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Developmental trade-offs and life histories: strategic allocation of resources in caddis flies.

Stevens, D J; Hansell, M H; Monaghan, P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/08/2000 EN
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65.88%
Resource allocation trade-offs during development are potentially very important in the evolution of organism morphology and life-history strategy However, they have rarely been demonstrated empirically. To what extent the division of limited resources between growing organs is a consequence of particular developmental pathways or varies strategically in line with life-history predictions is unknown. It has been demonstrated in a number of holometabolous insects that altering the resources available at pupation changes the pattern of allocation to adult tissues, but this has not been examined in a life-history context. Using caddis flies (Trichoptera), we show here that the effect of depleted larval resources on the pattern of somatic and reproductive investment is not fixed but varies between species with different life-history patterns. In particular, we demonstrate that, in a long-lived species, thorax size is preserved, which contrasts with the pattern previously observed in a short-lived species. That the adult body can be differentially altered by the same resource depletion in the larvae demonstrates that the allocation of resources amongst body parts is not a consequence of fixed pathways during development. Rather, the allocation of resources during development can occur in a manner consistent with the minimization of the effects on adult fitness.

Pour une allocation équitable des ressources en GMF

Provost, Line
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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75.79%
Objectif : Évaluer la « lourdeur » de la prise en charge clinique des personnes vivant avec le VIH/SIDA (PVVIH) afin d’ajuster l’allocation des ressources en GMF. Méthodologie : Analyse comparative entre le GMF de la Clinique médicale l’Actuel, les GMF montréalais et de l’ensemble du Québec, en identifiant les différences dans les profils de consommation de soins pour les années civiles 2006 à 2008 et les coûts d’utilisation des services pour l’année 2005. Résultats : En 2008, 78% de la clientèle inscrite au GMF de la Clinique médicale l’Actuel est vulnérable comparativement à 28% pour les autres GMF montréalais, une tendance observée pour l’ensemble du Québec. Le nombre moyen de visites par individu inscrit et vulnérable est de 7,57 au GMF l’Actuel alors que la moyenne montréalaise est de 3,37 et celle du Québec de 3,47. Enfin, le coût moyen des visites médicales au GMF l’Actuel en 2005 est de 203,93 $ comparativement à des coûts variant entre 132,14 et 149,53 $ pour les unités de comparaison. Conclusion : L’intensité de l’utilisation des ressources au GMF de la Clinique médicale l’Actuel (nombre d’individus vulnérables, nombre de visites et coûts) suggère que la prise en charge clinique des personnes vivant avec le VIH/SIDA est beaucoup plus lourde qu’un citoyen tout venant ou même de la majorité des autres catégories de vulnérabilité. Afin d’offrir un traitement juste et équitable aux GMF...

Subnational Taxation in Developing Countries : A Review of the Literature

Bird, Richard M.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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75.76%
This paper reviews the literature on tax assignment in decentralized countries. Ideally, own-source revenues should be sufficient to enable at least the richest subnational governments to finance from their own resources all locally-provided services that primarily benefit local residents. Subnational taxes should also not unduly distort the allocation of resources. Most importantly, to the extent possible subnational governments should be accountable at the margin for financing the expenditures for which they are responsible. Although reality in most countries inevitably falls far short of these ideals, nonetheless there are several taxes that subnational governments in developing countries could use to help ensure that decentralization yields more of the benefits it appears to promise in theory. At the local level, such taxes include property taxes and, especially for larger cities, perhaps also a limited and well-designed local business tax. At the regional level, in addition to taxes on vehicles, governments in some countries may be able to utilize any or all of the following -- a payroll tax; a simple surcharge on the central personal income tax; and a sales tax...

