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O comportamento de viagens de acesso a aeroportos considerando a confiabilidade do tempo de viagem; Airports access travel behavior considering travel time reliability

Alves, Bianca Bianchi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/05/2014 PT
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37.2%
A confiabilidade do tempo de viagem é atualmente considerada como um fator de elevada importância nos estudos de demanda por transportes, com base no reconhecimento que sistemas congestionados são uma realidade inevitável nos grandes centros urbanos, gerando incertezas nas estimativas do tempo de viagem e tornando sua representação através de uma variável de tempo médio excessivamente simplista. O acesso terrestre aos aeroportos em São Paulo constitui um contexto interessante para o estudo da confiabilidade, considerando os altos custos atribuídos à eventual perda do voo e o ambiente de alta variabilidade de tempos de viagem na região. O estudo da confiabilidade do tempo de viagem tem sido em geral desenvolvido com um enfoque exclusivamente quantitativo, usando modelos matemáticos que se baseiam em teorias de maximização da utilidade estimados a partir de dados de preferência declarada. Em geral, são ignorados: (i) os efeitos de fatores latentes no comportamento, (ii) o fato de que o comportamento nem sempre reflete as intenções, (iii) a complexidade dos fatores envolvidos nas escolhas e (iv) os fatores que descrevem o contexto em que ocorre a decisão. O trabalho utiliza métodos mistos para a coleta e análise dos dados...

The exploitation of public Brazilian airports under private regime: a review of government leased and permit grants

Mello,Fabiana Peixoto de; Prazeres,Dorieldo Luiz dos
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Planejamento dos Transportes Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Planejamento dos Transportes
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
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This paper investigates the regulatory aspects of exploiting Brazilian public airports under private regime. The proposition is that the essential difference between leased and permit grants is the level of regulatory intervention by the Government, which then determines the legal regime to which the airport exploitation is predominantly subject to. The descriptive and exploratory methodology used is based on previous literature on airport exploitation. The results indicate that airports exploited predominantly under private regime, that is, those granted permits, are generally subject to a lighter regulatory intervention than those exploited under public regime, which are granted a lease, hence the level of necessary regulatory intervention is the main criterion for determining which type of grant shall be used for a certain airport. The conclusion also indicates that the level of regulatory intervention to which an airport is subject will depend on the value of use to the collectivity that its operations generate. The optimal granting policy is an ideal combination of types of grants directly related to the diversification of the airport services and the different levels of regulatory intervention that they require.

Emergence of secondary airports and dynamics of regional airport systems in the United States

Bonnefoy, Philippe A
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 157 p.; 9414556 bytes; 9423168 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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With the growing demand for air transportation and limited capacity at major airports, there is a need to increase the capacity of airport systems at the metropolitan area level. The increased use of secondary airports has been and is expected to be one of the key mechanisms by which future demand is met in congested metropolitan areas. This thesis provides an analysis of the factors influencing the emergence of secondary airports and the dynamics of multi-airport systems. The congestion of the core airport, the distribution of population at the regional level, the existence and the proximity of a secondary basin of population close to secondary airports were identified as major factors. Ground access and airport infrastructure, the low level of connecting passengers at the core airport were also identified as a contributing factors. The entry of an air carrier -generally a low-cost carrier- was determined to be an essential stimulus in the emergence phenomenon impacting fares and airport competition levels resulting in market stimulation. But the emergence of secondary airports imposes new constraints that need to be taken into account in the national air transportation system improvements. By providing an identification of the factors that influence the emergence of secondary airports and an understanding of the dynamics of regional airport systems this research provides useful support for the planning and the future development of multi-airport systems.; by Philippe A. Bonnefoy.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Emergence of Secondary Airports and Dynamics of Regional Airport Systems in the United States

