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A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

VISMARI, Lucio Flavio; CAMARGO JUNIOR, Joao Batista
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm, based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining ""absolute"" and ""relative"" safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 [14], using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the ""Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting"" (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties...

Vigilância dependente automática no controle de tráfego aéreo: avaliação de risco baseada em modelagem em redes de Petri fluidas e estocásticas.; Automatic dependent surveillance on air traffic control: risk assessment based on fluid stochastic Petri nets modeling.

Vismari, Lúcio Flávio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/09/2007 PT
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Ao longo das últimas décadas, o paradigma de sistemas críticos em segurança vem sofrendo transformações como forma de se adequar às novas necessidades demandadas, tais como redução de custos e aumento da produtividade. No Sistema de Gerenciamento de Tráfego Aéreo, esta transformação é preconizada pelo paradigma CNS/ATM (Communication, Navigation, Surveillance / Air Traffic Management), baseado no uso de novas tecnologias digitais, sobretudo satélites, aplicadas à comunicação, à vigilância, à navegação e ao gerenciamento do tráfego aéreo. O CNS/ATM visa reduzir as restrições do atual paradigma de tráfego aéreo como forma de atender sua crescente demanda, mantendo (ou melhorando) os atuais níveis de segurança. Porém, esta mudança de paradigma traz consigo novos desafios e necessidades, sobretudo, quanto à forma de se avaliar os sistemas resultantes. Em face destes novos desafios e problemas enfrentados, este trabalho propôs um método de avaliação de risco, constituído pela união dos métodos "absoluto" e "relativo" preconizados pela Organização da Aviação Civil Internacional (OACI), pelo emprego do formalismo das redes de Petri Fluidas e Estocásticas (RPFE) na modelagem dos sistemas, e pela comparação entre os valores de métricas de segurança estimados para o sistema avaliado e para um sistema legado. Este método foi aplicado para avaliar a segurança na mudança do atual paradigma de vigilância aérea...

Aircraft accident in Brazil: Boeing vs. Legacy?

Almeida, I. M.; Paraguay, A. I. B. B.; Reichmann, M. L. A. B.; Brebbia, CA
Fonte: Wit Press/computational Mechanics Publications Publicador: Wit Press/computational Mechanics Publications
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 483-492
ENG
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46.26%
Air accidents represent a small proportion of the flights registered worldwide. Airplane collisions in the air are rare. In September of 2006, a Boeing 737-800 collided in midair with a Legacy Jet. It was the largest accident registered in the history of Brazilian aviation until that time. The present study explores aspects of press coverage of the accident. Data and information reported in the media about the accident from September 2006 to August 2007 were collected and discussed. Media coverage called attention to two unusual aspects: politicisation of the discussion, culminating in the opening of congressional inquiries, and equally the concomitance of police investigations interfering in the work of agencies responsible for the official accident investigation. Emphasis on assigning guilt and establishing penalties may close the windows of opportunity an accident had opened for discussions on the improvement of air safety. In Brazil, political imperatives and organizational pressures have interfered and the possibilities of organizational learning from the accident have been drastically curtailed.

Air Carrier Flight Operations

Midkif, Alan H.; Hansman, R. John; Reynolds, Tom G.
Fonte: MIT International Center for Air Transportation Publicador: MIT International Center for Air Transportation
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 2271636 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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Most air carriers operate under a system of prioritized goals including safety, customer service (on-time departures and arrivals) and operating economics. The flight operations department is responsible for the safe and efficient movement of passengers and/or cargo which ultimately generate the revenue for the airline. The major components needing to be coordinated for any given flight include the aircraft and support equipment, cockpit and cabin crews (together known as the “flight crew”), maintenance, and ground service personnel. Although the maintenance and ground crew activities are critical to support flight operations, the emphasis in this document is on the regulation and scheduling of the flight crews to conduct a given flight, followed by a detailed discussion of the activities of flight crews during the phases of a typical revenue flight sequence. Note that this chapter does not attempt to address detailed airmanship and flight maneuvering topics and only includes such information in the context of the overall flight operation. However, specific flight procedures that may have a direct impact on the operational goals are included to aid in understanding the nature and complexity of the factors involved.

Urban Transport Dysfunction and Air Pollution in Dakar : Study Conclusions

Patrick, Bultynck
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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36.28%
This Note presents the main conclusions of an on-site study of urban transport dysfunction and air pollution in the Dakar agglomeration carried out from August to November 1998. The study aims to define the main causes of transport dysfunction, quantify them, and recommend a suitable framework for monitoring changes in the parameters. This forms part of the sub-Saharan African air quality initiative that was launched jointly in 1998 by the Urban Transport Component of the sub-Saharan African Transport Policy Program (SSATP) and the World Bank Institute. The kinds of dysfunction the study found in Dakar agglomeration include: road safety problems, congestion, air pollution, and noise pollution. This Note recommends that air pollution caused by urban transport can be reduced through measures in a number of areas: institutional, technical, or organizational.

