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Focus On: Alcohol and the Liver

Szabo, Gyongyi; Mandrekar, Pranoti
Fonte: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Publicador: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
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46.49%
Thirty-five years ago Charles Lieber and colleagues (1975) published a seminal article in liver research, showing that alcohol itself is the primary cause for the higher prevalence of liver disease seen in alcoholic patients and not dietary deficiencies and malnutrition that often accompany alcoholism. Their groundbreaking research dispelled previously held theories that alcohol was not a major cause of liver damage and led to several decades of study of the deleterious effects of alcohol and its metabolism on the liver. Since that early study, clinical and experimental studies have continued to show a firm connection between high amounts of alcohol consumption and liver disease. This article tracks advances in alcohol-related liver disease research over the past 40 years and describes how these discoveries are helping scientists to gain insight into therapeutic targets that may help to combat this life-threatening disease.

Focus On: Epigenetics and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

Kobor, Michael S.; Weinberg, Joanne
Fonte: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Publicador: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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46.49%
Epigenetic changes—stable but potentially reversible alterations in a cell’s genetic information that result in changes in gene expression but do not involve changes in the underlying DNA sequence—may mediate some of the detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and contribute to the deficits and abnormalities associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. These epigenetic processes are linked to the chromatin (i.e., DNA, histone proteins, and other associated proteins) and commonly involve chemical modifications (e.g., methylation) of these molecules, which may result in altered expression of the affected genes. Even alcohol exposure prior to conception appears to be able to induce epigenetic changes in the parental genetic material that can be passed on to the offspring and affect offspring outcome. Similarly, epigenetic processes may occur as a result of maternal alcohol consumption during the period between fertilization of the egg and implantation in the uterus. The period most sensitive to alcohol’s adverse effects appears to be gastrulation, which corresponds to prenatal weeks 3 to 8 in the human and prenatal days 7 to 14 in the mouse, when cells are differentiating to form organs. One way in which alcohol exposure may induce epigenetic changes...

Focus On: Biomarkers of Fetal Alcohol Exposure and Fetal Alcohol Effects

Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Savage, Daniel D.
Fonte: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Publicador: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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46.49%
One of the ongoing challenges for the accurate diagnosis and treatment of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is the difficulty of confirming whether a mother drank during her pregnancy. Commonly used screening questionnaires often are unreliable, and current established biomarkers of alcohol consumption are not sensitive enough for use with many pregnant women. These limitations underscore the critical need to develop novel biomarkers with greater sensitivity for detecting moderate levels of drinking during pregnancy for longer periods of time after the last drinking episode. In addition, developing reliable biomarkers of fetal alcohol effects that can identify children at risk for adverse neurobehavioral outcomes could lead to behavioral interventions earlier in development. The use of animal models of FASD in biomarker development could accelerate progress in this challenging field of research.

Focus On: Alcohol and the Immune System

Molina, Patricia E.; Happel, Kyle I.; Zhang, Ping; Kolls, Jay K.; Nelson, Steve
Fonte: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Publicador: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
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46.51%
Alcohol abuse suppresses multiple arms of the immune response, leading to an increased risk of infections. The course and resolution of both bacterial and viral infections is severely impaired in alcohol-abusing patients, resulting in greater patient morbidity and mortality. Multiple mechanisms have been identified underlying the immunosuppressive effects of alcohol. These mechanisms involve structural host defense mechanisms in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract as well as all of the principal components of the innate and adaptive immune systems, which are compromised both through alcohol’s direct effects and through alcohol-related dysregulation of other components. Analyses of alcohol’s diverse effects on various components of the immune system provide insight into the factors that lead to a greater risk of infection in the alcohol-abusing population. Some of these mechanisms are directly related to the pathology found in people with infections such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis, and pneumonia who continue to use and abuse alcohol.

