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Air uptake along the lower nappe of a spillway aerator

LIMA, Alberto Carlos De Melo; SCHULZ, Harry Edmar; GULLIVER, John S.
Fonte: INT ASSOC HYDRAULIC RESEARCH Publicador: INT ASSOC HYDRAULIC RESEARCH
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
Air concentration measurements performed along the lower nappe of a bottom aerator through the impact and downstream flow regions permitted the calculation of air entrainment along the jet length. The air uptake was also measured in the air supply conduit. It was shown that integration of the concentration profiles along the jet overestimates the air uptake measured in the air supply conduit. Corrective procedures were developed by adapting the concept of entrained and entrapped air, in which the latter is re-circulated in the cavity, but both are measured by air concentration probes.; CAPES Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior[2201/06-2]; FAPESP Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo

Modelagem de sistema de controle de ar condicionado baseado em redes de Petri.; Air conditioning control systems modelling using Petri nets.

Almeida, Antonio Gabriel Souza
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/10/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
Dentre as tendências de uso racional de recursos, principalmente energia, e da necessidade de assegurar a produtividade e qualidade na execução de atividades produtivas, destaca-se o conceito de edifício inteligente. Este ambiente materializa o conceito de integração dos sistemas prediais potencializando a otimização dos recursos e a eficiência do trabalho humano. Neste contexto, abordagens conceituais baseadas em sistemas a eventos discretos e técnicas derivadas de rede de Petri têm sido introduzidas como uma alternativa eficaz de modelagem e análise das soluções de integração dos sistemas prediais. Um resultado expressivo destas iniciativas são os métodos propostos para a modelagem e análise de estratégias de gerenciamento de sistemas de ar condicionado, utilizando uma abordagem híbrida, onde são considerados os aspectos de sistemas a eventos discretos e as variáveis de dinâmica contínua. Contudo, as abordagens e métodos existentes são limitados a soluções específicas de implementação, como os sistemas de ar condicionado com volume de ar contínuo. Assim, o presente trabalho introduz uma extensão destas abordagens para modelar e analisar soluções de automação predial que incluem sistemas de ar condicionado com volume de ar variável. A eficiência deste método na concepção e validação destas soluções é ilustrada através de um estudo de caso.; Among the trends of rational use of resources...

Modelo integrado de gestão da qualidade do ar da região metropolitanja de Salvador; Air management quality integrated model for the Salvador metropolitan region

Diogenes Ganghis Pimentel de Lyra
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/02/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
A poluição atmosférica tem sido um dos principais temas de interesse no meio científico, tendo em vista sua implicação na qualidade da saúde humana, dos ecossistemas e dos bens construídos, identificando-se com uma dimensão fundamental na busca do desenvolvimento sustentável. A avaliação da qualidade do ar numa região depende da obtenção de dados confiáveis que descrevam as condições ambientais existentes e que sejam representativos da região em estudo. Os parâmetros a serem monitorados permitirão determinar o grau de controle necessário e, portanto, os respectivos recursos.desta forma encarar-se a poluição atmosférica como um problema de gestão pública e do bem estar comum. O presente trabalho apresenta o projeto para instalação de uma Rede de Monitoramento da Qualidade do Ar para a Região Metropolitana de Salvador - RMS, detalhando os parâmetros a serem monitorados, a localização dos pontos de monitoramento, num total de 25 estações, a especificação preliminar dos equipamentos e outros recursos e necessidades para o monitoramento dos poluentes convencionais, assim como dos parâmetros meteorológicos. A implantação desta Rede de Monitoramento da Qualidade do Ar - RMA ratificará a abertura e o interesse da gestão municipal atual com relação ao conhecimento da qualidade do ar a nível regional...

Evaluating conflict zones of air pollution in a mid-sized city

Mendes, José F. G.; Silva, Lígia Torres
Fonte: WIT Press Publicador: WIT Press
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
The urban argument assumes currently an extreme level of relevance for the governments and the society in general, due to the exponential increase of people living in cities and the consequent associated degradation of quality of life growth is continuously applying pressures over resources, infrastructures and facilities, affecting negatively the standard of living in cities. In this context, evaluating and monitoring the urban environmental quality has become a main issue particularly important when considered as a decision-support tool that contributes to more liveable and sustainable cities. Viana do Castelo is a midsized city located on the northwest seaside, which undertook the challenge of developing an environmental program leading to the integration in a Healthy Cities European Network. The identification of urban air quality levels and people exposure was considered a priority in this program. The scientific toolbox adopted to develop the studies includes air quality simulation models and a GIS platform. Based on traffic and site physical characteristics, air pollution maps were created and overlaid together with the land-use and population distribution layers. This combination was the basis for the identification of critical zones...

Environmental Regulations, Air and Water Pollution, and Infant Mortality in India

Hanna, Rema N.; Greenstone, Michael
Fonte: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University Publicador: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
Using the most comprehensive data file ever compiled on air pollution, water pollution, environmental regulations, and infant mortality from a developing country, the paper examines the effectiveness of India’s environmental regulations. The air pollution regulations were effective at reducing ambient concentrations of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. The most successful air pollution regulation is associated with a modest and statistically insignificant decline in infant mortality. However, the water pollution regulations had no observable effect. Overall, these results contradict the conventional wisdom that environmental quality is a deterministic function of income and underscore the role of institutions and politics.