Untersuchungen zur Arbeitssicherheit des Imkers bei der Anwendung von Oxalsäure zur Bekämpfung der Varroatose; Occupational safety of oxalic acid treatments against varroatosis

Gumpp, Thomas
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
Ziel der Studie Die Varroatose ist eine Bienenkrankheit verursacht durch die Milbe Varroa destructor. Seit Anfang der 1990er Jahre werden Bienenvölker erfolgreich mit Oxalsäure-Aerosolen gegen Varroatose behandelt. Es bestehen jedoch Bedenken hinsichtlich der Anwendersicherheit der Behandlungsverfahren. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es, die inhalative Belastung von Imkern durch Oxalsäure-Aerosole während der Varroatose-Bekämpfung zu ermitteln und zu bewerten. Methodik An der Untersuchung beteiligten sich 20 Imker. Eine Gruppe (n=10) versprühte eine 3%-ige wässrige Oxalsäure-Lösung mit einem Zerstäuber direkt auf die Waben (Sprühverfahren). Eine zweite Gruppe (n=10) sublimierte 1 bis 2g Oxalsäure-Dihydrat mit Hilfe eines beheizten Metallpfännchens über das Flugloch in den Bienenkasten (Verdampfungsverfahren). Pro Imker wurden 10 bis 21 Bienenvölker behandelt. In Atemnähe des Imkers wurden Proben der einatembaren und der alveolengängigen Fraktion luftgetragener Partikel nach der Membranfiltermethode gewonnen. Es wurde dabei auf bewährte Probenahmeverfahren des Berufsgenossenschaftlichen Instituts für Arbeitssicherheit (BIA) und der US-amerikanischen Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) zurückgegriffen. Die Oxalsäure-Belegung der Membranfilter wurde anschließend im Labor mittels HPLC bestimmt. Ergebnisse Der mittlere Anteil einatembarer Oxalsäure-Aerosole betrug beim Sprühverfahren 0...

Air Traffic Management in the Single European Sky: Standardisation of safety and liability issues

SIMONCINI, Marta
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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36.35%
This paper aims to analyse the European system of Air Traffic Management (ATM) as a specific case study of risk regulation in the framework of the European integration process. At the present, the implementation of the Single European Sky is a growing area of EU policy, which shows the potential and the difficulties of coordinating national competences in a supranational regulatory framework. This search for coordination has a direct impact on air traffic safety itself and it involves the development of risk mitigation policies at both the EU level and at the level of individual Member States. The existing trade off between risk and safety as conveyed by technology affects both the instruments and the content of risk management. Since the failure of safety measures when providing air services could result in disaster, regulation needs to address this issue. Two main questions assist in the implementation of the regulatory framework: what level of protection is appropriate against such uncertainty and the risks of possible catastrophic impact, and who bears the risk in case the delivered safety system fails. Precautionary safety standards on the one hand and liability remedies on the other are therefore addressed as the key issues for the regulation and distribution of risks. By focusing on these issues...

Transport for Health : The Global Burden of Disease from Motorized Road Transport

Global Road Safety Facility, The World Bank; Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
Fonte: Seattle: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Publicador: Seattle: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This report summarizes the findings of a long and meticulous journey of data gathering and analysis to quantify the health losses from road deaths and injuries worldwide, as part of the path-finding Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. It is important, first, to acknowledge the profound contribution made by the lead authors and global team of injury prevention professionals to estimate the disease burden of road trauma, before absorbing their findings and recommendations. Without their dedication and tenacity, the way forward would be less certain. The first GBD study, published nearly two decades ago, signaled an emerging road safety crisis in developing regions of the world. It triggered a remarkable program of global advocacy that culminated in the United Nations decade of action for road safety and global plan to bring road safety outcomes under control in these regions by 2020. However, limited investment has been mobilized so far to implement the UN initiative. The second GBD studies, and related analyses presented in this report...

Towards Cleaner Industry and Improved Air Quality Monitoring in Kazakhstan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.26%
Kazakhstan's environmental situation is at a critical cross-road, where the pressures of economic growth without adequate environmental controls and the legacy of industrial production are beginning to take their toll on society in terms of health. In addition, Kazakhstan strives to promote itself as a modern and resource-efficient economy that is worthy of top international standing. In response, a series of proactive planning has emerged through such strategic initiatives as the Green Economy Concept with its accompanying actions that aim to reduce the ecological footprint of economic activities, promote sustainable economic growth and place Kazakhstan on a cleaner and greener development path. The document details the background and context of the situation in the country, and the initiatives that are being taken to improve air quality.

