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Um estudo sobre a evolução das câmaras de combustão dos motores do ciclo Otto à gasolina e sua aplicação ao etanol hidratado como combustível alternativo; A study about combustion chambers evolution of gasoline Otto cycle internal combustion engine and its application to ethanol as an alternative fuel

Souza, Sandro Guimarães
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/07/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Apresenta o estado da arte das câmaras de combustão dos motores de combustão interna ciclo Otto à gasolina e a etanol, onde observa de forma qualitativa aspectos evolutivos e específicos ao uso do etanol como combustível alternativo. Propõe sugestões para trabalhos futuros, visando a otimização de uma câmara mais apropriada ao uso deste importante combustível renovável.; It presents the state of the art of combustion chambers of gasoline and ethanol Otto cycle internal combustion engines, where it observes qualitatively evolutive and specific aspects to the use of the ethanol as an alternative fuel. It proposes suggestions for future works, seeking the optimization of a more appropriate combustion chamber for the use of that important renewable fuel.

Simultaneous determination of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium in fuel ethanol by anodic stripping voltammetry using a glassy carbon-mercury-film electrode

de Oliveira, M. F.; Saczk, A. A.; Okumura, L. L.; Fernandes, A. P.; de Moraes, M.; Stradiotto, N. R.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 135-140
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
A new, versatile, and simple method for quantitative analysis of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium in fuel ethanol by anodic stripping voltammetry is described. These metals can be quantified by direct dissolution of fuel ethanol in water and subsequent voltammetric measurement after the accumulation step. A maximum limit of 20% (v/v) ethanol in water solution was obtained for voltammetric measurements without loss of sensitivity for metal species. Chemical and operational optimum conditions were analyzed in this study; the values obtained were pH 2.9, a 4.7-mum thickness mercury film, a 1,000-rpm rotation frequency of the working electrode, and a 600-s pre-concentration time. Voltammetric measurements were obtained using linear scan (LSV), differential pulse (DPV), and square wave (SWV) modes and detection limits were in the range 10(-9)-10(-8) mol L-1 for these metal species. The proposed method was compared with a traditional analytical technique, flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), for quantification of these metal species in commercial fuel ethanol samples.

O gas natural e a matriz de insumo produto; Natural gas and the imput-otput matrix

Marcelo Luis
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/07/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.05%
O principal objetivo deste trabalho é a avaliação das perspectivas de uso do gás natural (GN) como combustível alternativo para o mercado nacional, e, dentro das possibilidades, sintetizar as principais estimativas de seu crescimento utilizando a matriz de insumo-produto. O gás natural desempenha papel interessante em diversas matrizes energéticas mundiais e pode-se dizer que o mesmo ocorre no Brasil, onde os problemas relacionados ao racionamento de energia elétrica, levaram à opção pelo produto que, entre outras características, apresenta custo viável e baixos índices de poluição atmosférica, principalmente emissão de monóxido de carbono (CO), um dos elementos de destaque na discussão de questões ambientais; The main objective of this work is the assessment of the perspectives of the natural gas (NG) as an alternative fuel to the national market, and according to the possibilities synthesize the estimates of his growth. Nowadays the natural gas is an important piece in several energetic matrices around the world and is possible to say that the same happens in Brazil, where the problems related to the electricity supply suggests the option for the product that presents viable cost and low indexes of atmospheric pollution...

Identifying Challenges for Sustained Adoption of Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Infrastructure

Struben, Jeroen J.R.,
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.29%
This paper develops a dynamic, behavioral model with an explicit spatial structure to explore the co-evolutionary dynamics between infrastructure supply and vehicle demand. Vehicles and fueling infrastructure are complementarities and their chicken-egg dynamics are fundamental to the emergence of a self-sustaining alternative fuel vehicle market, but they are not well understood. The paper explores in-depth the dynamics resulting from local demand-supply interactions with strategically locating fuel-station entrants. The dynamics of vehicle and fuel infrastructure are examined under heterogeneous socio-economic/demographic conditions. The research reveals the formation of urban adoption clusters as an important mechanism for early market formation. However, while locally speeding diffusion, these same micro-mechanisms can obstruct the emergence of a large, self-sustaining market. Other feedbacks that significantly influence dynamics, such as endogenous topping-off behavior, are discussed. This model can be applied to develop targeted entrance strategies for alternative fuels in transportation. The roles of other powerful positive feedbacks arising from scale and scope economies, R&D, learning by doing, driver experience, and word of mouth are discussed.

