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Análise do desempenho de um motor diesel de injeção mecânica utilizando combustíveis alternativos; Analysis of a mechanical injection diesel engine using alternative fuels

Zenker, Thais
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
Um dos grandes contribuintes para a poluição do ar atmosférico são os motores de combustão interna. Há uma busca crescente pelo uso de combustíveis alternativos como fontes de energia mais limpa, com o intuito de amenizar os prejuízos causados pelas emissões. Neste contexto, este trabalho tem por objetivo simular parâmetros intrínsecos de motor por compressão utilizando diesel dopado com etanol. Uma comparação entre o desempenho obtido experimentalmente a partir de dois combustíveis diferentes, diesel comercial S500 e uma mistura de diesel com 7% de etanol e 3% de bio-óleo, permite validar o modelo proposto. O modelo utilizado é estabelecido com os princípios do modelo zero-dimensional, no qual os parâmetros de desempenho do motor são função da variação do ângulo de manivela. As informações utilizadas para iniciar os cálculos são as condições de contorno estabelecidas pelo experimento. Os resultados encontrados são satisfatórios considerando as limitações do modelo. As curvas de pressão em função do ângulo de manivelas apresentam boa concordância, sendo o coeficiente de correlação de 0,9 para ambos combustíveis. Os resultados de consumo especifico e eficiência global apresentaram discrepância máxima de 5%. Desta forma...

Glycerol: Production, consumption, prices, characterization and new trends in combustion

Quispe, César A.G.; Coronado, Christian J.R.; Carvalho Jr., João A.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 475-493
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
The demand for petroleum has been rising rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization. This economic development has led to a huge demand for energy, most of which is derived from fossil fuel. However, the limited reserve of fossil fuel has led many researchers to look for alternative fuels which can be produced from renewable feedstock. Increasing fossil fuel prices have prompted the global oil industry to look at biodiesel, which is from renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is produced from animal fats and vegetable oils and has become more attractive because it is more environmentally friendly and is obtained from renewable sources. Glycerol is the main by-product of biodiesel production; about 10% of the weight of biodiesel is generated in glycerol. The large amount of glycerol generated may become an environmental problem, since it cannot be disposed of in the environment. In this paper, an attempt has been made to review the different approaches and techniques used to produce glycerol (hydrolysis, transesterification, refining crude glycerol). The world biodiesel/glycerol production and consumption market, the current world glycerin and glycerol prices as well as the news trends for the use of glycerol mainly in Brazil market are analyzed. The technological production and physicochemical properties of glycerol are described...

Study of non-conventional fuels for explosives mixes

Resende,Salatiel Assis; Silva,Valdir Costa e; Lima,Hernani Mota de
Fonte: Escola de Minas Publicador: Escola de Minas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.44%
The use of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) results in low cost blasting. Such costs may be further reduced by replacing fuel oil with alternative fuels such as biomass (biodiesel, rice straw, corn cob, sugar cane bagasse) and tires residue. This paper investigates the use of other fuels instead of fuel oil by measuring the detonation velocity (VOD) and verifying the importance of these fuels in an explosive mixture. Except for biodiesel, all the tests conducted for the mixture of ammonium nitrate and alternative fuels showed poor performance when compared with ANFO. The achieved percentage of detonation velocity (VOD) of the mixtures in relation to the ANFO were 55.4% for ammonium nitrate + rice straw, 64.9% for ammonium nitrate + corn cob, 70.1% for ammonium nitrate + sugar cane bagasse, 74.4% for ammonium nitrate + tires residue and 93.7% for ammonium nitrate + biodiesel. This study indicates that the methodology proposed can be applied as a reference for determination and preparation of explosive mixtures of fuel and oxidizing agents since in all the tests conducted the detonation of the charges occurred.