Bonnefoy, Philippe A; Hansman, R. John
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 5320149 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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With the growing demand for air transportation and limited capacity at major airports, there is a need to increase the capacity of airport systems at the metropolitan area level. The increased use of secondary airports has been and is expected to be one of the key mechanisms by which future demand is met in congested metropolitan areas. This thesis provides an analysis of the factors influencing the emergence of secondary airports and the dynamics of multi-airport systems. The congestion of the core airport, the distribution of population at the regional level, the existence and the proximity of a secondary basin of population close to secondary airports were identified as major factors. Ground access and airport infrastructure, the low level of connecting passengers at the core airport were also identified as a contributing factors. The entry of an air carrier –generally a low-cost carrier- was determined to be an essential stimulus in the emergence phenomenon impacting fares and airport competition levels resulting in market stimulation. But the emergence of secondary airports imposes new constraints that need to be taken into account in the national air transportation system improvements. By providing an identification of the factors that influence the emergence of secondary airports and an understanding of the dynamics of regional airport systems this research provides useful support for the planning and the future development of multi-airport systems.; NASA Langley...

Emergence and Impact of Secondary Airports in the United States

Bonnefoy, Philippe; Hansman, R. John
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 449813 bytes; application/pdf
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As major airports in the United States have reached their maximum capacity and became congested, available capacity at surrounding airports has been utilized by the emergence of secondary airports. Given the expectation of a larger number of operations in the National Airspace System (NAS) in the upcoming years, this trend of secondary airports emergence is likely to strengthen. In order to understand the dynamics of the regional airport systems, a study of the factors that led to the emergence of secondary airports was performed. The distribution of population at the regional level, the existence and the proximity of a secondary basin of population close to secondary airports were identified as major factors. Ground access and airport infrastructure were also enabling factors. The nature of the regional airport system, in terms of “Hub” versus “non-Hub” was also identified as a contributing factor. The entry of a low cost carrier was determined to be the essential stimulus in the emergence phenomenon. These entries modify the airport dynamics resulting in the stimulation of both local and peripheral markets. Following the entry of a low cost carrier several other carriers, both legacy and low cost, enter and consolidate the growth of the emerging airport. As a consequence of the emergence of secondary airports and their integration into a region wide multi-airport system...

Analysis and Modeling of Ground Operations at Hub Airports

Anderson, Kari; Carr, Francis; Feron, Eric; Hall, William
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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Building simple and accurate models of hub airports can considerably help one understand airport dynamics, and may provide quantitative estimates of operational airport improvements. In this paper, three models are proposed to capture the dynamics of busy hub airport operations. Two simple queuing models are introduced to capture the taxi-out and taxi-in processes. An integer programming model aimed at representing airline decision-making attempts to capture the dynamics of the aircraft turnaround process. These models can be applied for predictive purposes. They may also be used to evaluate control strategies for improving overall airport efficiency.; This research was supported in part by Honeywell, by an MIT teaching fellowship, and by NASA under grant NAG 2-1128 and through the National Center of Excellence for Aviation Operations Research (NEXTOR).

Modelo em dinâmica de sistemas para gestão de aeroportos brasileiros; System dynamics model for capacity management of Brazilian Airports

Marcos, Antonio Rodolfo Araújo
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção; Estratégia; Qualidade; Gestão Ambiental; Gestão da Produção e Operações Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção; Estratégia; Qualidade; Gestão Ambiental; Gestão da Produção e Operações
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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The importance of the airport sector in the development of a country refers to the need for studies on management of airports, to aid the process of decision making. In Brazil, growth in passenger demand is why investments in order to balance the capacity of an airport with air demand. Thus, the study aims to develop a model for Dynamic Systems able to assist airport management in Brazilian sizing subsystems an airport (Passenger Terminal, Runway and Patio). The methodology of this work consists in the steps of defining the problem, formulating the hypothesis dynamic building simulation model, and validation experiments. Finally, we examined the status of each subsystem in thirteen Brazilian airports in scenarios current, most likely and optimistic for air passenger demand; Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior; A importância do setor aéreo no desenvolvimento de um país nos remete a necessidade da realização de estudos sobre gerenciamento de aeroportos, visando auxiliar o processo de tomada de decisões. No Brasil, o crescimento da demanda de passageiros é motivo de investimentos com intuito de equilibrar a capacidade de um aeroporto com a demanda aérea. Diante disso, o trabalho tem como objetivo desenvolver um modelo em Dinâmica dos Sistemas capaz de auxiliar a gestão aeroportuária brasileira no dimensionamento dos subsistemas de um aeroporto (Terminal de Passageiros...