Managing the transition toward self-sustaining alternative fuel vehicle markets : policy analysis using a dynamic behavioral spatial model

Supple, Derek R. (Derek Richard)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 97 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Designing public policy or industry strategy to bolster the transition to alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) is a formidable challenge as demonstrated by historical failed attempts. The transition to new fuels occurs within a dynamically complex system with many distributed actors, long time delays, several important feedback relationships, and multiple tipping points. A broad-boundary, behavioral, dynamic model with explicit spatial structure was previously developed to represent the most important AFV transition barriers. Using California as an illustrative testing region, the model simulates the spatial diffusion of entrant vehicle/fuel technology pairs individually or in competition with other entrants. In this work, the integrated model is carefully parameterized for various specific alternative vehicle technologies. Structural and parametric sensitivity analyses are used to build understanding of system behavior and to identify policy leverage points or the need for further model calibration.; (cont.) The qualitative impacts of policies are tested individually and then in multi-policy combinations to find synergies. Under plausible assumptions and strong policies, AFVs can achieve successful diffusion but this process requires long time periods. Findings indicate some commonly suggested policies may provide little leverage and be very costly. The analysis reveals the importance of designing policy cognizant of the system structure underlying its dynamic behavior. Several examples demonstrate how policy leverage varies with context such as key attributes of the alternative vehicle technology. Broadly...

Caribbean Regional Electricity Supply Options : Toward Greater Security, Renewables and Resilience

Gerner, Franz; Hansen, Megan
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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36.42%
The Caribbean region continues to be plagued by high and volatile fuel prices, with limited economies of scale or diversity in electricity supply. Although several studies have examined alternative resource options for the region, they often only consider solutions for individual countries in isolation. When one looks at the Caribbean, however, it is apparent that the short distances between islands and market sizes present opportunities to benefit from regional solutions. Indeed, increasing interconnection in the Caribbean could pave the way for greater energy security, a larger use of renewable and enhanced climate resilience. The idea of regional interconnections is not new: gas pipelines are widely used to interconnect gas supply with gas demand, and electricity market interconnections have become the norm around the world. However, this option does not appear to have received the attention it merits in the specific context of the Caribbean. While this study analyzes a small subset of the imaginable regional energy options for the Caribbean...

Fiscal Policy Instruments for Reducing Congestion and Atmospheric Emissions in the Transport Sector : A Review

Timilsina, Govinda R.; Dulal, Hari B.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
This paper reviews the literature on the fiscal policy instruments commonly used to reduce transport sector externalities. The findings show that congestion charges would reduce vehicle traffic by 9 to 12 percent and significantly improve environmental quality. The vehicle tax literature suggests that every 1 percent increase in vehicle taxes would reduce vehicle miles by 0.22 to 0.45 percent and CO2 emissions by 0.19 percent. The fuel tax is the most common fiscal policy instrument; however its primary objective is to raise government revenues rather than to reduce emissions and traffic congestion. Although subsidizing public transportation is a common practice, reducing emissions has not been the primary objective of such subsidies. Nevertheless, it is shown that transport sector emissions would be higher in the absence of both public transportation subsidies and fuel taxation. Subsidies are also the main policy tool for the promotion of clean fuels and vehicles. Although some studies are very critical of biofuel subsidies...

Mongolia : Heating Stove Market Trends in Poor, Peri-Urban Ger Areas of Ulaanbaatar and Selected Markets Outside Ulaanbaatar

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.41%
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia is the coldest capital of the world and remains one of its most polluted. Coal and wood burning for heating are essential for survival but contribute about 60 percent of the fine particulate (PM2.5) concentrations in the city. These levels of exposure are very harmful to health and exceed World Health Organization (WHO) standards many-fold. The heating appliances causing the pollution are both traditional stoves that have been used for generations and, increasingly, coal fired stove furnaces used by wealthier households. The overwhelming majority of households in the ger areas (informal settlements surrounding the city), however, are poor, and the population continues to grow as job prospects in Ulaanbaatar attract more migrants. The World Bank estimates that a reduction of 80 percent of emissions from ger area heating could achieve a 48 percent reduction in population weighted exposure to PM2.5. To achieve this, poor households need to be convinced to permanently switch to less polluting heating solutions...