Putting the Screen in Screening: Technology-Based Alcohol Screening and Brief Interventions in Medical Settings

Harris, Sion Kim; Knight, John R.
Fonte: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Publicador: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Alcohol is strongly linked to the leading causes of adolescent and adult mortality and health problems, making medical settings such as primary care and emergency departments important venues for addressing alcohol use. Extensive research evidence supports the effectiveness of alcohol screening and brief interventions (SBIs) in medical settings, but this valuable strategy remains underused, with medical staff citing lack of time and training as major implementation barriers. Technology-based tools may offer a way to improve efficiency and quality of SBI delivery in such settings. This review describes the latest research examining the feasibility and efficacy of computer- or other technology-based alcohol SBI tools in medical settings, as they relate to the following three patient populations: adults (18 years or older); pregnant women; and adolescents (17 years or younger). The small but growing evidence base generally shows strong feasibility and acceptability of technology-based SBI in medical settings. However, evidence for effectiveness in changing alcohol use is limited in this young field.

Industrial Alcohol: Synopsis of Rules & Regulations of the Dominion & Provincial Governments of Canada

Canadian Industrial Alcohol Company Limited
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
EN
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A booklet of rules and regulations for industrial alcohol. A portion of the preparatory note reads: "We endeavoured to bring together in this booklet as much information as possible regarding the Dominion and Provincial rules and regulations at present in force controlling the sale and use of Alcohol for manufacturing, etc."

Alcohol

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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36.67%
Alcohol abuse is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol abuse is responsible for 4 percent of global deaths and disability, nearly as much as tobacco and five times the burden of illicit drugs (WHO). In developing countries with low mortality, alcohol is the leading risk factor for males, causing 9.8 percent of years lost to death and disability. Alcohol abuse contributes to a wide range of social and health problems, including depression, injuries, cancer, cirrhosis, dependence, family disruption, and loss of work productivity. Health and social problems from drinking often affect others besides the drinker. While men do the bulk of the drinking worldwide, women disproportionately suffer the consequences, including alcohol related domestic violence and reduced family budgets. Heavy alcohol use takes a particular toll on the young, and has been linked to high rates of youthful criminal behavior, injury, and impaired ability to achieve educational qualifications. Many deaths and much disease and suffering could be prevented by reducing alcohol use and related problems. The most effective approach to reduce alcohol-related problems is to implement a comprehensive set of measures to reduce alcohol consumption and related problems. Policy options include price increases...

Molecular interactions between alcohol, hepatitis C virus and interferon.

McCartney, Erin
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2011
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36.62%
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant human pathogen that in many cases, establishes a chronic life long infection of the liver, resulting in progressive liver disease that culminates in the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The only treatment option available for HCV infection is a combination therapy of Interferon-α (IFN-α) and Ribavirin. However, it is only successful in a limited number of patients. There are a number of co-factors that accelerate liver disease in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and one of the most significant factors is alcohol consumption. Furthermore, alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce the efficacy of IFN-α treatment. Despite these clinical observations, the molecular mechanisms by which alcohol exerts these effects are unknown and remain relatively unexplored. This is largely due to the lack of an appropriate model system to enable studies into the interaction between the HCV life cycle, alcohol metabolism and IFN. To overcome this limitation, we have developed an in vitro cell culture model system that enables Huh-7 cells to metabolise alcohol (ethanol), via the enzyme cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1), while also supporting HCV replication directed from both the HCV replicon and infectious HCV model systems. As such...

The neuroimmunopharmacology of alcohol.

Wu, Yue
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2011
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36.61%
Background and purpose Alcohol exposure induces glial toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling, while morphine administration leads to both TLR2 and TLR4 signalling in the central nervous system. However, the acute behavioural consequences of such immune activation remain unknown. This thesis aimed to examine: (a) the role of microglia, TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, and IL-1 receptor signalling in sedation and motor impairment following acute alcohol administration in mice; (b) the relationship between these observed behavioural effects and the changes in central and peripheral alcohol pharmacokinetic profiles; (c) the effect of alcohol on MAPK (ERK, JNK, and p38) and NFκB (IκBα) pathways and the alteration of such effects by attenuating microglial, TLR4, MyD88, and IL-1 receptor signalling ex vivo and in vitro; (d) the role of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, IL-1 receptor, and μ opioid receptor (MOR) in the interaction between alcohol and morphine as assessed by sedation in mice; and (e) the association between the TLR4 Asp299Gly SNP and opioid or alcohol dependence in humans. Experimental approach In mouse studies and mouse cellular studies, pharmacological blockade of microglial signalling, TLR4, IL-1 receptor, or both MOR and TLR4 by minocycline...

