Página 1 dos resultados de 253 itens digitais encontrados em 0.126 segundos

Environmental Flows in Water Resources Policies, Plans, and Projects : Findings and Recommendations

Hirji, Rafik; Davis, Richard
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.81%
The overall goal of the analysis presented in this report is to advance the understanding and integration in operational terms of environmental water allocation into integrated water resources management. The specific objectives of this report are the following: 1) document the changing understanding of environmental flows, by both water resources practitioners and by environmental experts within the Bank and in borrowing countries; 2) draw lessons from experience in implementing environmental flows by the Bank, other international development organizations with experience in this area, and a small number of developed and developing countries; 3) develop an analytical framework to support more effective integration of environmental flow considerations for informing and guiding: (a) the planning, design, and operations decision making of water resources infrastructure projects; (b) the legal, policy, institutional, and capacity development related to environmental flows; and (c) restoration programs; and 4) provide recommendations for improvements in technical guidance to better incorporate environmental flow considerations into the preparation and implementation of lending operations.

Assessing the Direct Economic Effects of Reallocating Irrigation Water to Alternative Uses : Concepts and an Application

Scheierling, Susanne M.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.81%
Irrigation water reallocations are playing an increasingly important role in both developed and developing countries. With growing urban and environmental water demands, rising costs for the development of new water supplies, and irrigated agriculture usually including the least economically valuable use of water, transfers of irrigation water to alternative uses are increasing. However, such reallocations are often controversial, and it is often questioned whether the benefits resulting from these transactions are large enough to outweigh the associated costs. This paper reviews the experience with irrigation water transfers, including the involvement of the World Bank. It discusses the problems of assessing the direct economic effects of reallocations, with a focus on the foregone direct benefits in irrigated agriculture. Because foregone direct benefits cannot easily be directly observed, they need to be estimated. However, assessments have shown widely differing estimates -- even when the same methodology was used. The paper reviews the methodologies and model specifications used for estimating foregone direct benefits; illustrates the impact of different model specifications on the magnitude of estimates of foregone direct benefits based on an application in an example case; and draws conclusions with regard to future efforts in assessing reallocation effects...

Economics of Irrigation Water Management : A Literature Survey with Focus on Partial and General Equilibrium Models

Dudu, Hasan; Chumi, Sinqobile
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.02%
Water policy is an important topic on the agenda of the international community, and efficiency and equity in the allocation of water have emerged as important factors to be considered. Water pricing can be used to mitigate both the quantity and quality dimensions of water scarcity. This paper reviews partial equilibrium models and general equilibrium models that are relevant to irrigation water management issues. The most widely discussed issues in these models are water markets and water pricing. The interrelationships between economic, cultural, social, and political aspects that are related to water policy make it difficult to provide a comprehensive policy analysis. General equilibrium models of irrigation water management allow incorporation of both the irrigation sector and the other sectors in the economy and analysis of policies affecting each of them and the interaction between them. In addition to being able to address sector and household specifications, production factors, time horizon, pricing policies...

Cooperative Game Theory and its Application to Natural, Environmental, and Water Resource Issues : 3. Application to Water Resources

Parrachino, Irene; Dinar, Ariel; Patrone, Fioravante
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.85%
This paper reviews various applications of cooperative game theory (CGT) to issues of water resources. With an increase in the competition over various water resources, the incidents of disputes have been in the center of allocation agreements. The paper reviews the cases of various water uses, such as multi-objective water projects, irrigation, groundwater, hydropower, urban water supply, wastewater, and transboundary water disputes. In addition to providing examples of cooperative solutions to allocation problems, the conclusion from this review suggests that cooperation over scarce water resources is possible under a variety of physical conditions and institutional arrangements. In particular, the various approaches for cost sharing and for allocation of physical water infrastructure and flow can serve as a basis for stable and efficient agreement, such that long-term investments in water projects are profitable and sustainable. The latter point is especially important, given recent developments in water policy in various countries and regional institutions such as the European Union (Water Framework Directive), calling for full cost recovery of investments and operation and maintenance in water projects. The CGT approaches discussed and demonstrated in this paper can provide a solid basis for finding possible and stable cost-sharing arrangements.

