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Em busca de uma arquitetura sustentável: o uso de fontes alternativas de energia; In search of a sustainable architecture: the use of alternative sources of energy

Pinto, Carolina Ferreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/12/2009 PT
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A atual situação de degradação ambiental tem sido muito discutida nos últimos anos. Um dos principais fatores agravantes dessa situação é a crescente demanda energética e suas atuais formas de produção. O petróleo, matriz energética mundial, é altamente poluente, e um combustível finito com o preço sempre crescente. A energia elétrica brasileira está baseada nas hidrelétricas, considerada fonte de energia limpa e renovável, porém o custo ambiental para sua construção é bem alto. Atualmente já existem tecnologias alternativas que podem servir essa crescente demanda energética sem prejudicar o meio ambiente. Na arquitetura, como em todas as áreas, houve um aumento com preocupação, e o estudo sobre o desempenho energético das edificações para reduzir a demanda de energia se tornou um assunto em pauta. Medidas e soluções estão sendo tomadas na decisão dos projetos mais sustentáveis. Mas para isso, o profissional deve estar atento às novas tecnologias alternativas de produção e distribuição de energia. Quando em um projeto é considerado o uso de fontes alternativas e o uso de técnicas de iluminação e ventilação natural, pode-se economizar não só nas despesas direcionadas para as fornecedoras de energia...

Towards a better understanding of people’s responses to renewable energy technologies: Insights from Social Representations Theory

Batel, S.; Devine-Wright, P.
Fonte: SAGE Publications Ltd Publicador: SAGE Publications Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 ENG
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WOS:000352553100006 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science); In the past few years, social research has been examining what contributes to the attitude–behaviour gap in people’s responses to large-scale renewable energy technologies. The NIMBY explanation for the gap has long dominated that area of research, but has also been criticised. Alternative proposals to NIMBY were advanced, but it is still evident that some of those maintain presuppositions of NIMBY and that this area of research needs more integration, namely at a theoretical level. In this paper we argue that to overcome those aspects it is relevant, first, to situate the promotion of renewable energy production as a social change process in today’s societies, and, second, to therefore consider the socio-psychological aspects involved in people’s responses to social change. We discuss specifically how the Theory of Social Representations may help us with that and contribute to a better understanding of people’s responses to renewable energy technologies.

Comparing advanced energy cycles and developing priorities for future R&D

Gruhl, Jim; Sotak, Arthur E.
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 3129491 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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This report lists and discusses the types of information that are necessary for making decisions about the allocation of R&D funds among various electric power related energy technologies. The discussion is divided into two parts: (1) the task of choosing among different technologies and (2) the task of guiding toward the most important specific projects within an individual technology. To choose among alternative energy technologies requires assumptive information, assessment infor- mation, probabilistic information, and techniques for quantifying the overall desirability of each alternative. Guidance toward the most important projects requires information about levels and uncertainties of certain performance measures and their importance relative to external thresholds or relative to the performance of competing technologies. Some simple examples are presented to illustrate the discussion. A bibliography of more than 200 important references in this field was compiled and is appended to this report.; Sponsored by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Contract #68-02-2146.

Towards Real Energy Economics: Energy Policy Driven by Life-Cycle Carbon Emission

Kenny, R; Law, C; Pearce, J.M.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Alternative energy technologies (AETs) have emerged as a solution to the challenge of simultaneously meeting rising electricity demand while reducing carbon emissions. However, as all AETs are responsible for some greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during their construction, carbon emission “Ponzi Schemes” are currently possible, wherein an AET industry expands so quickly that the GHG emissions prevented by a given technology are negated to fabricate the next wave of AET deployment. In an era where there are physical constraints to the GHG emissions the climate can sustain in the short term this may be unacceptable. To provide quantitative solutions to this problem, this paper introduces the concept of dynamic carbon life-cycle analyses, which generate carbon neutral growth rates. These conceptual tools become increasingly important as the world transitions to a low-carbon economy by reducing fossil fuel combustion. In choosing this method of evaluation it was possible to focus uniquely on reducing carbon emissions to the recommended levels by outlining the most carbon-effective approach to climate change mitigation. The results of using dynamic life-cycle analysis provide policy makers with standardized information that will drive the optimization of electricity generation for effective climate change mitigation.; National Science and Engineering Research Council