Alternative fuels mixture in cement industry kilns employing Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm

Carpio,Ricardo C.; Sousa Júnior,Francisco de; Coelho,Leandro dos Santos; Silva,Rogério José da
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia e Ciências Mecânicas - ABCM Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia e Ciências Mecânicas - ABCM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
Most of the works accomplished in the optimization area in the cement industry are addressed to solve problems just considering only one variable, forgetting that it includes too many variables and they act at the same time. Among the main variables it can be mentioned the quality of the final product, the environmental ones, the costs along the process and the reduction of the fossil fuels (primary) employed through the use of alternative fuels (secondary), among others. The present work intends to build a mathematical model using optimization tools seeking to improve the cement production process foreseeing what can happen with the clinker and the emissions when the industrial residues co-processing technology is used as alternative or secondary fuel. In the optimization process a new approach called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is employed, which is based on the Cauchy and Gauss distribution considering several process restrictions such as the specific fuel consumption, the cement quality and the environmental impact. The results obtained with PSO were precise and promising and they were compared with the classical Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP). It was also possible to evaluate the levels of primary fuels substitution through the alternative or secondary ones.

Use of Jatropha oil methyl ester and its blends as an alternative fuel in diesel engine

Rao,Y. V. Hanumantha; Voleti,Ram Sudheer; Hariharan,V. S.; Sitarama Raju,A. V.; Redd,P. Nageswara
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia e Ciências Mecânicas - ABCM Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia e Ciências Mecânicas - ABCM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
Biomass derived vegetable oils are quite promising alternative fuels for agricultural diesel engines. Use of vegetable oils in diesel engines leads to slightly inferior performance and higher smoke emissions due to their high viscosity. The performance of vegetable oils can be improved by modifying them through the transesterification process. In the present work, the performance of single cylinder water-cooled diesel engine using methyl-ester of Jatropha oil as fuel was evaluated for its performance and exhaust emissions. The fuel properties of biodiesel such as kinematic viscosity, calorific value, flash point, carbon residue and specific gravity were found. Results indicated that B25 has closer performance to diesel and B100 has lower brake thermal efficiency, mainly due to its high viscosity compared to diesel. The brake thermal efficiency for biodiesel and its blends was found to be slightly higher than that of diesel fuel at tested load conditions and there was no difference between the biodiesel and its blended fuels efficiencies. For Jatropha biodiesel and its blended fuels, the exhaust gas temperature increased with increase in power and amount of biodiesel. But, diesel blends showed reasonable efficiency, lower smoke, CO2...

Neonatal hypoglycaemia in Nepal 2. Availability of alternative fuels

Costello, A.; Pal, D.; Manandhar, D.; Rajbhandari, S.; Land, J.; Patel, N.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
AIMS—To study early neonatal metabolic adaptation in a hospital population of neonates in Nepal.
METHODS—A cross sectional study was made of 578 neonates, 0 to 48 hours after birth, in the main maternity hospital in Kathmandu. The following clinical and nutritional variables were assessed: concentrations and age profiles of blood glucose, hydroxybutyrate, lactate, pyruvate, free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol; associations between alternative fuel levels and hypoglycaemia; and regression of possible risk factors for ketone availability.
RESULTS—Risk factors for impaired metabolic adaptation were common, especially low birthweight (32%), feeding delays, and cold stress. Blood glucose and ketones rose with age, but important age effects were also found for risk factors like hypothermia, thyroid hormone activities, and feeding practices. Alternative fuel concentrations, except FFA, were significantly reduced in infants with moderate hypoglycaemia during the first 48 hours after birth. Unlike earlier studies, small for gestational age (SGA) infants had significantly higher hydroxybutyrate:glucose ratios which suggested counter regulatory ketogenesis. Hypoglycaemic infants were not hyperinsulinaemic. Regression analysis showed risk factors for impaired counter regulation which included male and large infants...