Alcohol and Youth in Portugal: An Intervention Through the Triangle Project; O Álcool e os Jovens em Portugal: Uma Intervenção Através do Projeto Triangle

Ribeiro, Sofia; Alcohol Policy Youth Network. Lisboa. Portugal. National Coordinator. Triangle Project. Lisboa. Portugal.; Silvestre, Sara; National Coordinator. Triangle Project. Lisboa. Portugal. Portuguese National Youth Council. Lisboa. Portugal.
Fonte: Ordem dos Médicos Publicador: Ordem dos Médicos
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; other; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/10/2015 ENG
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46.32%
Keywords: Adolescent; Alcohol Drinking; Portugal.; Palavras-chave: Adolescente; Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas;Portugal.

The effectiveness of community action in reducing risky alcohol consumption and harm: a cluster randomised controlled trial

Shakeshaft, Anthony; Doran, Christopher; Petrie, Dennis; Breen, Courtney; Havard, Alys; Abudeen, Ansari; Harwood, Elissa; Clifford, Anton; D'Este, Catherine; Gilmour, Stuart; Sanson-Fisher, Rob
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 14 pages
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BACKGROUND The World Health Organization, governments, and communities agree that community action is likely to reduce risky alcohol consumption and harm. Despite this agreement, there is little rigorous evidence that community action is effective: of the six randomised trials of community action published to date, all were US-based and focused on young people (rather than the whole community), and their outcomes were limited to self-report or alcohol purchase attempts. The objective of this study was to conduct the first non-US randomised controlled trial (RCT) of community action to quantify the effectiveness of this approach in reducing risky alcohol consumption and harms measured using both self-report and routinely collected data. METHODS AND FINDINGS We conducted a cluster RCT comprising 20 communities in Australia that had populations of 5,000-20,000, were at least 100 km from an urban centre (population ≥ 100,000), and were not involved in another community alcohol project. Communities were pair-matched, and one member of each pair was randomly allocated to the experimental group. Thirteen interventions were implemented in the experimental communities from 2005 to 2009: community engagement; general practitioner training in alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI); feedback to key stakeholders; media campaign; workplace policies/practices training; school-based intervention; general practitioner feedback on their prescribing of alcohol medications; community pharmacy-based SBI; web-based SBI; Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services support for SBI; Good Sports program for sports clubs; identifying and targeting high-risk weekends; and hospital emergency department-based SBI. Primary outcomes based on routinely collected data were alcohol-related crime...

Alcohol y trauma: Un problema prioritario de salud pública

Carlos Arturo Cassiani Miranda; Docente de investigación y ciancias básicas, FUSM-Cali, docente de ciancias básicas, investigación y emergencias y desastres, Universidad Santiago de Cali-Palmira; Mayra Tatiana Borrero Varona; Angela Maryely Cubides;
Fonte: Universidad del Norte Publicador: Universidad del Norte
Tipo: article; publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
SPA; ENG
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Resumen No hay duda de que existe una relación compleja entre el trauma y el consumo de alcohol que convierte a este binomio en un problema prioritario de salud pública. El trauma es una de las causas principales de la carga de la enfermedad; por su parte, el alcohol es uno de los mayores factores de riesgo para la salud global, y genera una variedad de efectos adversos en la vida de las personas, la productividad y los sistemas de salud. En el contexto del trau- ma, los consumidores de alcohol tienen más probabilidad de sufrir lesiones y que estas sean más severas. En los servicios de urgencias es posible reconocer problemas relacionados con el alcohol en pacientes a través de pruebas toxicológicas y cuestionarios de autorreporte. Los pacientes con altos niveles séricos de alcohol o que resultan positivos en cuestionarios de tamizaje están en alto riesgo de trauma recurrente y hospitalizaciones. Además, el uso de alcohol afecta el manejo inicial del paciente traumatizado de diversas maneras. Por lo tanto, la identificación y tratamiento apropiado de pacientes traumatizados que tengan problemas con alcohol es el método de prevención secundaria más eficaz para disminuir la incidencia de lesiones traumáticas relacionadas con este. Palabras clave: Alcohol...