Household Cooking Fuel Choice and Adoption of Improved Cookstoves in Developing Countries : A Review

Malla, Sunil; Timilsina, Govinda R
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.45%
Improving access to affordable and reliable energy services for cooking is essential for developing countries in reducing adverse human health and environmental impacts hitherto caused by burning of traditional biomass. This paper reviews empirical studies that analyze choices of fuel and adoption of improved stoves for cooking in countries where biomass is still the predominant cooking fuel. The review highlights the wide range of factors that influence households cooking fuel choices and adoption of improved stoves, including socioeconomic (access and availability, collection costs and fuel prices, household income, education and awareness), behavioral (food tastes, lifestyle), and cultural and external factors (indoor air pollution, government policies). The paper also summarizes the evidence on the significant adverse health impacts from exposure to indoor smoke, especially among women and young children. In low-income households, perceived health benefits of adopting improved stoves and financial benefits from fuel savings tend to be outweighed by the costs of improved stoves...

A study of alternative fuel impacts to navy fueling infrastructure

Armstrong, Lincoln; Kelly, Mary; Nester, Amie; Schindler, Theodore; Young, Michael; Colon, John; King, Joseph; Parr, Jennifer; Small, Kenneth; Finch, Chad; McCreary, James; Rodecap, Nathan; Sunshine, Nicholus
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Energy reform in the United States Department of the Navy is currently a leading priority. Supporting reform efforts, the Honorable Ray Mabus, Secretary of the Navy, set a goal to sail a "Green Strike Group" composed of ships powered by alternative fuels by 2016. This report details considerations for implementing an alternative fuel for the Green Strike Group. This is accomplished by developing the requirements for an alternative fuel, analyzing several potential candidates, and recommending a preferred alternative (Fischer-Tropsch S-5). Additionally, this report describes the existing infrastructure supporting fuel distribution to Navy ships and explores options for changes necessary to support the selected alternative fuel. A notional mission profile is depicted, showing the Green Strike Group's progress from Norfolk, Virginia to the Arabian Sea and back again over the course of a 180-day deployment. A deterministic fuel estimation model and the succeeding, higher fidelity stochastic model are described, leading to the prediction of alternative fuel amount requirements and necessary geographic placement. Finally, this report concludes with the assertion that while sailing the Green Strike Group is technologically possible...

A cost estimation of biofuels for Naval Aviation: budgeting for the great green fleet

Callahan, Michael D.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xvi, 61 p. ; 28 cm.
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46.14%
This thesis estimates the cost of biofuel to meet the the Navy's (DON) stated energy objectives, i.e., sailing the Great Green Fleet in 2016 and transitioning to 50 percent alternative fuel by 2020. The first estimate is for the additional cost to operate the Carrier Air Wing (CVW) component of the Great Green Fleet in 2016. A premium to the cost of JP-5 is estimated. A second estimate is made for a CVW operating a six-month deployment with 50 percent biofuel in 2020. A premium was estimated and a sensitivity analysis was conducted to project the required reduction in costs for biofuel from 2012 estimates to reach parity pricing with petroleum fuel by 2020.; US Navy (USN) author

Baseline and Feasibility Assessment for Alternative Cooking Fuels in Senegal

Practical Action Consulting; Enda; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.56%
This report was prepared by Practical Action Consulting for the Africa Clean Cooking Energy Solutions (ACCES) initiative of the World Bank. Most of Sub-Saharan Africa continues to rely overwhelmingly on traditional fuels and cooking technologies, both of which are a major cause of death and illness as well as a range of socio-economic and environmental problems. More than 90 per cent of the rural population of Senegal relies on solid fuels (charcoal and firewood in particular, but also dung and agricultural residues) to meet its household cooking needs. The primary objective of this study is, (a) to establish a baseline for the current level of penetration of four alternative cooking fuels in Senegal in a number of pre-identified regions, and (b) to assess the feasibility of adopting them in those regions. The four fuels are briquettes from charcoal dust and agricultural residues; ethanol, mainly from sugar cane residue (that is, molasses); pure plant oil (PPO) from locally grown, oil-bearing plants such as Jatropha curcas; and a household biogas system using mainly livestock waste. Against this background...