Toward a Sustainable Global Energy Supply Infrastructure : Net Energy Balance and Density Considerations

Kessides, Ioannis N.; Wade, David C.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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This paper complements previous work on the economics of different energy resources by examining the growth potential of alternative electricity supply infrastructures as constrained by innate physical limits. Coal-fired generation meets the criteria of longevity (abundance of energy source) and scalability (effective capability to expand to the multi-terawatt level) which are critical for a sustainable energy supply chain, but it carries a very heavy carbon footprint. Renewables and nuclear power meet both the longevity and climate friendliness criteria. However, they vary in terms of their ability to deliver net energy at a scale needed for meeting a huge global energy demand. The low density of renewable resources for electricity generation and the current intermittency of many renewables limit their ability to achieve high rates of growth. And a significant global increase in nuclear power deployment could engender serious risks related to proliferation, safety, and waste disposal. Unlike renewable sources of energy...

Thirty-five Years of Long-run Energy Forecasting : Lessons for Climate Change Policy

Hourcade, Jean-Charles; Nadaud, Franck
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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This paper sheds light on an implicit dimension of the climate policy debate: the extent to which supply-side response (emission-reducing energy technologies) may substitute for the transformation of consumption behavior and thus help get around the political difficulties surrounding such behavioral transformation. The paper performs a meta-review of long-term energy forecasts since the end of the 1960s in order to put in perspective the controversies around technological optimism about the potential for cheap, large-scale, carbon-free energy production. This retrospective analysis encompasses 116 scenarios conducted over 36 years and analyzes their predictions for a) fossil fuels, b) nuclear energy, and c) renewable energy. The analysis demonstrates how the predicted relative shares of these three types of energy have evolved since 1970, for two cases: a) predicted shares in 2010, which shows how the initial outlooks for the 2000-2010 period have been revised as a function of observed trends; and b) predicted shares for t+30...

Assessing the Investment Climate for Climate Investments : A Comparative Framework for Clean Energy Investments in South Asia in a Global Context

Mani, Muthukumara S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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One of the strong messages that came out of the recent United Nations Climate Change conference in Durban was that the private sector has to play an important role if we are to globally move toward a low carbon, climate resilient -- or "climate compatible" -- future. However, private investment will only flow at the scale and pace necessary if it is supported by clear, credible, and long-term policy frameworks that shift the risk-reward balance in favor of less carbon-intensive investment. The private sector also needs information on where to invest in clean energy in emerging markets, and it needs policy support to lower investment risk. Barriers to low carbon investments often include unclear and inconsistent energy policies, monopoly structures for existing producers, stronger incentives for conventional energy than clean energy, and a domestic financial sector not experienced in new technologies. With the long-term goal of promoting and accelerating the implementation of climate mitigation technologies...

Development of Biofuels in China : Technologies, Economics and Policies

Shiyan, Chang; Lili, Zhao; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Xiliang, Zhang
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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China promulgated the Medium and Long-Term Development Plan for Renewable Energy in 2007, which included targets of 2010 and 2020 for various renewable energy technologies including biofuels. The 2010 biofuel targets were met and even surpassed except for non-grain fuel ethanol; however, there is debate on whether and how the country will be able to meet the 2020 biofuels target. This paper provides a resource and technological assessment of biofuel feedstocks, compares biofuel production costs from various feddstocks and technologies, and evaluates policies introduced in the country for the development of biofuels. The paper also presents the projections on the production of biofuels under various policy scenarios. The study shows that China can potentially satisfy its non-grain fuel ethanol target by 2020 from the technology perspective. But it will probably fall far short of this target without additional fiscal incentives as production costs of non-grain feedstock based biofuels are expected to remain relatively high. By contrast...