Airport Economics in Latin America and the Caribbean : Benchmarking, Regulation, and Pricing

Serebrisky, Tomas
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
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This report presents the findings of a first-ever, comprehensive study of how Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region airports have evolved during a notable period of transition in airport ownership. It is an unbiased, positive analysis of what happened, rather than a normative analysis of what should be done to reform and to attract private sector participation to the airport sector. It takes the first step to respond to the need for more conclusive information about the influence of airport ownership on economic performance. The report centers on the study of three dimensions of performance: productive efficiency, institutional setup for the governance of the sector, and financing. This multifaceted report uses a range of advanced quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the relationship between airport ownership and performance in the LAC region. After a comprehensive overview, chapters 1 and 2 provide the necessary background for the air transport sector and the evolution of private sector participation and investment in airport infrastructure. In chapter 3...

Measuring the Technical Efficiency of Airports in Latin America

Perelman, Sergio; Serebrisky, Tomas
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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This paper studies the technical efficiency of airports in Latin America. The evolution of productive efficiency in the region has seldom been studied, mainly due to lack of publicly available data. Relying on a unique dataset that was obtained through questionnaires distributed to airport operators, the authors use Data Envelopment Analysis methods to compute an efficient production frontier and compare the technical efficiency of Latin American airports relative to airports around the world. In a second stage, they estimate a truncated regression to study the drivers of observed differences in airport efficiency. According to the results, institutional variables (private/public operation), the socioeconomic environment (level of gross domestic product), and airport characteristics (hub airport, share of commercial revenues) matter in explaining airport productive efficiency. Finally, the authors compute total factor productivity changes for Latin American airports for 1995-2007. The region has implemented a wide variety of private sector participation schemes for the operation of airports since the mid 1990s. The results show that private operators have not had higher rates of total factor productivity change.

The Growing and Evolving Business of Private Participation in Airports : New Trends, New Actors Emerging

Andrew, Doug; Dochia, Silviu
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Private sector management and financing of airports has continued to expand in developing countries. Long-term concessions for airports are the predominant model today, with governments often taking a minority shareholding in the venture. Careful attention to policy design, regulatory issues, and management of concessions will continue to be important in ensuring that private participation delivers efficient and effective airport infrastructure services.

Assessment of the Regulatory Philosophy of Airports Economic Regulatory Authority of India

Forsyth, Peter; Niemeier, Hans-Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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27.44%
The report has a high quality and discusses the main issues of regulation. The overall aim is that it reflects best practice regulation. Furthermore, AERA is an independent regulator accountable to democratic bodies. Also in that respect the regulatory institutions in India are well designed and superior to the majority of European countries which have dependent regulators open for regulatory capture.

Privatization, Regulation and Airport Pricing: An Empirical Analysis for Europe

BEL, Germà; FAGEDA, Xavier
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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This paper examines factors determining prices that airports charge to airlines. Using data for 100 large airports in Europe, we find that they charge higher prices when they move more passengers. Additionally, competition from other transport modes and other nearby airports imposes some discipline on the pricing behaviour of airports. Low-cost carriers and airlines with a high market share seem to have a stronger countervailing power. Finally, we find that private airports not regulated charge higher prices than public or regulated airports. From our analysis, we can infer that market power of each airport is dependent upon its specific characteristics.

Estimación de funciones de costes de corto y largo plazo para los aeropuertos españoles: 2009-2012; Estimation of short-run and long-run cost functions for spanish airports: 2009-2012

