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Bipolar disorder comorbid with alcoholism: A (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

NERY, Fabiano G.; STANLEY, Jeffrey A.; CHEN, Hua-Hsuan; HATCH, John P.; NICOLETTI, Mark A.; MONKUL, E. Serap; LAFER, Beny; SOARES, Jair C.
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Alcoholism is highly prevalent among bipolar disorder (BD) patients, and its presence is associated with a worse outcome and refractoriness to treatment of the mood disorder. The neurobiological underpinnings that characterize this comorbidity are unknown. We sought to investigate the neurochemical profile of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of BD patients with comorbid alcoholism. A short-TE, single-voxel (1)H spectroscopy acquisition at 1.5T from the left DLFPC of 22 alcoholic BD patients, 26 non-alcoholic BD patients and 54 healthy comparison subjects (HC) were obtained. Absolute levels of N-acetyl aspartate, phosphocreatine plus creatine, choline-containing compounds, myo-inositol, glutamate plus glutamine (Glu + Gln) and glutamate were obtained using the water signal as an internal reference. Analysis of co-variance was used to compare metabolite levels among the three groups. In the primary comparison, non-alcoholic BD patients had higher glutamate concentrations compared to alcoholic BD patients. In secondary comparisons integrating interactions between gender and alcoholism, non-alcoholic BD patients presented significantly higher glutamate plus glutamine (Glu + Gln) than alcoholic BD patients and HC. These results appeared to be driven by differences in male subjects. Alcoholic BD patients with additional drug use disorders presented significantly lower myo-inositol than BD patients with alcoholism alone. The co-occurrence of BD and alcoholism may be characterized by neurochemical abnormalities related to the glutamatergic system and to the inositol second messenger system and/or in glial pathology. These abnormalities may be the neurochemical correlate of an increased risk to develop alcoholism in BD...

Prevalence and correlates of alcoholism in community-dwelling elderly living in Sao Paulo, Brazil

HIRATA, Edson Shiguemi; NAKANO, Eduardo Yoshio; PINTO JUNIOR, Jony Arrais; LITVOC, Julio; BOTTINO, Cassio M. C.
Fonte: JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD Publicador: JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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37.15%
Objectives To assess the prevalence of alcoholism in elderly living in the city of Sao Paulo (Brazil) and investigate associated risk factors. Methods A total of 1,563 individuals aged 60 years or older, of both genders of three districts of different socioeconomic classes (high, medium and low) in the city of Sao Paulo (Brazil) were interviewed. The CAGE screening test for alcoholism was applied and a structured interview was used to assess associated sociodemographic and clinical factors. The tests Mini Mental State Examination, Fuld Object Memory Evaluation, The Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly and Bayer-Activities of Daily Living Scale were used for cognitive and functional assessment. Results Prevalence of alcoholism was 9.1%. Multivariate regression analysis showed that alcoholism was associated with male gender, `mulatto` ethnicity, smoking, and cognitive and functional impairment. In addition, the younger the individual and the lower the schooling level, the higher the risk for alcoholism. Conclusions The results obtained in this study show that alcoholism is highly frequent in the community-dwelling elderly living in Sao Paulo, and that it is associated with socio-demographic and clinical risk factors similar to those reported in the literature. This suggests that alcoholism in the elderly of a developing country shares the same basic characteristics seen in developed countries. These findings suggest that it is essential for health services and professional to be prepared to meet this demand that will significantly grow in the next years...

Temperament and character traits in patients with bipolar disorder and associations with comorbid alcoholism or anxiety disorders

NERY, Fabiano G.; HATCH, John P.; GLAHN, David C.; NICOLETTI, Mark A.; MONKUL, E. Serap; NAJT, Pablo; FONSECA, Manoela; BOWDEN, Charles L.; CLONINGER, C. Robert; SOARES, Jair C.
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Temperament and character traits may determine differences in clinical presentations and outcome of bipolar disorder. We compared personality traits in bipolar patients and healthy individuals using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and sought to verify whether comorbidity with alcoholism or anxiety disorders is associated with specific personality traits. Seventy-three DSM-IV bipolar patients were compared to 63 healthy individuals using the TCI. In a second step, the bipolar sample was subgrouped according to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity (alcoholism, n = 10; anxiety disorders; n = 23; alcoholism plus anxiety disorders, n = 21; no comorbidity, n = 19). Bipolar patients scored statistically higher than the healthy individuals on novelty seeking, harm avoidance and self-transcendence and lower on self-directedness and cooperativeness. Bipolar patients with only comorbid alcoholism scored statistically lower than bipolar patients without any comorbidity on persistence. Bipolar patients with only comorbid anxiety disorders scored statistically higher on harm avoidance and lower on self-directedness than bipolar patients without any comorbidity. Limitations of this study include the cross-sectional design and the small sample size...