Comparison of Institutional Arrangements for River Basin Management in Eight Basins

Blomquist, William; Dinar, Ariel; Kemper, Karin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.83%
This study represents an effort toward understanding conditions that affect successful or unsuccessful efforts to devolve water resource management to the river basin level and secure active stakeholder involvement. A theoretical framework is used to identify potentially important variables related to the likelihood of success. Using a comparative case-study approach, the study examined river basins where organizations have been developed at the basin scale and where organizations perform management functions such as planning, allocation, and pricing of water supplies, flood prevention and response, and water quality monitoring and improvement. This paper compares the alternative approaches to basin governance and management adopted in the following river basins: the Alto-Tiete and Jaguaribe River Basins, Brazil; the Brantas River Basin, East Java, Indonesia; the Fraser River Basin, British Columbia, Canada; the Guadalquivir Basin, Spain; the Murray-Darling River Basin, Australia; the Tarcoles River Basin, Costa Rica; and the Warta River Basin, Poland. The analysis focuses on how management has been organized and pursued in each case in light of its specific geographical, historical, and organizational contexts and the evolution of institutional arrangements. The cases are also compared and assessed for their observed degrees of success in achieving improved stakeholder participation and integrated water resources management.

Applications of Negotiation Theory to Water Issues

Carraro, Carlo; Marchiori, Carmen; Sgobbi, Alessandra
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.94%
The authors review the applications of noncooperative bargaining theory to water related issues-which fall in the category of formal models of negotiation. They aim to identify the conditions under which agreements are likely to emerge and their characteristics, to support policymakers in devising the "rules of the game" that could help obtain a desired result. Despite the fact that allocation of natural resources, especially trans-boundary allocation, has all the characteristics of a negotiation problem, there are not many applications of formal negotiation theory to the issue. Therefore, the authors first discuss the noncooperative bargaining models applied to water allocation problems found in the literature. Key findings include the important role noncooperative negotiations can play in cases where binding agreements cannot be signed; the value added of politically and socially acceptable compromises; and the need for a negotiated model that considers incomplete information over the negotiated resource.

Economy-Wide Implications of Direct and Indirect Policy Interventions in the Water Sector : Lessons from Recent Work and Future Research Needs

Dinar, Ariel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.84%
Water is increasingly becoming a limiting factor for sustainable economic growth and development in many countries. Its allocation has significant impacts on overall economic efficiency, particularly with growing physical scarcity in certain regions. Greater water supply variability further increases vulnerability in affected regions. Water also has become a strategic resource involving conflicts among those who may be affected differently by various policies. This paper analyzes various policy interventions aimed at improving water allocation decisions, using a novel approach that incorporates macro and micro level considerations in a unified analytical framework. The framework facilitates assessment of various linkages among policies and their impacts within individual sectors and economy-wide. Drawing on country based studies in Morocco, South Africa, Turkey, and Mexico, the analysis reveals difficult tradeoffs among various policy objectives, including priorities placed on different sectors, regional advantages, and general economic efficiency gains versus broader social impacts. The comparison of policy impacts demonstrates the usefulness of the framework in information that policy makers can use to rank the policy interventions according to the emphasis placed on different policy objectives. The paper also compares approaches used in other studies that apply computable general equilibrium models in various contexts of water...

Republic of Yemen Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.76%
This note contains a summary, for practitioners, of the World Bank report Republic of Yemen country Water Resources Assistance Strategy (CWRAS). The preparation of a CWRAS is timely, given the rising pressure placed on water resources by the rapidly growing population and the emergence of lessons learned from a recent review of World Bank water projects in Yemen. This section reviews the current situation in Yemen, focusing on the following five key challenges facing the water sector: (i) over-extraction of groundwater; (ii) equitable and efficient valuation and allocation of water; (iii) meeting the millennium development goals (MDG) in potable water and sanitation; (iv) the need to protect water sources and the quality of water; and (v) building institutional capacity in the public sector.