Associations between social vulnerability, employment conditions and hazardous alcohol consumption in Chile

Castillo Carniglia, Alvaro; Ansoleaga, Elisa
Fonte: Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs Publicador: Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs
Tipo: Artículo de revista
EN
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Artículo de publicación ISI.; Introduction and Aims Studies from many different countries have found associations between alcohol use, employment and social context. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between hazardous alcohol consumption (HAC), social vulnerability and employment conditions among Chilean adults. Design and Methods A cross-sectional study, involving analysis of the 2008 National Survey on Drugs in Chile, was conducted on 8316 economically active men and women aged between 18 and 65 years, who completed the alcohol section of the survey. The participants were selected randomly and data collected through face-to-face interviews. Multilevel analysis was used to achieve the study's objectives. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test was used to define HAC. Results There were no significant associations between HAC and employment status or occupational category when controlling for potential confounders. Using the social services sector as a reference, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of HAC was 2.60 (1.963.46) for those who worked in construction, 2.03 (1.432.89) in mining, 1.74 in agriculture (1.162.63) and in industry (1.262.39), 1.73 (1.312.28) in trade, 1.67 (1.292.16) in other services and 1.42 (1.012.00) in transport. There was no association between the socioeconomic status of the participant's neighbourhood and HAC in the fully adjusted model. The perception of neighbourhood security (third quartile of insecurity) was associated with HAC (odds ratio 1.22; 95% confidence interval 1.021.46). Discussion and Conclusions HAC was independently associated with the participant's economic sector and perception of neighbourhood security in Chilean adults. It is important to perform in-depth analyses of contextual effects on individual alcohol consumption.

Interacciones farmacológicas entre la 3,4-metilenodioximetanfetamina (MDMA, éxtasis) y el alcohol administrados a dosis únicas en humanos

Hernández López, Cándido
Fonte: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2006 SPA; SPA
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36.65%
Consultable des del TDX; Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada; El policonsumo es el patrón de uso de drogas más frecuente. En el policonsumo asociado a la MDMA (éxtasis), la combinación suele ser con tabaco, cannabis o alcohol. Con anterioridad a esta memoria no existían estudios experimentales en humanos que hubieran evaluado la administración combinada de MDMA y alcohol. El objetivo de la presente memoria fue estudiar los efectos en humanos del consumo simultáneo, en condiciones controladas, de una dosis única de MDMA similar a la empleada con fines recreacionales y una dosis de alcohol capaz de producir una intoxicación etílica. Se realizó un ensayo clínico con nueve voluntarios varones y sanos con experiencia en el consumo de éxtasis y alcohol. El diseño del estudio fue doble ciego y con doble enmascaramiento, cruzado, controlado con placebo y con asignación aleatoria. Las cuatro condiciones de tratamiento consistieron en la administración oral de 100 mg de MDMA, de alcohol (vodka) a una dosis ajustada por peso de 0,8 g/kg, la combinación de MDMA y alcohol a las dosis referidas, y el placebo de ambos. Estas dosis se seleccionaron a partir de los resultados de estudios pilotos. Se evaluaron parámetros farmacodinámicos...