An Economic Model of Brazil's Ethanol-Sugar Markets and Impacts of Fuel Policies

de Gorter, Harry; Drabik, Dusan; Kliauga, Erika M.; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
The lack of growth in the Brazilian sugarcane-ethanol complex since the 2008 financial crisis has been blamed on policies: lower mandate, holding gasoline prices below world levels, high fuel taxes, and inadequate fuel tax exemptions for ethanol. This paper develops an empirical model of the Brazilian fuel-ethanol-sugar complex to analyze the impacts of these policies. Unlike biofuel mandates and tax exemptions elsewhere, Brazil's fuel-ethanol-sugar markets and fuel policies are unique such that each policy, in theory, has an ambiguous impact on the market price of ethanol and hence on sugarcane and sugar prices. The results indicate two policies that seemingly help the ethanol industry do otherwise in reality: low gasoline taxes and high anhydrous tax exemptions lower ethanol prices. But higher mandates, hydrous ethanol tax exemptions, and gasoline prices had the expected impact of increasing ethanol and sugar prices. Eliminating Brazilian ethanol tax exemptions and mandates reduces ethanol prices by 21 percent. Observed changes in prices are explained by outward shifts in fuel transportation and sugar export demand curves...

Business Plan for Sustainable Ethanol Cooking Fuel in Developing World

Zhou, Kerui; Shi, Wenjing
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 24/04/2014 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
Ethanol cooking fuel has great promise in developing countries, especially in South Asia and Africa, because it can yield significant economic, environmental and health benefits. This business plan aims to find a clean and ideal solution to promote ethanol cooking fuel and stoves cost-effectively for a representative developing country—Kenya. This plan compares the biological features of a couple of potential feedstock of ethanol and chooses sweet sorghum because of its great adaptability to semi-arid climate and short harvesting cycle. Next, by assessing the technical and economical feasibility of a local small-scale ethanol plant and bringing forward integrated solutions throughout the entire supply chain from the feedstock production to the retail of ethanol fuel products, this business plan indicates that ethanol cooking fuel and stoves can substitute prevalent fuel-wood and three-stone fire cost-effectively. The local production of ethanol can yield income benefits to local farmers by purchasing local feedstock, healthy benefits to local residents, especially women and children, and job-creating benefits to local communities by involving retailers, delivers and farmers into this business. Besides, if the investor further takes carbon credit generated from ethanol plant...

Comparing lifetime emissions of natural gas and conventional fuel vehicles: An Application of the generalized ANCOVA model

Deaton, Michael; Winebrake, James
Fonte: Air & Waste Management Association Publicador: Air & Waste Management Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.29%
New regulations and incentives are encouraging the use of clean, alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in urban areas. These vehicles are seen as one option for reducing air pollution from mobile sources. However, because of the limited number of AFVs on the road, little is known about actual lifetime emissions characteristics of in-use AFVs. This study describes the use of a generalized analysis of covariance model to evaluate and compare the emissions from natural gas vehicles with emissions from reformulated gasoline vehicles. The model describes fleet-wide emissions deterioration, while also accounting for individual vehicle variability within the fleet. This ability to measure individual vehicle variability can then be used to provide realistic bounds for the emissions deterioration in individual vehicles and the fleet as a whole. In order to illustrate the use of the model, the carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), and carbon dioxide emissions characteristics of a fleet of dedicated natural gas Dodge Ram vans and a fleet of dedicated reformulated gasoline Dodge Ram vans operating in the U.S. government fleet are explored. The analysis demonstrates the utility of the statistical method and suggests a potential for natural gas Dodge Ram vans to be generally cleaner than their conventional fuel counterparts. However...

Toxic emissions from mobile sources: A Total fuel-cycle analysis for conventional and alternative fuel vehicles

Winebrake, James; Wang, Michael; He, Dongquan
Fonte: Air & Waste Management Association Publicador: Air & Waste Management Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
Mobile sources are among the largest contributors of four hazardous air pollutants—benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde—in urban areas. At the same time, federal and state governments are promoting the use of alternative fuel vehicles as a means to curb local air pollution. As yet, the impact of this movement toward alternative fuels with respect to toxic emissions has not been well studied. The purpose of this paper is to compare toxic emissions from vehicles operating on a variety of fuels, including reformulated gasoline (RFG), natural gas, ethanol, methanol, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and electricity. This study uses a version of Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model, appropriately modified to estimate toxic emissions. The GREET model conducts a total fuel-cycle analysis that calculates emissions from both downstream (e.g., operation of the vehicle) and upstream (e.g., fuel production and distribution) stages of the fuel cycle. We find that almost all of the fuels studied reduce 1,3-butadiene emissions compared with conventional gasoline (CG). However, the use of ethanol in E85 (fuel made with 85% ethanol) or RFG leads to increased acetaldehyde emissions...