Identifying Challenges for Sustained Adoption of Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Infrastructure

Struben, Jeroen J.R.,
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
This paper develops a dynamic, behavioral model with an explicit spatial structure to explore the co-evolutionary dynamics between infrastructure supply and vehicle demand. Vehicles and fueling infrastructure are complementarities and their chicken-egg dynamics are fundamental to the emergence of a self-sustaining alternative fuel vehicle market, but they are not well understood. The paper explores in-depth the dynamics resulting from local demand-supply interactions with strategically locating fuel-station entrants. The dynamics of vehicle and fuel infrastructure are examined under heterogeneous socio-economic/demographic conditions. The research reveals the formation of urban adoption clusters as an important mechanism for early market formation. However, while locally speeding diffusion, these same micro-mechanisms can obstruct the emergence of a large, self-sustaining market. Other feedbacks that significantly influence dynamics, such as endogenous topping-off behavior, are discussed. This model can be applied to develop targeted entrance strategies for alternative fuels in transportation. The roles of other powerful positive feedbacks arising from scale and scope economies, R&D, learning by doing, driver experience, and word of mouth are discussed.

Análise físico-química e ecotoxicológica de combustíveis obtidos a partir do craqueamento termo-catalítico de polímeros; Physico-chemical and ecotoxicological fuel obtained from the thermo-catalytic cracking of polymers

TAVARES, Maria Gizelda de Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Ciencias Ambientais; Ciências Agrárias Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Ciencias Ambientais; Ciências Agrárias
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
The present paper describes the theoretical reference for the study of the polymeric thermal catalytic cracking. A review on these type of materials it was accomplished, beginning for an introduction on new sources of alternative energy. Recycling plastics used as alternative sources fuels was evaluated under the environmental and point of view physical -chemical..The studies permitted validate the developed methodology in the research.. Ecotoxicology was used as a fundamental tool to evaluate the toxicity levels of alternative fuels sources, and the obtained levels was compared to the thoroughly used fuels, such as diesel and gasoline. And the Histology studies generated in the ecotoxicology analyses, was used as a supporting tool to obtain the conclusions.; Essa pesquisa descreve o referencial teórico para o estudo do craqueamento termocatalítico de polímeros. Uma revisão desse tipo de material foi realizada começando com uma introdução sobre novas fontes de energias alternativas. A reciclagem dos plásticos usados como fonte alternativa de combustíveis, foi avaliada sob o ponto de vista ambiental e físico químico. O estudo permitiu validar a metodologia desenvolvida na pesquisa. A Ecotoxicologia foi usada como importante ferramenta para avaliar e comparar os níveis de toxicidade dos novos combustíveis obtidos na pesquisa...

Formulating an Urban Transport Policy : Choosing between Options

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
As the developing world rapidly urbanizes, the demands on transport systems also grow often at a faster pace than the population. Given the above tendency, an effective and coordinated approach to urban transport requires that sound policies be put into place. Such policies enunciate the direction that a government wants to take; they lay the basic framework for downstream planning as well as project identification and prioritization. This document policy lays out the guiding principles for more detailed downstream planning. The objective of this guideline is to improve mobility, environmental quality, universal access, safety, and energy security of any urban transport policy. This guidebook is intended to be a practical support for formulating urban transport policies at the national, provincial, and local levels. To this end, it highlights some of the important issues that arise when creating an urban transport policy. The report is organized as follows: section one gives introduction. Section two presents a framework of possible actions...

PROCEEDINGS of the International Conference on Transport and Environment: A Global Challenge Technological and Policy Solutions, Milan, Italy, 19-21 March 2007. SESSION B: Alternative Fuels and Technologies for a Cleaner Environment

Fonte: Centro Comum de Pesquisa da Comissão Européia Publicador: Centro Comum de Pesquisa da Comissão Européia
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
This session on alternative fuels and vehicles, including technical but also non-technical aspects of their promotion (local initiative, public awareness) offered an instructive and broad picture, regarding the possibilities of more sustainable alternative fuels/powertain introduction. The sub-session dedicated to hydrogen demonstrated and recorded how the commission already committed themselves for research programmes funding, but also how strong are the barriers to overpass, before large hydrogen public applications in transport. Regarding alternative fuels, the most discussed pathways have been presented: methane and bio-methane, synthetic fuels from biomass (BTL), from natural gas (GTL) or coal (CTL), biodiesels, bio-ethanols. All these fuels have been assessed on their current availability and potential for future developments, also on a well-to-wheels basis, including detailed accounting of the GHG emitted during the fuels manufacturing, and not only during the final use in the vehicle. Connected to this last point, an important challenge emerged during all the sessions: the problematic of alternative fuels certification. To end, the session on the technologies offered interesting developments regarding the flexfuel vehicles experience in Brazil...

