivering goods on time and reducing carbon footprint. In shipping finished goods from a manufacturing plant in Asia to a distribution center in the eastern United States, how should a logistics manager define and choose his preferred route and modes of transportation, taking into account the potentially conflicting priorities?
This study explored a case of REI, an outdoor apparel brand/retailer, facing such a decision-making question regarding its inbound logistics from the Port of Shanghai to its distribution center in Bedford, Pennsylvania and approached it as a multiple objective problem. 15 possible intermodal freight transportation routes with different attributes in terms of shipping costs, transit time and greenhouse gas emissions were identified and associated data were collected. The preferred route was derived by employing a simple additive model of preferences, using a pricing out method to assess tradeoff weights and computing the overall utility of each alternative.
This framework quantified and visualized how the logistics manager’s choice is affected by his preferences and the tradeoffs he is willing to make, thereby demonstrating its potential as a practical aid for decision-making at the intersection of business and the environment. Accuracy of the model used in this study could be improved by addressing uncertain data and omitted scope. Furthermore...