Air Transport : Challenges to Growth

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
The air transport market in Sub-Saharan Africa presents a strong dichotomy. In Southern and East Africa the market is growing: three strong hubs and three major African carriers dominate international and domestic markets, which are becoming increasingly concentrated. In contrast, in Central and West Africa the sector is stagnating, with the vacuum created by the collapse of Cote d'Ivoire and the demise of several regional airlines, including Air Afrique, still unfilled. Throughout, there are many unviable small state-owned operations that depend on subsidies and have a monopoly over the domestic market. There are also some promising signs: growth in air traffic has been buoyant, the number of routes and the size of aircraft are being adapted to the market, and a number of large carriers are viable and expanding. But in spite of this, overall connectivity has been declining. As oil prices rise, the role of air transportation will be looked at even more critically. Africa is a poor continent, and some countries face the potential of further isolation as the cost of flying increases. At a time when Africa's infrastructure requirements are being widely debated...

Yemen, Republic of - Republic of Yemen Air Transport Sector : Strategy Note

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study
ENGLISH
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36.37%
Yemen, the fastest urbanizing country in the Middle East and North Africa region, has a very limited natural resource base and the efficiency of its cities is therefore essential for its future economic growth. However, this efficiency is increasingly handicapped by the poor performance of urban transport, especially in the capital Sana'a. This report presents the main findings of this review and makes key recommendations to improve the efficiency of urban transport in Sana'a. It contains the following chapters: a first chapter presents the general context of the study, characterized by fast demographic and spatial growth in Sana'a, causing major difficulties in terms of urban transport management; a second chapter analyses and describes the main underlying issues affecting the performance and efficiency of Sana'a transport system; a third chapter presents institutional, technical and financing recommendations to improve the performance of Sana'a transport system; and a fourth chapter presents a tentative three-year action plan for implementation of the recommendations.

East Africa's Infrastructure : A Regional Perspective

Ranganathan, Rupa; Foster, Vivien
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
Sound infrastructure is critical for growth in East Africa. During 1995-2005, improvements in infrastructure boosted growth by one percentage point per year, due largely to wider access to information and communication technologies (ICTs). Although power infrastructure sapped growth in other regions of Africa, it contributed 0.2 percentage points per year growth in East Africa. If East Africa's infrastructure could be improved to the level of the strongest performing country in Africa (Mauritius), regional growth performance would be boosted by some six percentage points, with power making the strongest contribution. East Africa's infrastructure ranks behind that of southern and western Africa across a range of indicators, though in terms of access to improved sources of water and sanitation and Internet density, it is comparable with or superior to the subcontinent s leader, southern Africa. By contrast, density of fixed-line telephones, power generation capacity, and access to electricity remain extremely low...

ECCAS's Infrastructure : A Regional Perspective

Ranganathan, Rupa; Foster, Vivien
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
Sound infrastructure is fundamental for growth across the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). During 1995-2005, improvements in infrastructure boosted growth in Central Africa by 1 percentage point per capita annually, primarily due to the introduction and expansion of mobile telephony. Improved roads also made a small contribution. Conversely, inadequate power deterred growth to a greater degree than elsewhere in Africa. ECCAS must address a complex set of challenges. Economic activity takes place in isolated pockets separated by vast distances. Two countries are landlocked and dependent on regional corridors; seven countries have populations of under 10 million; and eight have economies that are smaller than $10 billion/year. This difficult economic geography demands a regional approach to developing infrastructure. Yet Central Africa's infrastructure has the poorest performance record in all of Africa on most aggregate indicators. Transportation is slow and the most expensive in Sub-Saharan Africa...

The SADC’s Infrastructure : A Regional Perspective

Ranganathan, Rupa; Foster, Vivien
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
Infrastructure improvements boosted growth in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) by 1.2 percentage points per capita per year during 1995-2005, mainly from access to mobile telephony. Road network improvements made small growth contributions, while power sector inadequacy had a negative impact. Infrastructure improvements that matched those of Mauritius, the regional leader, could boost regional growth performance by 3 percentage points. SADC's 15 member countries include small, isolated economies with island states, a mix of low- and middle-income countries, and larger countries with potentially large economies. The economic geography reinforces the importance of regional infrastructure development to create a larger market and greater economic opportunities. The region's infrastructure indicators are high for Africa. The regional road network is well-developed, and surface transport is comparatively cheap, but subject to delays and long-haul fees. An extensive railway system competes directly with road transport. With integration and improvements...