"A construção de uma escala de atitudes frente ao álcool, ao alcoolismo e ao alcoolista: um estudo psicométrico" ; The Construction of a Scale of Attitudes towards Alcohol, alcoholism and the Alcoholic: a psychometric study.

Vargas, Divane de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/06/2005 PT
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Desenvolveu-se uma escala para medir atitudes de enfermeiros frente ao álcool, ao alcoolismo e ao alcoolista (EAFAAA). Trata-se de uma escala do tipo likert que teve como fundamentação teórica os pressupostos de Pasqualli (1999). Para a elaboração dos itens da escala numa etapa inicial, realizou-se entrevista semi-estruturada com 30 enfermeiros, e da análise destas entrevistas foi extraído um total de 225 itens. O total dos itens foi submetido a análise de seis juízes especialistas no assunto. Após a análise somente 165 permaneceram. A escala composta por 165 itens foi submetida a um estudo-piloto com o objetivo de verificar as características estatísticas da mesma, para isso o instrumento foi testado numa população de 144 estudantes de enfermagem do último ano, de duas faculdades privadas. De posse dos instrumentos respondidos pelos 144 sujeitos, criou-se um banco de dados no programa SPSS (Satatistical Package for the Social Sciences v.8 for Windows), através do qual procedeu-se à análise estatística do instrumento. A análise fatorial originou uma escala composta por 96 itens divididos em cinco fatores: Fator 1: O Alcoolista, o trabalhar e o relacionar-se com o mesmo; Fator 2: Etiologia; Fator 3: Doença; Fator 4: Repercussões decorrentes do uso/abuso do álcool e Fator 5: A Bebida alcoólica. A consistência interna foi de 0...

Estudo do córtex pré-frontal dorsolateral esquerdo de pacientes portadores de transtorno afetivo bipolar em comorbidade com alcoolismo através do uso de espectroscopia por ressonância magnética de hidrogênio; Study of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of bipolar disorder patients with comorbid alcoholism using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Nery, Fabiano Gonçalves
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/06/2009 PT
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Cerca de 50% dos pacientes portadores de transtorno afetivo bipolar (TAB) apresentam comorbidade com abuso ou dependência de álcool. A presença de alcoolismo nos pacientes com TAB está associada a manifestações clínicas mais graves e a uma pior resposta ao tratamento do transtorno de humor. Entretanto, as anormalidades neurobiológicas subjacentes à co-ocorrência de TAB e alcoolismo são desconhecidas. Neste estudo, nosso objetivo foi o de comparar o perfil neuroquímico do córtex pré-frontal dorsolateral esquerdo de pacientes portadores de TAB e diagnóstico prévio de alcoolismo ao de pacientes portadores de TAB não-alcoolistas e ao de indivíduos saudáveis, usando espectroscopia por ressonância magnética de hidrogênio. Para isso, obtivemos uma aquisição de espectroscopia de hidrogênio de voxel único e tempo de eco curto em campo magnético de 1,5 Tesla do córtex préfrontal dorsolateral esquerdo em 23 pacientes bipolares alcoolistas, 27 pacientes bipolares não-alcoolistas e 57 indivíduos saudáveis. Níveis absolutos de N-acetilaspartato (NAA), compostos de colina, creatina mais fosfocreatina, mio-inositol, glutamato mais glutamina (Glu+Gln), e glutamato foram determinados e comparados entre os três grupos. Pacientes bipolares alcoolistas apresentaram níveis menores de Glu+Gln (p = 0...