Lascurain Torres, Alicia
Fonte: Universidade de Cantabria Publicador: Universidade de Cantabria
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
SPA
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RESUMEN: En este trabajo se han estimado diferentes especificaciones de funciones de costes para los aeropuertos españoles durante el período 2009-2012. A partir de una tecnología Cobb-Douglas, se han incluido como inputs el capital, el trabajo y los consumos intermedios. Debido a que se ha considerado el capital como un factor fijo a corto plazo, se ha diferenciado entre los costes de largo plazo (costes totales) y los de corto plazo (costes variables). Por otro lado, los outputs que se han tenido en cuenta son los pasajeros, las mercancías y las aeronaves, fusionando en la variable WLU las variables pasajeros y mercancías debido a la numerosa existencia de ceros en el caso de las mercancías. Los datos han sido obtenidos de la base de datos del Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE) y de la página web de Aeropuertos Españoles y Navegación Aérea (AENA). Para poder realizar las estimaciones pertinentes, se han calculado detalladamente los precios de los factores productivos (capital, trabajo y consumos intermedios). Los resultados sugieren, por un lado, que los costes marginales de largo plazo son muy superiores a los de corto debido a que en los primeros se incluye el coste del capital; y por otro, que existen economías crecientes a escala para todos los modelos estimados. Además...

Regional public support to airlines and airports: an unsolved puzzle.

Núñez Sánchez, Ramón
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; acceptedVersion
ENG
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This paper proposes a structural model to explain the motivation of regional public authorities to arrange marketing agreements for route and traffic development. Furthermore, using data from Spanish airports, we empirically test this model obtaining the demand function according to the preferences of public authorities. The results show that the public budget, airport’s attributes or intermodal competition affect to the demand for aircraft operations of regional public agencies. Finally, we propose an empirical method to determine the market power of airlines within these marketing agreements in a particular airport or route.

Accessing the airways: special assistance measures for people with disabilities and their carers

Kailasam, Punitha
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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This research report explores the levels of assistance available for people with disabilities at Australian airports. This is achieved by analyzing the legislative acts and disability assistance systems at major international airports around the world and a simultaneous examination the current codification and practices at Australian airports. One of the reasons that prompted this study is the recent media attention that has been given to the negative experiences of people with disabilities at Australian airports. For example, in November 2009, Kurt Feamley, who crawled the Kokoda Track in New Guinea ended up doing the same through a Brisbane airport terminal and to a restroom after Jetstar staff refused to allow him to use his own wheelchair 1 • In Australia, airlines have contractual and statutory obligations to provide services to people with disabilities. However, there is no mandatory regulation or code of practice for the aviation industry to provide services to people with disabilities in Australia. Further, it should be noted that the aviation industry has to comply with provisions from bodies such as Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA), Australian Building Codes Board (ABCB) in Australian and International Aviation Transport Authority (lATA) and International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) internationally. These laws are intended to cater to the needs of people with disabilities and their carers in accessing air travel. However...

Market Power : Airports - Vertical Integration between Airports and Airlines

Serebrisky, Tomás
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Viewpoint; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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In the late 1980s and the 1990s many countries privatized airports or concessioned their operation. The United Kingdom began the trend, followed by other countries adopting new forms of infrastructure ownership and management. To control infrastructure licensing and the "natural monopoly" characteristics of some airport services, governments developed regulatory policies for airport systems. The operation of an airport creates incentives to transfer the airport's market power to the air transport market. If the airport market is regulated but the airport operator is allowed to control at least one airline, those incentives can give rise to anticompetitive practices aimed at displacing competing airlines. When the regulatory framework for airports lacks explicit rules about such vertical integration, that can have consequences for competition in the air transport market. Australia and Chile, for example, have an explicit prohibition on vertical integration. By contrast, Argentina has no restrictions on vertical integration leaving it to the antitrust agency to decide whether to approve or reject a vertical merger. Airlines provide air transport services by combining aircraft...

Privatizing Airports-Options and Case Studies

Juan, Ellis J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Viewpoint; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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Traditionally, the air transport sector--airlines, airports, and air navigation services--has been in state hands. The private sector became involved in the sector only recently, beginning with the airlines. Privatization of airport infrastructure and private sector participation in air navigation are also at an early stage. The air transport sector will require large capital investments over the next fifteen years to modernize aircraft fleets, improve airport infrastructure, introduce more sophisticated air navigation systems, and meet the demand of new markets. There is no doubt that governments will be unable to fund all necessary investments, and that the private sector will therefore play an increasing role in meeting the sector's needs. Table 1 in this Note presents three options of private sector participation in airports. Table 2 presents two options most suitable for transferring airport activities to the private sector. The Note also outlines cases of airport privatization in Colombia, Jamaica...