Options for a Low Carbon Energy Future in Morocco

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Morocco s economy is growing rapidly in all its sectors (tourism, agriculture, industry , etc.) Consequently, the energy demand has been increasing steadily in the period 2003-2007 when primary energy demand rose by 5% per annum and electricity demand by 8% per annum. At the request of the World Bank Group, this study was launched having 3 main objectives: An analysis of the current characteristics of energy supply and demand, the assessment of the energy strategy of Morocco for the coming years, and then a development of an alternative energy scenario with low carbon energies. Beicip-Franlab has established a detailed energy balance of Morocco on the basis ofMoroccan and international studies already conducted on the energy sector of Morocco as well as on well known databases like IEA ones.For the period 2009-2030, Morocco has defined an energy strategy which was presented during the first Assises de l Energie organized in March 2009. An assessment of this strategy considering both energy and environmental criteria will be presented in order to be compared with the business as usual scenario.Finally an alternative scenario is proposed. Based on an intensive introduction ofrenewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE)...

Issues in Estimating the Employment Generated by Energy Sector Activities

Bacon, Robert; Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washingotn, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washingotn, DC
EN_US
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Many recent studies and reports on the performance of the energy sector have focused on the employment generated by investment. Governments, planning their energy futures, are also interested in the job creation benefits and possible identification of skill shortages that may emerge from a large energy program. Employment created or supported by the energy sector is frequently an issue whenever government support is being considered or provided. The purpose of this issues paper is to provide a guide to using such figures or constructing such estimates, and focuses in particular on illustrating different approaches and methodologies used in the last decade in estimating employment created. The study does not aim to provide definitive estimates of the employment generation potential of different technologies. The paper begins with a brief review of the various reasons why studies have focused on the employment generated by energy sector activities. It then reviews the different categories of employment that are commonly measured and discusses the bottom-up and top-down methodologies widely used for estimating these employment levels. The second half of the paper reviews in some detail certain studies that provide useful insights into methodology...

Applying Abatement Cost Curve Methodology for Low-Carbon Strategy in Changning District, Shanghai

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The speed and scale of urbanization provide an unprecedented opportunity in the coming years to invest in clean energy technologies to contain carbon emissions from the country's sprawling cities. Therefore, supporting low carbon cities is one of the government's top priorities. Shanghai municipal and changning district governments are firmly committed to the transition to a low-carbon city and requested for the World Bank's support in making changning district and Shanghai leaders in designing novel and efficient ways to achieve carbon-intensity-reduction targets. This report documents the methodology of and key findings from applying abatement cost curves and scenarios to set low-carbon targets and define cost-effective low-carbon investment programs in Changning district, Shanghai. At the request of changning district government, the Bank team supported a Shanghai energy conservation institution, assisted by an international firm, in conducting a comprehensive survey of buildings in Hongqiao area in the changning district...

Winds of Change : East Asia's Sustainable Energy Future

Wang, Xiaodong; Berrah, Noureddine; Mathur, Subodh; Vinuya, Ferdinand
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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This report demonstrates that a "climate-smart" energy strategy is possible for countries in the East Asia region, with support from the international community. In the past three decades, the East Asia region has experienced the fastest economic growth in the world, accompanied by rapid urbanization. As a consequence, energy consumption has more than tripled and is expected to further double over the next two decades. This remarkable growth and rapid urbanization have led to twin energy challenges in the region: improving environmental sustainability and enhancing energy security. The region has many of the world's most polluted cities, resulting from fossil fuel combustion. The region also contains some of the largest greenhouse gas emitters in the world, although their per capita and historical emissions are much below the levels of industrialized countries. Concerns with energy security have grown because of increased risks of price volatility and possible disruptions in supplies for oil and gas. To move the region to a sustainable energy path...

Introducing Energy-efficient Clean Technologies in the Brick Sector of Bangladesh

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study
ENGLISH
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This study's objectives are: (i) to present the pros and cons of existing and alternative brick technologies in Bangladesh with specific focus on pollution and energy efficiency; (ii) to estimate the private and social benefits of these technologies (iii) to summarize China's experience in the development of the brick industry, as the world leader brick producer and (iv) to provide concrete recommendations for adopting cleaner technologies in Bangladesh. The study focuses on the brick cluster located in northern Dhaka, which comprises 530 Fixed Chimney Kiln (FCKs) that produce 2.1 billion bricks annually (14 percent of the country's brick production). As the brick sector is a prominent contributor to air pollution in Dhaka, it is important to distinguish its contribution to the city's air pollution from other sources, including transport and other industries. Because of limited data availability, the analysis relies on the most realistic assumptions drawn from monitored data in Bangladesh or neighboring countries (i.e....