Atitudes e conhecimentos de enfermeiros frente ao álcool, alcoolismo e alcoolista: estudo comparativo entre dois grupos; Attitudes and knowledge of nurses towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics: a comparative study between two groups

Soares, Janaina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/12/2010 PT
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Introdução: O consumo mundial do alcool e de outras substancias psicoativas vem crescendo significativamente nas ultimas decadas, fenomeno que tem contribuido para o aumento da carga de doencas em todo o mundo. No Brasil, os levantamentos realizados sobre o uso de álcool e drogas vem apontando elevadas taxas de dependentes dessas substancias, fato que tem contribuido para ampliar o contato dos profissionais da saude, dentre eles, os enfermeiros, com situacoes que envolvem o uso e o abuso de substancias psicoativas, independente do local onde atuem. O fato justifica a importancia da realizacao de estudos para investigar as atitudes e os conhecimentos desses profissionais frente ao alcool, o alcoolismo e ao alcoolista. Objetivo: verificar e comparar as atitudes e os conhecimentos de dois grupos de enfermeiros frente ao alcool, ao alcoolismo e ao alcoolista. Método: Tratou-se de um estudo exploratório de abordagem quase-experimental, realizado com uma amostra de 280 enfermeiros, destes, 140 foram submetidos a um curso de capacitacao na area de alcool e outras drogas e constituiram o Grupo experimental. Na coleta de dados, foram aplicados um questionario sociodemografico, um questionario de conhecimento e a Escala de Atitudes frente ao alcool...

Representações sociais dos enfermeiros de hospital geral frente ao paciente alcoolista e a etiologia para o alcoolismo; The social representations of general hospital nurses front of the alcoholic patient and the etiology in order to alcoholism

Oliveira, Cely de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/10/2011 PT
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Identificar e analisar a representação social dos enfermeiros de Hospital Geral frente ao paciente alcoolista e à etiologia para o alcoolismo. Os sujeitos do estudo foram 20 enfermeiros de três Hospitais Gerais de uma cidade do interior de São Paulo (Brasil). Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas autogravadas que foram transcritas e analisadas pelo método da Análise de Conteúdo, tendo como categoria para análise o referencial teórico da representação social. Da análise dos dados, emergiram duas categorias empíricas: 1-Representação social dos enfermeiros frente ao paciente alcoolista e 2- Representação da etiologia para o alcoolismo Os resultados apontaram que os enfermeiros concebem o paciente alcoolista como uma pessoa doente, portanto, o alcoolismo como uma doença. Em relação ao trabalhar com esse tipo de paciente, alegaram que é de difícil manejo, tendo em vista que os profissionais não estão preparados para atuar com este tipo de paciente e que sua assistência é permeada pelo estigma e preconceito. Na representação desses enfermeiros, a etiologia do alcoolismo está relacionada às questões sociais, psicológicas, emocionais e biológicas. Concluiu-se que a representação dos sujeitos do estudo frente ao paciente alcoolista e a etiologia para o alcoolismo estão atreladas mais ao senso comum do que ao conhecimento técnico-científico...

Atitudes de enfermeiros frente ao álcool, ao alcoolismo e ao alcoolista: comparativo entre enfermeiros de serviços especializados e de outros serviços de saúde; Attitudes of nurses towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics: A comparative study between nurses from specialized services and other health services

Bittencourt, Marina Nolli
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/02/2012 PT
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O alcoolismo acarreta problemas sociais, econômicos e de saúde, e as repercussões do uso abusivo de álcool na saúde do indivíduo acabam tornando a sua presença comum nos diversos serviços de saúde. Os enfermeiros, portanto, estão trabalhando cada vez mais junto a este paciente. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar e comparar as atitudes de enfermeiros de serviços especializados em álcool e outras drogas e enfermeiros de outros serviços de saúde (Serviços de atenção básica à saúde, Hospitais gerais e Serviços de saúde mental) frente ao alcool, ao alcoolismo e ao alcoolista. Os dados foram coletados por meio da Escala de Atitudes Frente ao Álcool, ao Alcoolismo e ao Alcoolista EAFAAA. Foram feitas uma análise descritiva das informações sociodemográficas da população estudada e uma análise dos dados obtidos com a aplicação da EAFAAA. Com intuito de verificar se a atitude do enfermeiro é afetada por variáveis, como tipo de serviço (especializado ou não), experiência clínica com dependentes de álcool e demais variáveis sociodemográficas, foram feitos os testes não paramétricos de Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis. A amostra do estudo foi composta por 526 enfermeiros, 44 oriundos de Serviços especializados em álcool e drogas...