Barriers to Competition in Croatia : The Role of Government Regulation

De Rosa, Donato; Madzarevic-Sujster, Sanja; Boromisa, Ana-Maria; Sonje, Velimir
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.65%
This paper examines product market policies in Croatia by benchmarking them to OECD countries and highlighting how policies that are more conducive to competition would stimulate a more efficient allocation of resources and, in consequence, facilitate convergence to higher income levels. OECD indicators of overall regulation in product markets indicate that Croatias policies in 2007 were generally more restrictive of competition than were the policies in OECD countries. This is especially true for policies concerned with the degree of state control of the economy and with barriers to entrepreneurship. Regulatory obstacles to trade and foreign direct investment, by contrast, are in line with those of pre-accession European Union countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovak Republic, and Poland in 2003, as well as Bulgaria and Romania in 2006), albeit well above the OECD average. Regulation of post, electricity, gas, telecoms, air, rail, and road transport, as estimated by the OECD energy transport and communication sectors indicator...

Managing Resources to Build Back and Create a Better Future for Nias : Nias Public Expenditure Analysis

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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65.88%
Already one of the poorest regions in Indonesia, the island of Nias was badly affected by the twin disasters of the 26 December 2004 tsunami and a devastating earthquake that struck three months later, on 28 March 2005. Now, more than two years after the disasters and despite the significant progress that has undoubtedly been made, some troubling trends are starting to emerge, of which this report takes stock. In particular, funds are not being disbursed at the desired pace as the reconstruction effort faces enormous implementation challenges. The allocation of significant resources for reconstruction, as well as the decentralization process, entails both opportunities and challenges for the development of Nias. This report assists in making use of those opportunities and overcoming the challenges by informing the planning and budgeting process of the two district governments in Nias, and analyzing constraints in public financial management in both districts, as well as identifying key gaps in the reconstruction process.

Assessing Fiscal Implication of the Recent Changes in Poverty Lines and Revision of Allocation Norms of Capital Expenditures and Resources for Targeted Programs

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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65.87%
There have been important changes in the budgeting process in Vietnam since 2006 when the government of Vietnam instituted a revolutionary reform in the management and allocation of the state budget. For the period of 2007-2010, the norms include ethnic minority population data, and poverty rates. The purpose of this research assignment is to describe the evolution of budgeting mechanisms in recent years, in association with capital expenditure transferred from central to provincial budgets. This report focuses on changes in the budgeting process and allocation norms. It is also assesses whether these recent changes are pro-poor, and how they would affect availability of resources for the national targeted programs.

Public Expenditure Review 1999 : Improving Education through Increased, Efficient, and Effective Utilization of Resources

Republic of Ghana
Fonte: Tema Printing, Tema, Ghana Publicador: Tema Printing, Tema, Ghana
EN_US
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85.64%
The Governemnt of Ghana has been preparing public expenditure reviews annually since 1993, by adopting relevant thematic areas to highlight important issues of public expenditure management in Ghana. These reviews have indicated lapses in the mechanism through which public expenditures were made and also provided the basis for assessment of expenditure priorities of government. Since education is the largest spending sector of the economy, the 1999 public expenditure review is focused on improving the quality of education through increased efficient and effective use of resources. Under Ghana vision 2020, improving access to quality education in the country has been identified as one of the focal points for government to achieve its aim of ensuring efficient education in the country. Education and training are thus being structured to meet the current manpower needs of the country as well as satisfy the intellectual and skill requirement of a technology-based growing economy.

Optimum design of family structure and allocation of resources in association mapping with lines from multiple crosses

Liu, W.; Maurer, H.; Reif, J.; Melchinger, A.; Utz, H.; Tucker, M.; Ranc, N.; Della Porta, G.; Wurschum, T.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.66%
Family mapping is based on multiple segregating families and is becoming increasingly popular because of its advantages over population mapping. Athough much progress has been made recently, the optimum design and allocation of resources for family mapping remains unclear. Here, we addressed these issues using a simulation study, resample model averaging and cross-validation approaches. Our results show that in family mapping, the predictive power and the accuracy of quatitative trait loci (QTL) detection depend greatly on the population size and phenotyping intensity. With small population sizes or few test environments, QTL results become unreliable and are hampered by a large bias in the estimation of the proportion of genotypic variance explained by the detected QTL. In addition, we observed that even though good results can be achieved with low marker densities, no plateau is reached with our full marker complement. This suggests that higher quality results could be achieved with greater marker densities or sequence data, which will be available in the near future for many species.; W Liu, HP Maurer, JC Reif, AE Melchinger, HF Utz, MR Tucker, N Ranc, G Della Porta and T Würschum