Hazardous air pollution from mobile sources: A comparison of alternative fuel and reformulated gasoline vehicles

Winebrake, James; Deaton, Michael
Fonte: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association Publicador: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
Although there have been several studies examining emissions of criteria pollutants from in-use alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), little is known about emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from these vehicles. This paper explores HAP tailpipe emissions from a variety of AFVs operating in the federal government fleet and compares these emissions to emissions from identical vehicles operating on reformulated gasoline. Emissions estimates are presented for a variety of fuel/model combinations and on four HAPs (acetaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and formaldehyde). The results indicate that all AFVs tested offer reduced emissions of HAPs, with the following exceptions: ethanol fueled vehicles emit more acetaldehyde than RFG vehicles, and ethanol- and methanol-fueled vehicles emit more formaldehyde than RFG vehicles. The results from this paper can lead to more accurate emissions factors for HAPs, thus improving HAP inventory and associated risk estimates for both AFVs and conventional vehicles.; Article from the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, copyright 1995. The magazine publisher is the copyright holder of this article and it is reproduced with permission. Further reproduction of this article in violation of the copyright is prohibited.

The viability of a thermoelectric fuel conditioning system for a diesel engine utilizing biodiesel

Schriefer, Timothy
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
Certain internal combustion engines, which run on hydrocarbon fuels, experience difficulty upon engine start-up in extreme cold weather. As ambient temperature decreases below the fuel cloud point and beyond, paraffin form in the fuel and eventually clog the fuel filter causing the engine to fail to start. This problem becomes more pronounced when the engine in question is a Diesel and the fuel utilized is biodiesel. As an alternative fuel source, biodiesel has many advantages; however, its cold weather performance is worse than even conventional diesel fuel. As biodiesel becomes more integrated into the world’s energy usage scenario, one of the systems within a Diesel engine that requires further investigation is its fuel conditioning system. This thesis describes research aimed at the development of a fuel conditioning system that utilizes several emerging technologies while decreasing the amount of electrical energy required for operation. The system utilizes a eutectic - thermoelectric (E-TE) combination which consists of a eutectic compound based latent heat storage device with adjacent thermoelectric elements to transfer waste heat stored in the eutectic reservoir into the fuel filter, thus diminishing the amount of electrical energy typically required for the fuel conditioning process. Simulations of the E-TE system are conducted while operating within three different modes (start-up...

Life-cycle cost and emissions assessment of alternative fuel buses: a case study of the Delaware Authority for Regional Transit (DART)

Shahpar, Amirhossein
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
Faghri, Ardeshir; The Energy Policy Act of 1992 motivated transit agencies to utilize alternative-fuel transit buses in addition to their popular diesel buses. The Delaware Authority for Regional Transit (DART) has also planned to add a significant number of alternative-fuel buses to its current transit fleet. This study has been defined to assist the DART administration to make an optimal decision in this regard. The information used in this study was gathered from the latest scientific and practical reports published by Federal Transit Administration (FTA), Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It also combined with the knowledge that the author gained from two major recent conferences related to public transportation; 1) BusCon 2009 in Chicago, Illinois, and 2) APTA annual meeting 2009 in Orlando, FL. Among eight alternative-fuel buses introduced by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, this study recognized that only Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), biodiesel, and hybrid-diesel buses can be considered as the viable alternatives for the Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) transit buses. For each of these technologies Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) and emissions are estimated and compared with the available information for the ULSD buses. The LCC consists of capital cost and operating cost. The capital cost includes initial purchasing cost and infrastructure cost which is separated in two subsections...

Technology comparison of CFB versus pulverized fuel firing for utility power generation

Utt,J; Giglio,R
Fonte: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Publicador: Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
Recent developments in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) once-through supercritical technology (OTSC) have enabled this technology to be offered as a utility-scale alternative competing head-to-head with pulverized fuel (PF) OTSC offerings. One clear example is the CFB supercritical unit at the Łagisza Power Plant in Poland, owned by PoludniowyKoncernEnergetyczny SA (PKE). This unit has now been in commercial operation for three full years, exhibiting very good performance, and has validated Foster Wheeler's performance model at this utility scale as well as for units in the 600 MWe and 800 MWe size ranges offering net efficiency of ~43 per cent (LHV basis). This operating unit has also proven the use of the world's first FW/BENSON-vertical-tube OTSC low mass flux technology. Since the Lagjsza original international tender specified OTSC PF technology, it is important to note that the alternative selection of CFB OTSC technology over conventional PF technology is of historic significance, not only for the validation of the CFB supercritical platform as a viable alternative to conventional PF technology, but it also positions the CFB OTSC with fuel flexibility for offering of sizes up to and including 800 MWe units. This paper explores the differences between CFB OTSC technology and standard PF OTSC in utility power generation. Selection criteria...