Regulatory Frameworks for Water Resources Management : A Comparative Study

Salman, Salman M.A.; Bradlow, Daniel D.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.76%
This note contains a summary, for practitioners, of the World Bank Law, Justice, and Development Series Book Regulatory Frameworks for Water Resources Management: a comparative study (2006). It examines how the regulatory frameworks in 16 jurisdictions worldwide have addressed the various basic issues related to water resources management, provides a comparative analysis of those issues, and highlights the essential elements of the regulatory frameworks that are emerging in response. Most countries have laws or regulations (and in fewer cases constitutional clauses) relating to ownership, management, and allocation of water. These provisions are often, however, out of date, over complex, lacking in clarity, or fragmented. For the comparative analysis, regulatory frameworks for water resources management were selected from 16 jurisdictions: Armenia, Brazil, Cameroon, China, Costa Rica, European Union (EU), France, Germany, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Morocco, Nepal, Senegal, South Africa, Vietnam, and the Republic of Yemen.

Mexico : Water Public Expenditure Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.88%
Mexico has critical and urgent water related problems including the overexploitation and contamination of surface water and groundwater resources in the regions where most of the people reside and where the great majority of the Gross Domestic Product, or GDP is generated. Groundwater overexploitation is perhaps the most serious water resources management issue. About 100 aquifers in the central and northern part of the country are being overexploited, with water tables dropping 1 to 4 meters per year. In some areas, essentially all sectors depend on groundwater, and the unsustainable water use regimen will constrain economic development and have serious social impacts. The poor often suffer the most, because they are less able to deal with the added costs associated with falling water tables and water pollution. Water issues are both very complex and very important in Mexico, because they sit at the conjunction of economic development, public finance, infrastructure investment, environmental sustainability...

Achieving Accountability Through Decentralization: Lessons for Integrated River Basin Management

Mody, Jyothsna
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.98%
While decentralization holds out the promise of increased flexibility and efficiency, the preconditions for realizing it are daunting. To draw lessons for productive decentralization in integrated river basin management, this paper surveys the decentralization experience in education, health care, roads, irrigation, and public infrastructure services. Case studies reveal that the prime focus in the design of a decentralized structure must be accountability, based on principles of subsidiarity, transparency, and allocation of property rights. While some debates are sector-specific, others, such as the need for political and financial accountability, the related data requirements, educating stakeholders and potential beneficiaries of the new system, and ensuring effective participation are true of decentralization wherever it is to unfold. In turn, initial conditions and the adaptation of political leadership to suit the historical context determine the success of decentralization. Four issues demand high priority in integrated river basin management. These are (1) overcoming financial inadequacy at the local level; (2) commitment to upgrading skills...

Putting Indigenous water rights to work: the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework as a lens for remote development

Nikolakis, William; Grafton, R. Quentin
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.73%
Sustainable development programs can lead to tension and conflict in human communities when natural capital is used as the foundation for livelihood programs. Building on the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SLF), this study demonstrates that including community perceptions in the creation of sustainable livelihoods programs is important in designing programs that are legitimate to community members, and this is especially important in the context of natural capital. Using the SLF, the allocation of water rights to Indigenous groups in remote northern Australia is examined to determine the acceptability of this form of natural capital to support sustainable livelihoods. The findings indicate that there are competing values of water within communities, and that balancing the preferences for spirituality and conservation with economic development and self-sufficiency is critical to the success of sustainable livelihoods programs across the region.