On-Road Emissions of Conventional and Hybrid Vehicles Running on Neat or Fossil Fuel Blended Alternative Fuels

MARTINI Giorgio; BONNEL Pierre; MANFREDI Urbano; KRASENBRINK Alois; CARRIERO Massimo; RUBINO Lauretta; FRANKEN Oliver; BONIFACIO Mario; BEGHELLA BARTOLI Giorgio
Fonte: SAE International Publicador: SAE International
Tipo: Contributions to Conferences Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
Fuel consumption is already one of the parameters taken into account for the final ranking of some competitions organized by the Federation International de l¿Automobile (FIA). Pollutant emissions, such as CO, HC and NOx, could also be taken into consideration in the next future. In occasion of a competition organized by the FIA in the framework of the ¿Alternative Energies Cup¿ championship several vehicles were equipped for demonstration purpose with portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) in order to measure the gaseous emission during the competition. The competition took place at the Autodromo Nazionale of Monza on the same track used for the Formula 1 Grand Prix as well. For this competition the track was divided into three sections simulating respectively the driving conditions on urban roads, on extra-urban roads and on motorways. To be admitted to the competition the vehicles had to use either neat alternative fuels or fossil fuels containing at least 50% of alternative fuels like biofuels. Of the nine vehicles monitored during the competition, four were hybrid vehicles using different fuels (gasoline/ethanol, LPG, biodiesel), three vehicles were running on natural gas, one running on LPG and one on biodiesel. The results of the emission measurements are presented and discussed in this paper.; JRC.DDG.H.4-Transport and air quality

On-Road Emissions of Conventional and Hybrid Vehicles Running on Neat or Fossil Fuel Blended Alternative Fuels

MARTINI Giorgio; BONNEL Pierre; MANFREDI Urbano; CARRIERO Massimo; KRASENBRINK Alois; RUBINO Lauretta; FRANKEN Oliver; BONIFACIO Mario; BEGHELLA BARTOLI Giorgio
Fonte: SAE International Publicador: SAE International
Tipo: Articles in books Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
Fuel consumption is already one of the parameters taken into account for the final ranking of some competitions organized by the Federation International de l¿Automobile (FIA). Pollutant emissions, such as CO, HC and NOx, could also be taken into consideration in the near future. In occasion of a competition organized by the FIA in the framework of the ¿Alternative Energies Cup¿ championship, several vehicles were equipped for demonstration and scientific purpose with portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) in order to measure the gaseous emissions during the competition. The competition took place at the Autodromo Nazionale of Monza on the same track used for the Formula 1 Grand Prix as well. For this competition the track was divided into three sections simulating respectively the typical speeds and driving patterns on urban roads, on extra-urban roads and on motorways. To be admitted to the competition the vehicles had to use either neat alternative fuels or fossil fuels containing at least 50% of alternative fuels like biofuels. Of the nine vehicles monitored during the competition, four were hybrid vehicles using different fuels (gasoline/ethanol, Compressed Natural Gas-CNG, Liquified Petroleum Gas - LPG, biodiesel), three vehicles were running on natural gas...

Proceedings of the Integration Workshop on Alternative Fuels in the EU Energy System. Petten (NL), 22-23 November 2004

Fonte: EC-JRC-IE Publicador: EC-JRC-IE
Tipo: Books Formato: CD-ROM
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
The proceedings include the presentations of the participants, the agenda, the Alternative Fuels Contact Group report, the JRC techno-economic assessment report on the introduction of alternative fuels in the EU transport sector and a summary of the workshop. THe summary highlights the difficulties experienced by the new Member States and Candidate Countries in introducing alternative fuels in their energy systems. In addition to biofuels, the potential of the use of natural gas and other alternative fuels in the transport sector is also discussed.; JRC.F.2-Cleaner energies