Associação tabagismo-alcoolismo : introdução às grandes dependências humanas; Association between smoking and alcoholism : initiation into the major human dependencies

Chaieb, Jose Andraos; Castellarin, Cassio
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
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Objetivo Verificar a existência da associação tabagismo-alcoolismo em amostra da população geral e comparar uma amostra alcoolista com outra abstêmia, pareadas pela idade e sexo. Material e Método Na Unidade Sanitária Murialdo de Porto Alegre, RS numa área delimitada, com uma população estimada de 65.000 habitantes, foi feito estudo por corte transversal em que se definiu uma amostra representativa de indivíduos com 35 anos e mais. Através da Escala CAGE, identificou-se a população alcoolista que foi comparada a uma amostra aleatória de não-alcoolistas, pareada à alcoolista pela idade e sexo. Dentre 1.387 adultos com 35 anos ou mais, identificaram- se 129 indivíduos alcoolistas. Da listagem geral, selecionou-se aleatoriamente, uma amostra-controle de 129 indivíduos não-alcoolistas, criandose, assim, dois grupos comparativos. Foram obtidos dados comparativos através de 19 itens de um questionário. As informações de caráter genérico eram pessoais ou familiares, como renda e hábito tabágico. O grau de escolaridade, ocupação, doenças e sintomas respiratórios, medida do fluxo expiratório (Pico do Fluxo) e história de alcoolismo eram exclusivas dos indivíduos com 35 anos ou mais que responderam ao questionário. Resultados Dos 129 indivíduos (9...

Construct validation of the scale of attitudes toward alcohol, alcoholism and individuals with alcohol use disorders

Vargas,Divane de
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 EN
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Background : The attitudes toward issues related to alcohol and alcoholism have been noted as important predictors of the quantity and quality of care provided to individuals who have problems related to alcohol use. The Scale of Attitudes toward Alcohol, Alcoholism and Alcoholics (EAFAAA) (Escala de Atitudes Frente ao Álcool, ao Alcoolismo e à pessoa com transtornos relacionados ao uso do álcool – EAFAAA) has been widely used among students in health-related fields. However, the psychometric properties of this instrument have not been tested among professionals. Objective : The goal of this study was to determine the construct validity of the EAFAAA for use among health professionals. Methods : A preliminary version of the EAFAAA was distributed to a sample of health care professionals (n = 1,025). For the construct validation of the scale, the data were subjected to a factorial analysis, and the internal consistency was examined; the cutoff score of the instrument was determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results : The exploratory factor analysis and the refinement of the EAFAAA items resulted in a final version consisting of 50 items divided into four factors: (1) Work and interpersonal relationships with patients with alcohol use disorders...

Etiology of liver cirrhosis in Brazil: chronic alcoholism and hepatitis viruses in liver cirrhosis diagnosed in the state of Espfrito Santo

Goncalves,Patricia Lofego; Zago-Gomes,Maria da Penha; Marques,Carla Couzi; Mendonça,Ana Tereza; Gonçalves,Carlos Sandoval; Pereira,Fausto Edmundo Lima
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
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OBJECTIVES: To report the etiology of liver cirrhosis cases diagnosed at the University Hospital in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: The medical charts of patients with liver cirrhosis who presented to the University Hospital in Vitoria were reviewed. Chronic alcoholism and the presence of hepatitis B or C infections (HBV and HCV, respectively) were pursued in all cases. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 1,516 cases (male:female ratio 3.5:1, aged 53.2±12.6 years). The following main etiological factors were observed: chronic alcoholism alone (39.7%), chronic alcoholism in association with HBV or HCV (16.1 %), HCV alone (14.5%) and in association with alcoholism (8.6%) (total, 23.1 %), and HBV alone (13.1%) and in association with alcoholism (7.5%, total 20.6%). The remaining etiologies included cryptogenic cases (9.8%) and other causes (6.0%). The mean patient age was lower and the male-to-female ratio was higher in the cirrhosis cases that were associated with alcoholism or HBV compared with other causes. Intravenous drug abuse and a history of surgery or blood transfusion were significantly associated with HCV infection. Hepatocellular carcinoma was present at the time of diagnosis in 15.4% of cases. Chronic alcoholism associated with HCV infection was significantly associated (p<0.001) with reduced age (at the time of cirrhosis diagnosis) and increased prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (p = 0.052). CONCLUSION: Alcoholism...