ECOWAS's Infrastructure : A Regional Perspective

Ranganathan, Rupa; Foster, Vivien
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.4%
Infrastructure improvements boosted growth in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) by one percentage point per capita per year during 1995-2005, primarily thanks to growth in information and communication technology. Deficient power infrastructure held growth back by 0.1 percent. Raising the region's infrastructure to the level of Mauritius could boost growth by 5 percentage points. Overall, infrastructure in the 15 ECOWAS countries ranks consistently behind southern Africa across many indicators. However, there is parity in access to household services -- water, sanitation, and power. ECOWAS has a well-developed regional road network, though sea corridors and ports need attention. Surface transport is expensive and slow, owing to cartelization, restrictive regulations, and delays. There is no regional rail network. Air transport has improved despite the lack of a strong hub-and-spoke structure. Safety remains a concern. Electrical power, the most expensive and least reliable in Africa...

Uganda’s Infrastructure : A Continental Perspective

Ranganathan, Rupa; Foster, Vivien
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
Uganda has made substantial progress on its infrastructure agenda in recent years. The early and successful ICT reform detonated a huge expansion in mobile coverage and penetration resulting in a highly competitive market. Power sector restructuring has paved the way for a rapid doubling of power generation capacity. Uganda is doing well on the water and sanitation MDGs, and has made effective use of performance contracting to improve utility performance. However, a number of important challenges remain. Despite reforms, the power sector continues to hemorrhage resources due to under-pricing and high distribution losses, while electrification rates are still very low. Providing adequate resources for road maintenance remains a challenge, and further investment is needed to increase rural connectivity and improve road safety. Addressing Uganda's infrastructure challenges will require sustained expenditure of around $1.4 billion per year over the next decade, strongly skewed towards capital expenditure. Uganda already spends approximately $1 billion per year on infrastructure...

Improving Global Road Safety : Towards Equitable and Sustainable Development, Guidelines for Country Road Safety Engagement

Bliss, Tony; Raffo, Veronica
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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36.34%
The sheer scale of health losses from road crashes makes road safety a development priority for the health and transport sectors of low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Poorer population groups bear a disproportionate burden of these health losses which are generally influenced by socio-economic factors and other social and environmental determinants, and increasing emphasis is being placed on global health promotion and equity as a core, crosscutting development strategy. Country development aims to promote higher living standards for all, with an emphasis on improved health, education and people's ability to participate in the economy and society. Improving road safety in LMICs contributes to the achievement of these development goals by addressing the vulnerability of citizens to catastrophic death and injury arising from road crashes and requires large-scale investments in infrastructure, institutions, vehicle fleets and the health and wellbeing of individuals. World Bank road safety projects have usually been components of larger road infrastructure and urban transport investment operations...

Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project : Background Analysis Report

Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center
Fonte: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This document was devloped as it initiated a pilot project - dubbed Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project in support of Guangzhou's efforts to improve air quality in preparation for the 2010 Asian Games. The goal of this project was to develop a proof of concept for a truck program in Guangdong Province, and possibly China, that aims to: Enhance the fuel economy of the truck fleet, Reduce black carbon and other air pollutants from trucks and consequently obtain GHG emission savings.The project was implemented by the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center (CAI-Asia Center), in cooperation with Cascade Sierra Solutions, US EPA and World Bank, and with support from Guangzhou Environmental Protection Bureau (GEPB), Guangzhou Transport Committee (GTC), and Guangzhou Project Management Office (PMO) for the World Bank.The pilot project aims to contribute to addressing three problems related to trucks in Guangzhou and the wider Guangdong province simultaneously: (a) fuel costs and security; (b) air pollution and associated health impacts...

Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project : Guangzhou Truck Sector Survey Report

Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center
Fonte: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The World Bank (WB) initiated a pilot project - dubbed "Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project" in support of Guangzhou's efforts to improve air quality in preparation for the 2010 Asian Games. The goal of this project was to develop a "proof of concept" for a truck program in Guangdong Province and China that aims to : Enhance the fuel economy of the truck fleet, reduce black carbon and other air pollutants from trucks, and consequently obtain GHG emission savings.This document is the Survey Report, which summarizes the results of a survey of truck drivers and companies conducted between June 17, 2009 and June 23, 2009. The survey intends to fill the gaps in information needed to determine the program design and the potential fuel savings and emission reductions through a wider green freight program.

China Road Safety Engagement Strategy : Interim Report

Bliss, Tony; Breen, Jeanne; Howard, Eric
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The World Bank's road safety partnership with the Government of China (GOC) is maturing at a time when a deeper awareness of the negative development impacts of road crashes in low and middle-income countries coincides with the shift in road safety management policies and practices in leading high-income countries which are becoming focused on the elimination of road deaths and serious injuries, rather than accepting them as human failure and the inevitable price of economic progress. This shift in results focus is also aligned with other sustainable development initiatives addressing environmental, energy and public health goals, which present significant opportunities to capture the co-benefits of harmonized initiatives. For these reasons the World Bank and GOC agreed to review the situation in China and prepare a new road safety engagement strategy. The proposed strategy aims to facilitate an accelerated transfer of road safety knowledge and scaling up of investment at national, provincial and city levels to rapidly improve China's road safety performance...