Green energy for the battlefield

Halcrow, Stephanie D.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xviii, 75 p. : ills., maps ; 28 cm.
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
MBA Professional Report; The amount of energy the United States (U.S.) consumes increases every year and this growth in energy consumption outpaces energy production. To fill this gap, the U.S. imports 35 percent of its energy. More importantly, the U.S. imports over 60 percent of its total oil consumption. Our country's energy production, especially our transportation sector, is highly dependent on foreign sources. Add to this, 70 percent of this energy is from non-renewable sources and this same 70 percent is petroleum-based, which produces greenhouse gas emissions. Renewable energy sources and alternative fuels have proven to be energy efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly. Additionally, they reduce the country's dependence on foreign sources. The military is adopting many types of renewable energy sources and alternative fuels for use and the results are impressive. However, the majority of implementation is here in the United States. These same benefits experienced at home are available for the battlefield: improved energy efficiency, cost savings and less impact on the environment. This paper discusses the available green energy sources and their potential use for the battlefield. Additionally, it offers several ways to further the use and maximize the benefits of green energy on the battlefield.

Baseline and Feasibility Assessment for Alternative Cooking Fuels in Senegal

Practical Action Consulting; Enda; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.7%
This report was prepared by Practical Action Consulting for the Africa Clean Cooking Energy Solutions (ACCES) initiative of the World Bank. Most of Sub-Saharan Africa continues to rely overwhelmingly on traditional fuels and cooking technologies, both of which are a major cause of death and illness as well as a range of socio-economic and environmental problems. More than 90 per cent of the rural population of Senegal relies on solid fuels (charcoal and firewood in particular, but also dung and agricultural residues) to meet its household cooking needs. The primary objective of this study is, (a) to establish a baseline for the current level of penetration of four alternative cooking fuels in Senegal in a number of pre-identified regions, and (b) to assess the feasibility of adopting them in those regions. The four fuels are briquettes from charcoal dust and agricultural residues; ethanol, mainly from sugar cane residue (that is, molasses); pure plant oil (PPO) from locally grown, oil-bearing plants such as Jatropha curcas; and a household biogas system using mainly livestock waste. Against this background...

Garbage to Gasoline: Converting Municipal Solid Waste to Liquid Fuels

Frantz, Christopher; Farver, Maura
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 25/04/2013 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
Liquid fuels are in high demand throughout the United States and crude oil is a finite resource. With strain on conventional sources for liquid fuels, the unconventional sources and new technologies to create liquid fuels are becoming more attractive as alternative options. One such conversion technology uses municipal solid waste (MSW) as the feedstock, offering the additional benefit of relief on another constrained resource: landfills. This paper provides an overview of the principal technologies that are being used to convert MSW to salable products and delves deeply into the potential for facilities that gasify MSW and convert the synthetic gas (syngas) to ethanol, diesel, or gasoline. The analysis also includes a financial model that assesses the financial viability of such a project under many different conditions, including financing choices (debt to equity ratio, project location, and interest rates). The results of the financial model indicate that sorting costs, tipping fees, and fuel prices have the largest effect on the financial viability of the project. In order to make an adequate internal rate of return, fuel prices need to be high and the project needs to be located in a region with high tipping fees. Other factors not accounted for in the model can also significantly impact the viability of this technology...

Garbage to Gasoline: Converting Municipal Solid Waste to Liquid Fuels

Farver, Maura; Frantz, Christopher
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 25/04/2013 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
Liquid fuels are in high demand throughout the United States and crude oil is a finite resource. With strain on conventional sources for liquid fuels, the unconventional sources and new technologies to create liquid fuels are becoming more attractive as alternative options. One such conversion technology uses municipal solid waste (MSW) as the feedstock, offering the additional benefit of relief on another constrained resource: landfills. This paper provides an overview of the principal technologies that are being used to convert MSW to salable products and delves deeply into the potential for facilities that gasify MSW and convert the synthetic gas (syngas) to ethanol, diesel, or gasoline. The analysis also includes a financial model that assesses the financial viability of such a project under many different conditions, including financing choices (debt to equity ratio, project location, and interest rates). The results of the financial model indicate that sorting costs, tipping fees, and fuel prices have the largest effect on the financial viability of the project. In order to make an adequate internal rate of return, fuel prices need to be high and the project needs to be located in a region with high tipping fees. Other factors not accounted for in the model can also significantly impact the viability of this technology...