The cognitive and behavioural impact of alcohol promoting and alcohol warning advertisements: An experimental study

Brown, Kyle; Stautz, Kaidy; Hollands, Gareth; Winpenny, Eleanor; Marteau, Theresa
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Oxford University Press via http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agv104; Aims: To assess the immediate effect of alcohol promoting and alcohol warning advertisements on implicit and explicit attitudes towards alcohol and on alcohol seeking behaviour. Methods: We conducted a between-participants online experiment in which participants were randomly assigned to view one of three sets of advertisements: i. alcohol promoting, ii. alcohol warning, or iii. unrelated to alcohol. A total of 373 participants (59.5% female) aged 18 to 40 (M = 28.03) living in the United Kingdom were recruited online through a research agency. Positive and negative implicit attitudes and explicit attitudes towards alcohol were assessed before and after advertisements were viewed. Alcohol seeking behaviour was measured by participants? choice of either an alcohol related or non-alcohol related voucher offered ostensibly as a reward for participation. Self-reported past week alcohol consumption was also recorded. Results: There were no main effects on any of the outcome measures. In heavier drinkers, viewing alcohol promoting advertisements increased positive implicit attitudes (standardised beta = .15...

The novel ?-opioid receptor antagonist GSK1521498 decreases both alcohol seeking and drinking: evidence from a new preclinical model of alcohol seeking

Giuliano, Chiara; Goodlett, Charles R.; Economidou, Daina; Garc?a-Pardo, Maria P.; Belin, David; Robbins, Trevor W.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Everitt, Barry J.
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
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This is the accepted manuscript. The final version is available from NPG at http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2015.152; Distinct environmental and conditioned stimuli influencing ethanol-associated appetitive and consummatory behaviors may jointly contribute to alcohol addiction. To develop an effective translational animal model that illuminates this interaction, daily seeking responses, maintained by alcohol-associated conditioned stimuli (CSs), need to be dissociated from alcohol drinking behavior. For this, we established a procedure whereby alcohol seeking maintained by alcohol-associated CS is followed by a period during which rats have the opportunity to drink alcohol. This cue-controlled alcohol seeking procedure was used to compare the effects of naltrexone and GSK1521498, a novel selective ?-opioid receptor antagonist, on both voluntary alcohol-intake and alcohol-seeking behaviors. Re-derived alcohol-preferring, alcohol-nonpreferring and high alcohol-drinking replicate 1 lines of rats (Indiana University, USA) first received 18 sessions of 24-h home-cage access to 10% alcohol and water under a 2-bottle choice procedure. They were trained subsequently to respond instrumentally for access to 15% alcohol under a second-order schedule of reinforcement...

Mechanisms of conjunctive learning in a rat model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

Jablonski, Sarah A.
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.62%
Stanton, Mark E.; Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) describes a continuum of birth defects caused by maternal intake of alcohol during pregnancy. In humans, developmental alcohol exposure impairs the normal development of many brain regions, including the hippocampus and frontal cortices (Fryer et al., 2007; Norman, Crocker, Mattson, & Riley, 2009; Norman et al., 2013). Importantly, the adverse effects of alcohol are largely a result of the timing, pattern and dosage of maternal ethanol consumption (Maier & West, 2001). In rat models of FASDs, the hippocampus, for example, is particularly vulnerable to damage when alcohol is administered during the neonatal period (Livy, Miller, Maier, & West, 2003; Marino, Aksenov, & Kelly, 2004; Tran & Kelly, 2003), which is equivalent to the brain growth spurt during the third-trimester of human pregnancy (Dobbing & Sands, 1979). The context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE) is a hippocampus-dependent variant of contextual fear conditioning in which learning about the context (preexposure) and associating the context with shock (training) occur on separate occasions. This produces conditioned freezing during testing relative to a control group not preexposed to the conditioning context. Alcohol exposure from Postnatal Day (PD) 4-9 in the rat (equivalent to human third trimester) reveals a linear relationship between alcohol dose and spatial/contextual learning impairment in the CPFE (Murawski & Stanton...