Systems Genetics of Alcoholism

Sloan, Chantel D.; Sayarath, Vicki; Moore, Jason H.
Fonte: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Publicador: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
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Alcoholism is a common disease resulting from the complex interaction of genetic, social, and environmental factors. Interest in the high heritability of alcoholism has resulted in many studies of how single genes, as well as an individual’s entire genetic content (i.e., genome) and the proteins expressed by the genome, influence alcoholism risk. The use of large-scale methods to identify and characterize genetic material (i.e., high-throughput technologies) for data gathering and analysis recently has made it possible to investigate the complexity of the genetic architecture of susceptibility to common diseases such as alcoholism on a systems level. Systems genetics is the study of all genetic variations, their interactions with each other (i.e., epistasis), their interactions with the environment (i.e., plastic reaction norms), their relationship with interindividual variation in traits that are influenced by many genes and contribute to disease susceptibility (i.e., intermediate quantitative traits or endophenotypes1) defined at different levels of hierarchical biochemical and physiological systems, and their relationship with health and disease. The goal of systems genetics is to provide an understanding of the complex relationship between the genome and disease by investigating intermediate biological processes. After investigating main effects...

Focus on the Brain: HIV Infection and Alcoholism: Comorbidity Effects on Brain Structure and Function

Rosenbloom, Margaret J.; Sullivan, Edith V.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf
Fonte: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Publicador: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
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Both HIV infection and alcohol abuse have negative effects on the brain, with some unique to each condition and others shared by both conditions. Investigators have used magnetic resonance imaging to study the size and integrity of various brain structures in participants with alcoholism, HIV infection, or both conditions and in healthy control subjects. In these studies, alcoholics exhibited enlarged, cerebrospinal fluid-filled spaces (i.e., ventricles) as well as tissue shrinkage in various brain regions (e.g., the corpus callosum and frontal cortex), whereas study participants with asymptomatic HIV infection showed few abnormalities. Those with both HIV infection and alcoholism also had these volume abnormalities, particularly if they had experienced an AIDS-defining event. Diffusion tensor imaging, which measures the integrity of white matter fibers, has identified abnormalities of constituents of these fibers in both diseases. Again, people with HIV infection plus alcoholism show the greatest abnormalities, particularly those with a history of an AIDS-defining event. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which assesses the levels of brain metabolites and selective neurotransmitters, has revealed different patterns of deficits in biochemical markers of brain integrity in individuals singly affected and a compounding of effects in individuals with both HIV infection and alcoholism. Finally...

Genetic Research: Who Is At Risk for Alcoholism?

Foroud, Tatiana; Edenberg, Howard J.; Crabbe, John C.
Fonte: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Publicador: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
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The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded 40 years ago to help elucidate the biological underpinnings of alcohol dependence, including the potential contribution of genetic factors. Twin, adoption, and family studies conclusively demonstrated that genetic factors account for 50 to 60 percent of the variance in risk for developing alcoholism. Case–control studies and linkage analyses have helped identify DNA variants that contribute to increased risk, and the NIAAA-sponsored Collaborative Studies on Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) has the expressed goal of identifying contributing genes using state-of-the-art genetic technologies. These efforts have ascertained several genes that may contribute to an increased risk of alcoholism, including certain variants encoding alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and neurotransmitter receptors. Genome-wide association studies allowing the analysis of millions of genetic markers located throughout the genome will enable discovery of further candidate genes. In addition to these human studies, genetic animal models of alcohol’s effects and alcohol use have greatly advanced our understanding of the genetic basis of alcoholism, resulting in the identification of quantitative trait loci and allowing for targeted manipulation of candidate genes. Novel research approaches—for example...