Using Natural Resources in an Optimal Way

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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75.88%
To ensure sustainable and optimal use of its common property natural resources, Mexico will need to strengthen its focus on enhancing stewardship in three key sectors-forests, water, and energy resources. The key objectives include the following: 1) identifying options that would contribute to Mexico's climate agenda and build social resilience through forest management; 2) ensuring economically efficient and environmentally and socially sustainable water management to promote 'green' growth in the context of water scarcity and climate uncertainty; and 3) assessing the impacts of declining oil and gas reserves and the role of renewable energy as an alternative and cleaner source. Forests can play an important role in mitigating and adapting to climate change. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) and other forest-related activities could account for almost 20 percent of reductions in greenhouse gas emissions that Mexico could achieve by 2030. Although much remains to be done...

Spending for Development : Making the Most of Indonesia's New Opportunities, Indonesia Public Expenditure Review 2007

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.87%
This Public Expenditure Review (PER) 2007 examines and explains some of the constraints facing the government in public resource management and allocation, and offers recommendations for improvements in six critical areas: fiscal space, education, health, infrastructure, public financial management and decentralization. Although Indonesia has made important progress in reforming its public finances and increasing transparency, Indonesia's reform agenda, as highlighted by the PER, is far from complete. Equity and efficiency of spending remain major issues, for instance finding an optimal allocation of resources that reflects development priorities, and achieving an annual spending pattern that is no longer strongly skewed towards the end of the financial year. This report tries to establish the facts about Indonesia's public expenditures, presenting trends over time and analyzing the composition across sectors and levels of government. It presents comprehensive information on key sectors, including sub-national governments and state-owned enterprises in key infrastructure sectors. Based on these facts...

Liberia - 2008 Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability Review

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.88%
The 2008 Public Expenditure Management and Financial Accountability Review (PEMFAR) assess Liberia's public expenditure performance along four main dimensions: macroeconomic, institutional, allocations between sectors, and allocations within key sectors. At the macroeconomic level, it describes the external economic constraints and opportunities that will drive growth and revenue mobilization over the medium term and determine the likely fiscal envelope (chapter one). It next reviews the institutional structures that guide and ensure appropriate resource allocation and assesses the strength and weaknesses of the current systems using a standardized public expenditure and financial accountability scoring system (chapter two). It then assesses how public expenditure has been allocated between sectors and priorities (chapter three). It lastly reviews the allocation of resources within two priority sectors, health and education (chapter four).

Pakistan, Sindh Province - Public financial management accountability assessment

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Integrated Fiduciary Assessment
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.85%
This report presents the public financial management and accountability assessment (PFMAA) for Pakistan's Sindh province. The assessment uses the public expenditure and financial accountability (PEFA) 2005 framework, which comprises 31 performance indicators to evaluate: (i) the six core public financial management (PFM) dimensions (credibility of the budget; transparency and comprehensiveness; policy-based budgeting; predictability and control in budget execution; accounting, recording, and reporting; and external scrutiny), and (ii) the extent to which donor practices and the management of donor funds affect the PFM systems in the country. This assessment report highlights the likely impact of PFM weaknesses on budgetary outcomes, aggregate fiscal discipline, the strategic allocation of resources, and efficient service delivery.