Prevalencia de consumo de alcohol y cigarro entre adolescentes brasileños: revisión sistemática; Prevalência de consumo de álcool e tabaco entre adolescentes brasileiros: revisão sistemática; Prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian adolescents: a systematic review

Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Campos, Wagner de; Lopes, Adair da Silva
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2012 ENG
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36.61%
OBJECTIVE: To analyze alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian adolescents and identify higher-risk subgroups. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Searches were performed using four databases (LILACS, MEDLINE /PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar), specialized websites and the references cited in retrieved articles. The search was done in English and Portuguese and there was no limit on the year of publication (up to June 2011). From the search, 59 studies met all the inclusion criteria: to involve Brazilian adolescents aged 10-19 years; to assess the prevalence of alcohol and/or tobacco use; to use questionnaires or structured interviews to measure the variables of interest; and to be a school or population-based study that used methodological procedures to ensure representativeness of the target population (i.e. random sampling). RESULTS: The prevalence of current alcohol use (at the time of the investigation or in the previous month) ranged from 23.0% to 67.7%. The mean prevalence was 34.9% (reflecting the central trend of the estimates found in the studies). The prevalence of current tobacco use ranged from 2.4% to 22.0%, and the mean prevalence was 9.3%. A large proportion of the studies estimated prevalences of frequent alcohol use (66.7%) and heavy alcohol use (36.8%) of more than 10%. However...

Prevenção do uso de álcool na atenção primária em municípios do estado de Minas Gerais; Prevención del uso de alcohol en la atención primaria en municipios del estado de Minas Gerais, Sureste de Brasil; Alcohol prevention within primary care in municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil

Ronzani, Telmo Mota; Mota, Daniela Cristina Belchior; Souza, Isabel Cristina Weiss de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/2009 POR; ENG
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36.61%
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of implementing screening strategies associated with brief interventions for prevention of alcohol abuse, within primary healthcare. METHODS: This evaluation study was conducted among 113 primary healthcare professionals and managers in three municipalities in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, in 2007. The health professionals participated in a training to perform screening associated with brief interventions for alcohol use prevention. Six months after this training, a follow-up evaluation was carried out. The qualitative assessment involved participant observation, interviews with managers before the training and during the follow-up, and focus groups with healthcare professionals during the follow-up. The content analysis technique was applied. The following instruments were used for the quantitative assessment: Objective Knowledge Questionnaire, Moralization Scale for Alcohol Use, Perception Model for Alcohol Use Questionnaire and Preventive Practices for Alcohol Use Questionnaire. The municipalities were compared before the training and during the follow-up, and longitudinal evaluations were performed in each municipality, using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Participation by the managers and integration among the health professionals regarding the practices of screening and brief intervention were associated with greater effectiveness of implementation. This occurred in one of the municipalities...

The complex interplay of genetics, epigenetics, and environment in the predisposition to alcohol dependence

Díaz-Anzaldúa,Adriana; Díaz-Martínez,Alejandro; Díaz-Martínez,Leonila Rosa
Fonte: Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Publicador: Instituto Mexicano de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2011 EN
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36.63%
Alcohol dependence is a major global problem, associated with lower quality of physical and mental health, higher mortality and an enormous familial and social cost. Prevention strategies and treatment of this condition are therefore crucial. Success of psychosocial programs and pharmacological treatments has been frequently reported, but a better understanding of the etiology of this chronic disease is needed. For this purpose, the identification of associated factors in different populations is of great significance. It has been clearly demonstrated by twin and adoption studies and supported by animal models that both genetic and environmental components play a substancial role in alcohol dependence. Heritabil ity estimates range from 40 to 60%, depending on the specific analyzed sample. Several coexisting genetic variants in each affected individual, rather than a single gene transmitted in a Mendelian manner, may be the rule in alcohol dependence. Similarly, many environmental factors can increase susceptibility, and because of their diversity, they do not have to be the same in every affected person. Environmental contribution may be linked to epigenetics, which refers to chemical processes that can modify gene activity without changing the sequence of DNA. In humans...