Cognitive deficits in alcoholism

Stavro, Katherine
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
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Contexte : Les répercussions de l’alcool au niveau des fonctions cognitives sont bien documentées. Certaines hypothèses suggèrent que l’alcool affecte des fonctions cognitives spécifiques alors que d’autres avancent l’hypothèse de déficits diffus. Cependant, une ambigüité persiste concernant quelles fonctions cognitives sont le plus touchées par l’alcool, et à quel point la durée d’abstinence affecte la récupération cognitive. Nous avons procédé à une des premières méta-analyses qui s’intéresse aux différentes fonctions cognitives touchées par la consommation problématique d’alcool et à la durée d’abstinence requise pour une récupération au niveau des cognitions. Méthodes : Une recherche de la littérature a permis d’identifier 62 études évaluant les cognitions chez les personnes présentant des troubles liés à l’utilisation d’alcool. Les estimations de la taille d’effet ont été calculées avec la Comprehensive Meta Analysis –V2 pour les 12 domaines cognitifs suivants : quotient intellectuel, fluidité verbale/langage, vitesse de traitement de l’information, mémoire de travail, attention, résolution de problème/fonctions exécutives, inhibition/impulsivité, apprentissage verbal...

Konkurrente und prädiktive Validität uni- und multidimensionaler Subtypisierungskonstrukte der Alkoholabhängigkeit; Concurrent and predictive validity in uni- and multidimensional constructs of alcoholism subtypes

Singer, Peter Christoph
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
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HINTERGRUND: Alkoholabhängigkeit wird als eine vielschichtige und multikausal bedingte Störung betrachtet, bei der biologische, psychologische und soziale Faktoren miteinander interagieren. Entsprechend stellen Alkoholabhängige eine sehr heterogene Gruppe von Erkrankten dar. Die Beobachtung dieser Heterogenität führte zur Entwicklung verschiedener Subtypisierungskonstrukte der Alkoholabhängigkeit. Neben einem besseren Verständnis der Ätiologie, Form und dem Verlauf der Erkrankung, zielen Subtypisierungsansätze wesentlich auch auf eine Verbesserung der Therapie i.S. einer eine besseren Passung zwischen Patientenmerkmalen und Therapiemodalitäten (Patient-Treatment-Matching). ZIELE: in der vorliegenden Studie wurde die konkurrente und prädiktive Validität von 3 namhaften Subtypisierungskonstrukten der Alkoholabhängigkeit empirisch untersucht: Typ A/Typ B nach Babor, Typ 1/Typ 2 nach Cloninger sowie die Klassifikation nach early- und late-onset (EOA/LOA). Dabei interessierte insbesonders die Frage, ob die Subtypen unterschiedlich auf eine 5-HT agonistische Pharmakotherapie und unterschiedlich auf eine direktive oder non-direktive Psychotherapie respondieren. METHODEN: 200 detoxifizierte alkoholabhängige Patienten, die mindestens 5 Diagnosekriterien für Alkoholabhängigkeit nach DSM-IV und ICD-10 erfüllten...

Changes in expression of BDNF and its receptors TrkB and p75NTR in the hippocampus of a dog model of chronic alcoholism and abstinence

Xu,R.; Duan,S.R.; Zhao,J.W.; Wang,C.Y.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2015 EN
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Chronic ethanol consumption can produce learning and memory deficits. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptors affect the pathogenesis of alcoholism. In this study, we examined the expression of BDNF, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) and p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) in the hippocampus of a dog model of chronic alcoholism and abstinence. Twenty domestic dogs (9-10 months old, 15-20 kg; 10 males and 10 females) were obtained from Harbin Medical University. A stable alcoholism model was established through ad libitum feeding, and anti-alcohol drug treatment (Zhong Yao Jie Jiu Ling, the main ingredient was the stems of watermelon; developed in our laboratory), at low- and high-doses, was carried out. The Zhong Yao Jie Jiu Ling was effective for the alcoholism in dogs. The morphology of hippocampal neurons was evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The number and morphological features of BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR-positive neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG), and the CA1, CA3 and CA4 regions of the hippocampus were observed using immunohistochemistry. One-way ANOVA was used to determine differences in BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR expression. BDNF, TrkB and p75NTR-positive cells were mainly localized in the granular cell layer of the DG and in the pyramidal cell layer of the CA1...