Defining rights, powers and limits in transboundary river disputes: a legal analysis of the River Murray

Webster, Adam Lyall
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.84%
Since Federation, the allocation of water from the River Murray between States of Australia has always been determined by political agreement. In 1914, the first formal agreement between New South Wales, South Australia, Victoria and the Commonwealth was reached. Subsequent agreements as to the allocation and regulation of the water of the River Murray have never been easy to reach and have caused tension between the States. As a consequence, there have been occasions when a State – most commonly South Australia – has considered its legal position (and the possibility of litigation) in the absence of an intergovernmental agreement. That, of course, has only added to the tensions associated with creating an intergovernmental agreement. The uncertainty of how the waters of the Murray might be shared in the absence of an intergovernmental agreement has led to many assertions that the States have a ‘right’ to a share of the waters of the River and, moreover, that these ‘rights’ are enforceable by the High Court. This thesis examines the allocation of water between States from a river that flows through or forms the border between two or more States (a ‘transboundary river’) in the absence of an intergovernmental agreement...

Market allocation of agricultural water resources in the Salinas River Valley

Neagley, John P.; O'Brien, Robert T., Jr.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: viii, 96 p. maps
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.82%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; The current drought conditions that the Central California coast has been facing and the increasing threat of saltwater intrusion have forced the Salinas Valley to consider alternatives that provide for conserving and allocating limited groundwater resources. Currently, groundwater resources are treated as a common pool resource where there are no clearly defined property rights for groundwater and there is no regulation of use. This thesis examines the question of how to implement a market system for groundwater in the Salinas Valley. The study compares a free-market approach of water allocation to other centralized water management practices. This study found that, in theory, the establishment of clearly defined groundwater rights and a free market system for groundwater would be an efficient method to allocate agricultural groundwater resources.; Lieutenant, United States Navy; Captain, United States Army

Addressing China's Water Scarcity : Recommendations for Selected Water Resource Management Issues

Xie, Jian
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
76%
This report reviews China's water scarcity situation, assesses the policy and institutional requirements for addressing it, and recommends key areas for strengthening and reform. It is a synthesis of the main findings and recommendations from analytical work and case studies prepared under the World Bank Analytical and Advisory Assistance (AAA) program entitled 'Addressing China's Water Scarcity: from Analysis to Action.' These studies focus on several strategically important thematic areas for China where additional research was needed, as identified by the research team and advisory group based on a review of pressing issues. These areas are governance, water rights, pricing, ecological compensation, pollution control, and emergency response. The approach has been to evaluate Chinese and international experience to identify policy and institutional factors that have proven effective in promoting the adoption of water conservation and pollution reduction technologies. The research was based on literature reviews...

China Country Water Resources Partnership Strategy (2013-2020)

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.81%
This report presents the outcome of the World Bank's analytical and advisory work to assess the status of water resources development and the key water issues and challenges facing the country. The Bank has also reviewed its history of cooperation with the Government of China in recent decades, and notes the remarkable achievements China has made in developing the water sector. The report proposes solutions for tackling the enormous challenges facing China in the sector. The central priority is to ensure sustainable utilization and management of water, land and related resources at the national, basin, regional and local levels. Despite relatively poor endowments of land and water by international standards, China's economy has developed extremely rapidly over the last three decades, supporting 21 percent of the world's population with 9 percent of the world's arable land and only 6 percent of the world's water while simultaneously lifting some 400 million people out of poverty. It is noted in the national water resources master plan recently completed by the Ministry of Water Resources (MWR) and the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) that China's water resources are under stress from the combined demands of agriculture...

Managing Water for Sustainable Growth and Poverty Reduction : A Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy for Zambia

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.81%
The country water resources assistance strategy for Zambia provides an analysis of the role of water in the economy and identifies the specific challenges, development opportunities and policies which inform an agreed framework for priority areas of assistance. Zambia lies entirely within the catchments of the Zambezi and Congo rivers and all internal runoff is shared by downstream and parallel riparian countries. This strategic geographic position in the upper reaches of both these catchments provides an important context for any water resources development. Zambia has played an important role in development of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) revised protocol on shared water courses (2000) and is engaged in the process of developing co-operative mechanisms with riparian states. However, the existing legal framework explicitly excludes any provisions for addressing issues on shared waters in the Zambezi and Luapula rivers, along with that portion of the Luangwa River which constitutes the boundary between Zambia and Mozambique. These account for more than 60 percent of Zambia's water resources. Economic development is undermined by physical scarcity of water. Despite the relative abundance...