Toxic emissions from mobile sources: A Total fuel-cycle analysis for conventional and alternative fuel vehicles

Winebrake, James; Wang, Michael; He, Dongquan
Fonte: Air & Waste Management Association Publicador: Air & Waste Management Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
Mobile sources are among the largest contributors of four hazardous air pollutants—benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde—in urban areas. At the same time, federal and state governments are promoting the use of alternative fuel vehicles as a means to curb local air pollution. As yet, the impact of this movement toward alternative fuels with respect to toxic emissions has not been well studied. The purpose of this paper is to compare toxic emissions from vehicles operating on a variety of fuels, including reformulated gasoline (RFG), natural gas, ethanol, methanol, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and electricity. This study uses a version of Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model, appropriately modified to estimate toxic emissions. The GREET model conducts a total fuel-cycle analysis that calculates emissions from both downstream (e.g., operation of the vehicle) and upstream (e.g., fuel production and distribution) stages of the fuel cycle. We find that almost all of the fuels studied reduce 1,3-butadiene emissions compared with conventional gasoline (CG). However, the use of ethanol in E85 (fuel made with 85% ethanol) or RFG leads to increased acetaldehyde emissions...

Emissions tradeoffs among alternative marine fuels: Total fuel cycle analysis of residual oil, marine gas oil, and marine diesel oil

Corbett, James; Winebrake, James
Fonte: Air & Waste Management Association Publicador: Air & Waste Management Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.44%
Worldwide concerns about sulfur oxide (SOx) emissions from ships are motivating the replacement of marine residual oil (RO) with cleaner, lower-sulfur fuels, such as marine gas oil (MGO) and marine diesel oil (MDO). Vessel operators can use MGO and MDO directly or blended with RO to achieve environmental and economic objectives. Although expected to be much cleaner in terms of criteria pollutants, these fuels require additional energy in the upstream stages of the fuel cycle (i.e., fuel processing and refining), and thus raise questions about the net impacts on greenhouse gas emissions (primarily carbon dioxide [CO2]) because of production and use. This paper applies the Total Energy and Environmental Analysis for Marine Systems (TEAMS) model to conduct a total fuel cycle analysis of RO, MGO, MDO, and associated blends for a typical container ship. MGO and MDO blends achieve significant (70–85%) SOx emissions reductions compared with RO across a range of fuel quality and refining efficiency assumptions. We estimate CO2 increases of less than 1% using best estimates of fuel quality and refinery efficiency parameters and demonstrate how these results vary based on parameter assumptions. Our analysis suggests that product refining efficiency influences the CO2 tradeoff more than differences in the physical and energy parameters of the alternative fuels...

PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS OF A HEAVY DUTY DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM OIL BIODIESEL AND PREMIUM DIESEL

ACEVEDO,HELMER; MANTILLA,JUAN
Fonte: DYNA Publicador: DYNA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
Biodiesels are promoted as alternative fuels due their potential to reduce dependency on fossil fuels and carbon emissions. Research has been addressed in order to study the emissions of light duty vehicles. However, the particle matter and gaseous emissions emitted from heavy-duty diesel engines fueled with palm-biodiesel and premium diesel fuel have seldom been addressed. The objective of this study was to explore the performance and emission levels of a Cummins 4-stroke, 9.5 liter, 6-cylinder diesel engine with common rail fuel injection, and a cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The palm-biodiesel lowered maximum engine output by much as 10 %. The engine emissions data is compared to standards from 2004, and is determined to pass all standards for diesel fuel, but does not meet emissions standards for PM or NOx for palm-biodiesel