United Republic of Tanzania Public Expenditure Review FY03 : Managing Public Expenditures for Poverty Reduction - Report on Fiscal Developments and Public Expenditure Management Issues

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.82%
In line with the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) context, this external evaluation looks at budgetary developments, primarily through the lens of the PRS, thus with important implications for the Public Expenditure Review (PER) process, which has evolved into the principal analytic instrument to support the translation of PRS objectives and strategies, into budgets. Overall fiscal policy remained very conservative in FY02, and FY03. Tanzania continues to use a cash budget system that strictly constrains spending, and commitment levels to short term availability of cash. While the system was clearly useful, improvements in budget and aid management put the continued use of a cash budget system into question; thus it is advisable to revisit options for relaxing the stringency of the cash budget. Nevertheless, the revenue to gross domestic product (GDP) ratio, fell marginally to 12.1 percent in FY02, but is projected to reach 12.5 percent in FY03, therefore, with respect to new tax policy measures, it will be important to pay attention to the impact of such measures on poverty and growth. However...

Province of Cordoba, Republic of Argentina : Public Financial Management Assessment; Provincia de Córdoba, Republica de Argentina : Evaluación de la Gestión de las FinanzasPúblicas

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Financial Accountability Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.76%
This public financial management assessment for Cordoba has three main objectives: (i) to provide the provincial governments with a reference tool for dialogue and action to strengthen their public financial management (PFM) systems; (ii) to provide an assessment of provincial PFM systems, identifying and addressing their main fiduciary issues, as well as the impact of these issues on the implementation of World Bank operations; and (iii) to contribute to the World Bank's dialogue with Argentina's national and provincial authorities on fiduciary portfolio management and reliance on country systems. The study focuses on budget preparation and execution, with emphasis on budget comprehensiveness and performance, and on public accountancy and control. It describes strengths and weaknesses of the provincial systems and analyzes their impact on fiscal discipline and the allocation of resources. Chapter 2 of this assessment describes the economic and institutional framework of the Province of San Juan. Chapter 3 summarizes the province's main achievements and challenges ahead in public financial management reform...

Brazil - Planning for Performance in the Federal Government : Review of Pluriannual Planning, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.86%
National development planning is seen as an important tool of economic development, and in Brazil, the 1988 Constitution, includes the "Plano Plurianual de Acao - PPA" (i.e., multi-year development planning), together with the Law of Budget Directives, and the annual budget laws, as part of a set of legal instruments for fiscal, and public expenditure management. Its main role is to provide the government with strategic guidelines for the allocation of public resources, to improve efficiency, and ultimately achieve a higher level of development. To summarize, Brazil's PPA is a unique attempt to use techniques of planning, transform the Brazilian Federal bureaucracy into a modern, results-oriented entity, and effectively provide public goods and services as demanded by its citizens. Its goals of revamping the state's capacity to instill a culture of entrepreneurial management in the public sector, are ambitious; yet, its approach to implementation is advisedly cautious. Its conceptual design is built explicitly on experiences form the previous PPA...

Spending for Development : Making the Most of Indonesia's New Opportunities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.87%
This Public Expenditure Review (PER) examines and explains some of the constraints facing the government in public resource management and allocation, and offers recommendations for improvements in six critical areas: fiscal space, education, health, infrastructure, public financial management, and decentralization. Although Indonesia has made important progress in reforming its public finances and increasing transparency, Indonesia's reform agenda, as highlighted by the PER, is far from complete. Equity and efficiency of spending remain major issues, for instance finding an optimal allocation of resources that reflects development priorities, and achieving an annual spending pattern that is no longer strongly skewed towards the end of the financial year. This report tries to establish the facts about Indonesia's public expenditures, presenting trends over time and analyzing the composition across sectors and levels of government. It presents comprehensive information on key sectors, including sub-national governments and state-owned enterprises in key infrastructure sectors. Based on these facts...