Accelerating Clean Energy Technology Research, Development, and Deployment : Lessons from Non-Energy Sectors

Avato, Patrick; Coony, Jonathan
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The World Bank Group's clean energy for development investment framework action plan has outlined some of the key activities it intends to undertake in the area of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and helping client countries adapt to changes in climate. One of these activities focuses on an analysis of the role of low-carbon energy technologies in climate change mitigation. This report provides an initial analysis of this issue. The second chapter describes the urgency of developing new low-carbon energy technologies based on a review of some of the most authoritative recent reports on climate change. Strong evidence demonstrates the need for new and improved energy technologies, but, as is described in the third chapter, current research, development, and deployment (RD&D) efforts worldwide appear too limited and slow-paced to generate new energy technologies rapidly enough to respond to the climate change crisis. Moreover, significant barriers are limiting incentives to invest in energy RD&D and may reduce the effectiveness of such investments. These barriers are discussed in the fourth chapter. In light of these barriers and the very limited success of past attempts to overcome them...

Energy Policies and the Mexican Economy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The report looks at energy policies in Mexico (both a major energy producer, and consumer) within its economic context, how the energy sector is managed, and how it performs, and at the implications for economic growth and public finances, and by extension, for broader social policies which depend heavily on federal funding. The energy sector finds itself in a vicious circle - reduced budget and borrowing capacity are leading to insufficient sector investment - resulting in declines in future production, hence government revenue. Breaking this vicious circle is a major challenge, given that attracting finance for energy sector investment on a major scale, without government support, lies at the heart of the problem. The report reviews the choices to increase efficiency, and electricity subsidies, as well as those for efficiently expanding oil and gas output. Three key areas for reform are discussed: a) achieving permanent gains in operational efficiency of the power and hydrocarbons sectors, to lower costs and improve service quality; b) restructuring electricity subsidies...

Household Energy Access for Cooking and Heating : Lessons Learned and the Way Forward

Ekouevi, Koffi; Tuntivate, Voravate
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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Half of humanity about 3 billion people are still relying on solid fuels for cooking and heating. Of that, about 2.5 billion people depend on traditional biomass fuels (wood, charcoal, agricultural waste, and animal dung), while about 400 million people use coal as their primary cooking and heating fuel (UNDP and WHO 2009). The majority of the population relying on solid fuels lives in Sub-Saharan Africa and in South Asia. In some countries in Central America and in East Asia and the Pacific, the use of solid fuels is also significant. The inefficient and unsustainable production and use of these fuels result in a significant public health hazard, as well as negative environmental impacts that keep people in poverty. Strategies to improve energy access to the poor have focused mainly on electricity access. They have often neglected non electricity household energy access. It is, however, estimated that about 2.8 billion people will still depend on fuel wood for cooking and heating in 2030 in a business-as-usual modus operandi (IEA 2010). The need for urgent interventions at the household level to provide alternative energy services to help improve livelihoods is becoming more and more accepted. This report's main objective is to conduct a review of the World Bank's financed operations and selected interventions by other institutions on household energy access in an attempt to examine success and failure factors to inform the new generation of upcoming interventions. First...

Improved Energy Technologies for Rural Cambodia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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55.98%
More than 90 percent of total household energy used in rural Cambodia comes from wood and charcoal, which will continue to be the primary energy source for many more years, especially for poorer people. Faced with this reality, it is clear that simple and affordable solutions to the problems associated with burning wood and charcoal should be addressed. One obvious solution is the production and wide dissemination of more efficient stoves, which can cut fuel consumption in half. The new, improved cook stoves are based on traditional stove models, but both are more efficient due to three main improvements in design: 1) the space between the pot and the pot-rest is reduced, 2) the grate has smaller holes, and 3) the combustion chamber is smaller. The effect is better combustion with less heat loss, a more complete burning of wood, and also less smoke. There are two models of improved cook stoves: the Neang Kongrey stove and the New Lao stove. The Neang Kongrey is a simple ceramic cook stove that sells for about $1.25 and lasts for 1-2 years. The New Lao Stove has metal cladding and insulation that adds at least two years to the stove's lifetime and increases its cost to about $4.