The new challenges of tourism airports. The case of Faro airport

Almeida, Claudia
Fonte: ESGHT, Universidade do Algarve Publicador: ESGHT, Universidade do Algarve
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 ENG
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Airport infrastructures play an important role in the heart of the regions in which they are located, as well as in certain sectors of activity, such as tourism. In recent years, their positioning has been altered from a passive attitude to an active attitude due to new market demands and new trends which have arisen in associated sectors, such as the air transport sector. The 1997 deregulation of air transport in Europe led to major changes on the way people travel. One of the most interesting results of deregulation, was caused by the fact that the low cost airlines appeared on the market with a business model distinct from the traditional scheduled and charter airlines, allowing for the opening up of new airports and new tourist destinations. Those airlines are also responsible for some of the main changes in the airports operations and market positioning. The increase in routes and frequencies offered by these airlines enabled the emergence of new tourist destinations in Europe that spread, later on, to other places all over the world. The ease of purchasing an airline ticket online, and the availability of attractive routes at affordable prices allowed the development of new market segments, such as second home tourism. One of the main impacts of low cost operations has been the changing of airport's structures...

Los peligros que emanan de las zonas aledañas a los aeropuertos y aeródromos de Colombia a consecuencia de las aves; Hazards arising from the surrounding areas and airports

Nuñez, Edgar Fernando
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Administración Aeronáutica Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Administración Aeronáutica
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
SPA
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El impacto con fauna en Colombia tiene diversos factores que afectan la seguridad operacional de las aeronaves en las aproximaciones a los aeropuertos, indudablemente el factor más contribuyente a este fenómeno, es el uso inadecuado a las zonas aledañas a los aeródromos. Los factores principales de esta situación la viven las aerolíneas y sus tripulaciones, los cuales tienen que convivir y evaluar los riegos de operación cuando se presentan las amenazas por peligro aviario. Actualmente la aeronáutica civil adelante gestiones con el fin de minimizar el impacto que este tema genera, por medio de la aplicación de normas y planes de acción, que los aeropuertos deben implementar; pero la realidad de esta problemática existen vacíos entre la autoridad aeronáutica, los municipios y las gobernaciones, donde los eventos por impacto de fauna son críticos y requieren de acciones definitivas en conjunto, con el fin de lograr solucionar el problema de raíz.; The impact to wildlife in Colombia has several factors that affect the safety of aircraft approaches to airports, undoubtedly contributing factor to this phenomenon is the improper use of the areas surrounding the airfield. The principal actors in this situation living airlines and their crews...

Study of airport snow and ice removal and its economic implications

Lichliter, Andreas
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Faghri, Ardeshir; For airports that regularly encounter storms with snow and ice in an average year, removal of this snow and ice is essential for maintaining safe operations. This snow and ice removal must not only ensure safe operations but also must be efficient because efficient removal is crucial to reducing airport delays and the resulting cost and impact that a snow storm has on an airport and its surrounding economy. The purpose of this thesis is to assist airports in determining whether they are appropriately managing their snow and ice removal resources and applying engineering best practices. Two airports in Europe and two airports in the U.S. that have approximately the same amount of annual snow fall and handle the same mix and volume array of aircraft have been identified for analysis of their snow and ice removal practices. These airports are Frankfurt, Germany and Vienna, Austria in Europe and Philadelphia and Boston in the United States. Data collection and categorization has been done by means of a Microsoft® Excel workbook, consisting of eight worksheets, to model the characteristics of the airport, the ground equipment, the storm, the aircraft and the time of day. This input information, in turn, generates the output consisting of delays and costs associated with a given scenario and allows for comparison with the other airports being studied. The excel workbook has been run on the four airports and on six snow storms. The analysis identifies which airports allocated their resources most efficiently and provides a basis for recommendations to the airports. The model may also be replicated for use by other airports. The thesis concludes that the airports in Europe are more prepared for and have a more efficient snow and ice removal strategy than the airports in the United States. Analysis was done for numerous parameters; the cost per passenger...