Nurses' attitudes towards alcoholism: factor analysis of three commonly used scales

Pillon,Sandra; Laranjeira,Ronaldo; Dunn,John
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/1998 EN
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OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychometric properties of three scales commonly used to measure attitudes and beliefs about alcoholism. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using a systematic sample. SETTING: Hospital São Paulo (a public general tertiary hospital) and the adjoining Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 310 nurses and nursing teachers. INSTRUMENTS: The Marcus Alcoholism Questionnaire, The Seaman Mannello Nurses' Attitudes Towards Alcohol and Alcoholism Scale and The Tolor-Tamarin Attitudes Towards Alcoholism Scale, which were combined into one self-administered questionnaire. ANALYSIS: The scales were re-grouped into their original formats and each underwent a principal components analysis with orthogonal rotation of factors. RESULTS: Each scale was found to consist of three main factors. There was some degree of overlap in the nature of the factors that the scales measured but each scale also measured something unique. COCLUSION: The results of this comparative analysis could be used as a basis for developing a new scale covering all the important attitudinal groups identified by this study.

MEDICAL, NURSING AND PHARMACY STUDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD ALCOHOLICS AND ALCOHOLISM IN QUEENSLAND, AUSTRALIA

Engs, Ruth C.
Fonte: Universidade de Indiana Publicador: Universidade de Indiana
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
Other research papers and publications on student attitudes towards alcoholism and drinking can be found at: https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/handle/2022/17130/browse?type=dateissued; https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/handle/2022/17127/browse?type=dateissued and https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/handle/2022/17124/browse?type=dateissued. Further information about the questionnaire, calculations used for the study, and the original data base can be found in the following item records within IUScholarworks repository. Details about the reliability and validity of the SAQ are found at: http://hdl.handle.net/2022/17154; http://hdl.handle.net/2022/17181. The classic SAQ is found at http://hdl.handle.net/2022/17153. ALL QUESTIONNAIRES developed by Engs are found in the repository at: https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/handle/2022/17141/browse?type=dateissued. INFORMATION ABOUT THE QUEENSLAND ALCOHOL AND DRUG QUESTIONNAIRE USED IN THIS STUDY IS FOUND AT: http://hdl.handle.net/2022/17200. THE DATABASE FOR THIS STUDY FOR THOSE WHO WISH TO COMPARE INFORMATION OVER TIME IS LOCATED AT IUScholarWorks repository http://hdl.handle.net/2022/17155.; BACKROUND: Studies have suggested there are differences between helping professionals (physicians...

Etiology of liver cirrhosis in Brazil: chronic alcoholism and hepatitis viruses in liver cirrhosis diagnosed in the state of Espfrito Santo

Goncalves, Patricia Lofego; Zago-Gomes, Maria da Penha; Marques, Carla Couzi; Mendonça, Ana Tereza; Gonçalves, Carlos Sandoval; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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OBJECTIVES: To report the etiology of liver cirrhosis cases diagnosed at the University Hospital in Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: The medical charts of patients with liver cirrhosis who presented to the University Hospital in Vitoria were reviewed. Chronic alcoholism and the presence of hepatitis B or C infections (HBV and HCV, respectively) were pursued in all cases. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 1,516 cases (male:female ratio 3.5:1, aged 53.2±12.6 years). The following main etiological factors were observed: chronic alcoholism alone (39.7%), chronic alcoholism in association with HBV or HCV (16.1 %), HCV alone (14.5%) and in association with alcoholism (8.6%) (total, 23.1 %), and HBV alone (13.1%) and in association with alcoholism (7.5%, total 20.6%). The remaining etiologies included cryptogenic cases (9.8%) and other causes (6.0%). The mean patient age was lower and the male-to-female ratio was higher in the cirrhosis cases that were associated with alcoholism or HBV compared with other causes. Intravenous drug abuse and a history of surgery or blood transfusion were significantly associated with HCV infection. Hepatocellular carcinoma was present at the time of diagnosis in 15.4% of cases. Chronic alcoholism associated with HCV infection was significantly associated (p