Russian Federation - Per Capita Financing of Education : Experience and Issues

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Country Office, Moscow Publicador: World Bank Country Office, Moscow
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Education Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.76%
This brief policy note reviews experience so far with the implementation of a new financing scheme for general education (based on the principle of 'money follows the student') in the Russian Federation. The policy note, which also briefly discusses the lessons of international experience in the field, may be relevant to other countries that are in the process of moving to a system of per capita financing of education services. Of the four major issues facing the education sector in Russia - resource mobilization and efficiency, quality and output measurement, market linkages and equity and access - the first is central: other reforms will be difficult to implement without an improvement in mobilization and allocation of resources. Two key sets of issues are discussed: 1) those issues that have affected the smooth introduction of per capita financing to date in Russia; and 2) perceived problems in relation to budget flexibility and school autonomy because of the introduction of the Treasury system and the Budget Code.

Patterns of Industrial Development Revisited : The Role of Finance

Fisman, Raymond; Love, Inessa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.75%
The authors reexamine the role of financial market development in the intersectoral allocation of resources. First, they characterize the assumptions underlying previous work in this area, in particular, that of Rajan and Zingales (1998). The authors argue that Rajan and Zingales (1998) implicitly test whether financial intermediaries allow firms to better respond to global shocks to growth opportunities. Second, the authors propose a more efficient alternative test of this hypothesis using statistical techniques developed in the social networks literature. Specifically, they find that countries have more highly correlated growth rates across sectors when they have well-developed financial markets, suggesting that financial markets play an important role in allowing firms to take advantage of global growth opportunities. These results are particularly strong when financial development takes into account both the level and composition of financial development: private banking appears to play a particularly important role in resource allocation. The authors' technique allows them to further distinguish between the "growth opportunities" hypothesis stated above and the alternative "finance and external dependence" hypothesis...

An NBDMMM Algorithm Based Framework for Allocation of Resources in Cloud

Alam, Mansaf; Shakil, Kashish Ara
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/12/2014
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65.89%
Cloud computing is a technological advancement in the arena of computing and has taken the utility vision of computing a step further by providing computing resources such as network, storage, compute capacity and servers, as a service via an internet connection. These services are provided to the users in a pay per use manner subjected to the amount of usage of these resources by the cloud users. Since the usage of these resources is done in an elastic manner thus an on demand provisioning of these resources is the driving force behind the entire cloud computing infrastructure therefore the maintenance of these resources is a decisive task that must be taken into account. Eventually, infrastructure level performance monitoring and enhancement is also important. This paper proposes a framework for allocation of resources in a cloud based environment thereby leading to an infrastructure level enhancement of performance in a cloud environment. The framework is divided into four stages Stage 1: Cloud service provider monitors the infrastructure level pattern of usage of resources and behavior of the cloud users. Stage 2: Report the monitoring activities about the usage to cloud service providers. Stage 3: Apply proposed Network Bandwidth Dependent DMMM algorithm .Stage 4: Allocate resources or provide services to cloud users...

Pass rates in primary school leaving examination in Tanzania: implication for efficient allocation of resources

Kassile,Telemu
Fonte: South African Journal of Education Publicador: South African Journal of Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.79%
This paper examines regional differentials in pass rates in Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE) in Mainland Tanzania. In particular, the paper investigates the effects of pupil-teacher ratio (PTR), pupil-latrine ratio (PLR), pupil-classroom ratio (PCR), availability of electricity in schools, and secondary school and above education of women and men aged 15-49 years on the percentage of students passing the PSLE. The paper employs a multilevel framework using aggregate regional data from Basic Education Statistics in Tanzania (BEST) and Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS). The results indicate that regional pass rates in PSLE are negatively associated with regional PTR and PLR, and that there are regional differences in these education resources. However, their effects were found to be statistically insignificant. Education of women on the other hand, was positively and significantly related to the pass rate in the PSLE. Accordingly, there is a need for formulating education policies that would promote the enrolment of women in higher education in Tanzania so as to ensure that children achieve progress in education and social economic development later in life. In addition, measures to ensure efficient allocation of resources are needed in order to address apparent regional disparities regarding access to essential education resources.