The Energy Efficient Cities Initiative Practitioners' Roundtable

Energy Sector Management Assistance Program
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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55.81%
Cities represent a major contributor of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. According to the United Nations Population Fund,1 half of the world's population now lives in cities and is responsible for 75% of global energy use and GHG emissions. Since the world's population will continue to grow, and rapid urbanization will continue particularly in the developing world, tackling climate change issues in the urban context will be essential. In response to these challenges, the World Bank's Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP), in cooperation with the Bank?s Finance Economics and Urban Department (FEU), has launched an Energy Efficient Cities Initiative, which is designed to help mainstream and scale-up sustainable energy and climate change mitigation actions and investments in the urban context. The first activity proposed under this Initiative is the Energy Efficient Cities Practitioners Roundtable, a facilitated discussion cohosted by ESMAP and FEU. The purpose of this event was to bring together client cities and partner organizations to investigate ongoing initiatives and programs to support cities' sustainable energy goals needs and develop an Energy Efficient Cities Action Plan that will outline a vision and subsequent actions to be taken under the Initiative. The event took place at the Washington DC offices of the World Bank...

Esforço das concessionárias de energia elétrica para o desenvolvimento de tecnologias de fontes alternativas de energia : o caso das Empresas Eletrobras; Electrical energy concessionaires efforts for the development of alternative sources of technologies for energy : Eletrobras Company's Case

Manuella Pereira da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/08/2013 PT
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46.05%
As tecnologias de energias renováveis são um exemplo de tecnologia que tenta estabelecer em um mercado já consolidado e com um forte contexto industrial baseado em tecnologias já existentes para fontes de energia convencionais. Neste contexto se destaca o papel das políticas públicas que afetam a demanda por essas tecnologias. Desde que a Lei no 9.991/2000 foi publicada, as empresas do setor de energia elétrica brasileiro começaram um grande esforço para fortalecer suas áreas de P&D. Deste modo, propõe-se analisar o esforço realizado pelas concessionárias de energia elétrica brasileiras para o desenvolvimento e adoção de tecnologias de novas fontes alternativas de energia. A questão central do trabalho é verificar se os projetos de P&D ANEEL em tecnologias de novas fontes renováveis no segmento de geração e transmissão de energia elétrica estão relacionados ao aprendizado do uso dessas novas tecnologias de energia renovável, pelas empresas de energia elétrica. O estudo empírico se baseou na análise de uma amostra de 55 projetos de P&D ANEEL das empresas Eletrobras, que são responsáveis pela maior parcela nos mercados de serviços de geração e transmissão brasileiros. A participação de projetos de P&D ANEEL em fontes alternativas é de cerca de 9% do seu total de número de projetos. A maior concentração desses projetos recai em Bioenergia...

Modelling energy supply options for electricity generations in Tanzania

Kichonge,Baraka; John,Geoffrey R; Mkilaha,Iddi S N
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2015 EN
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The current study applies an energy-system model to explore energy supply options in meeting Tanzania's electricity demands projection from 2010 to 2040. Three economic scenarios namely; business as usual (BAU), low economic consumption scenario (LEC) and high economic growth scenario (HEC) were developed for modelling purposes. Moreover, the study develops a dry weather scenario to explore how the country's electricity system would behave under dry weather conditions. The model results suggests: If projected final electricity demand increases as anticipated in BAU, LEC and HEC scenarios, the total installed capacity will expand at 9.05%, 8.46% and 9.8% respectively from the base value of 804.2MW. Correspondingly, the model results depict dominance of hydro, coal, natural gas and geothermal as least-cost energy supply options for electricity generation in all scenarios. The alternative dry weather scenario formulated to study electricity system behaviour under uncertain weather conditions suggested a shift of energy supply option to coal and natural gas (NG) dominance replacing hydro energy. The least cost optimization results further depict an insignificant contribution of renewable energy technologies in terms of solar thermal, wind and solar PV into the total generation shares. With that regard...