Addressing China’s Growing Water Shortages and Associated Social and Environmental Consequences

Shalizi, Zmarak
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.88%
China has experienced a wide-scale and rapid transformation from an agricultural based economy to the manufacturing workshop of the world. The associated relocation of the population from relatively low density rural areas to very high density urban areas is having a significant impact on the quantity and quality of water available as inputs into the production and consumption process, as well as the ability of the water system to absorb and neutralize the waste byproducts deposited into it. Water shortages are most severe in the north of the country, where surface water diversion is excessive and groundwater is being depleted. In addition, the quality of water is deteriorating because of pollution, thereby aggravating existing water shortages. The biggest challenge ahead will be for national and local governments to craft policies and rules within China's complex cultural and legal administrative system that provide incentives for users to increase efficiency of water use, and for polluters to clean up the water they use and return clean water to stream flows. Using a standard public economics framework, water requirements for public goods-such as ecosystem needs-should be set aside first, before allocating property rights in water (to enable water markets to function and generate efficient allocation signals). Even then...

Mozambique Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy : Making Water Work for Sustainable Growth and Poverty Reduction

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.81%
Mozambique's continuous efforts to sustain economic growth and reduce poverty face a number of constraints including its economic and political history, and its geography and climatic conditions. It is widely accepted that future economic growth of the country will continue to rely on its natural resources base and, specifically, on sustainable use of land and water resources. Mozambique has plentiful land and water resources that provide great potential for the production of a variety of crops, livestock development and industrial growth. However, high climate variability resulting in frequent recurrent droughts and floods, limited water resources availability in the most developed southern part of the country, high dependency on international water resources and very limited water management infrastructure result in the economy being highly vulnerable to water shocks and water being a constraint on growth and poverty reduction. The development of Mozambique Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy (CWRAS) was complementary to the Bank Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) process supporting its approach and priorities. It is consistent with the country's development priorities as defined in Second Poverty Reduction Support Strategy (PARPA II) and the sector priorities identified in the national water resources management strategy. The CWRAS' recommendations build upon the Bank's specific strengths vis-a-vis other development donors and...

Institutional and Policy Analysis of River Basin Management : The Jaguaribe River Basin, Ceará, Brazil

Johnsson, Rosa Maria Formiga; Kemper, Karin Erika
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.83%
The authors describe and analyze water resources reform and decentralization of river basin management in the state of Ceara, Northeast Brazil, the poorest part of the country. The Jaguaribe river basin is located entirely within the state of Ceara. With a drainage area of 72,560 square kilometers, it covers almost half of the state's territory. The basin has 80 municipalities and more than 2 million people, about half rural and half urban, in primarily small towns, representing about a third of Ceara's population. Precipitation in the basin is highly variable, ranging from 400 mm in the hinterland to 1,200 mm along the coast. Rivers in the basin are ephemeral and only flow during the rainy season. The key water management challenge is to capture the water in reservoirs in rainy years and to manage it such that it will last for several years, in case the following years are drought years. The other important challenge is the increasing dependence of the state capital Fortaleza, located in a different basin, on water from the Jaguaribe basin. Decentralization of decisionmaking has taken place at two levels. Devolution from the federal to the state level in the past 15 years was highly successful. The state has created its own Water Resources Management Company (COGERH) which is responsible for water resources management throughout the state. Decentralization from state to local level has been more partial. Although COGERH has decentralized the allocation of strategic reservoir waters to local institutions...