An Analysis of Physical and Monetary Losses of Environmental Health and Natural Resources in India

Mani, Muthukumara; Markandya, Anil; Sagar, Aarsi; Strukova, Elena
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
This study provides estimates of social and financial costs of environmental damage in India from three pollution damage categories: (i) urban air pollution; (ii) inadequate water supply, poor sanitation, and hygiene; and (iii) indoor air pollution. It also provides estimates based on three natural resource damage categories: (i) agricultural damage from soil salinity, water logging, and soil erosion; (ii) rangeland degradation; and (iii) deforestation. The estimates are based on a combination of Indian data from secondary sources and on the transfer of unit costs of pollution from a range of national and international studies. The study estimates the total cost of environmental degradation in India at about 3.75 trillion rupees (US$80 billion) annually, equivalent to 5.7 percent of gross domestic product in 2009, which is the reference year for most of the damage estimates. Of this total, outdoor air pollution accounts for 1.1 trillion rupees, followed by the cost of indoor air pollution at 0.9 trillion rupees...

Urban Air Quality Management : Coordinating Transport, Environment, and Energy Policies in Developing Countries

Kojima, Masami; Lovei, Magda
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
Transport-related air pollution is increasingly contributing to environmental health risks in many developing country cities. The social costs of poor urban quality can be significant, making this issue an immediate priority. Long-term measures for dealing with the problem include urban planning, and traffic demand management. This paper however, focuses primarily on cost-effective measures, that are feasible to implement, and that can bring measurable results in the short to medium term. There is a tendency in the environment sector, to focus narrowly on controlling emissions by importing the best available technology. Cost-effective, and sustainable solutions, however, require much broader approaches. In developing countries, improving air quality is not simply a matter of importing advanced technologies, while, choices concerning feasibility, sequencing, and timing of pollution reducing measures, have serious fiscal, and economic consequences. Thus the guiding principle for selection of strategies, should be the balancing of costs...

Fire without Smoke : Learning from the National Program on Improved Chulhas

Rehman, Ibrahim Hafeezur; Malhotra, Preeti
Fonte: New Delhi: The Energy and Resources Institute and the World Bank Publicador: New Delhi: The Energy and Resources Institute and the World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.21%
A major section of over 720 million rural poor in India continue to depend on biomass sources for meeting their energy requirements. Most of these poor people continue to burn biomass in energy-inefficient devices, locally called Chulhas. This study report is based on an evaluation of the National Program for Improved Chulhas (NPIC) conducted as part of a larger Bank study entitled India : household energy, indoor air pollution and health (World Bank 2002). This book synthesizes learning and insights from various programs implementation across different socio-economic and geographic regions of the country. The critical issues related to dissemination of improves cook-stoves discussed in the book will find wide application not only in India but in other developing countries as well. It is imperative that we take forward the initiatives undertaken in the past to provide energy-efficient option for meeting the cooking needs of rural communities, yet underserved by modern energy options.

India : Diagnostic Assessment of Select Environmental Challenges, Volume 1. An Analysis of Physical and Monetary Losses of Environmental Health and Natural Resources

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.3%
This report provides estimates of social and financial costs of environmental damage in India from three pollution damage categories: (i) urban air pollution, including particulate matter and lead; (ii) inadequate water supply, poor sanitation, and hygiene; (iii) indoor air pollution; and four natural resource damage categories: (a) agricultural damage from soil salinity, water logging, and soil erosion; (b) rangeland degradation; (c) deforestation; and (d) natural disasters. The estimates are based on a combination of Indian data from secondary sources and on the transfer of unit costs of pollution from a range of national and international studies. The quantification and monetary valuation of environmental damage involves many scientific disciplines including environmental, physical, and biological and health sciences, epidemiology, and environmental economics. Estimates of the costs of degradation are generally reported as a percent of conventional gross domestic product (GDP). This provides a useful estimate of the importance of environmental damages but it should not be interpreted that GDP will increase by a given percent if the degradation were to be reduced to zero. Any measures to reduce environmental degradation will have a cost and the additional cost goes up the greater is the reduction that is made. Hence a program to remove all degradation can well result in a lower GDP. This report provides a measure of the overall damage relative to a benchmark...

Mexico Energy Environment Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.17%
This energy environment review has two parts. The first addresses greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and examines energy consumption patterns across key economic sectors with a view to forecasting future energy demand and supply, and associated emissions of pollutants (both local and global pollutants but focusing on GHGs. Several energy-pricing instruments for reducing GHG emissions are then examined in terms of their impact on energy consumption and resulting emissions as well as their macroeconomic and socioeconomic consequences. the second part targets urban air pollution ariding from transport emissions and, more specifically, gasoline-fueled vehicles. It examines vehicle fleet characteristics in terms of vehicle technology, vehicle category, age, service and engine size, and relations to emissions. It reviews the history of the vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) program in Mexico City to distill lessons, and analyzes the emissions data collected in then I/M program. It studies the link between fuel quality and vehicle performance ...

Toward Cleaner Urban Air in South Asia: Tackling Transport Pollution, Understanding Sources

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
This ESMAP study was undertaken to provide technical input to support the region-wide process of developing and adopting cost-effective and realistic policies and efficient enforcement mechanisms to reverse the deteriorating trend in urban air quality in South Asia. It focused mainly on fine particulate matter, estimated to account for most premature mortality and illnesses caused by outdoor air pollution. Through stakeholder feedback, the study examined two areas where more information and policy analysis could complement ongoing activities on air pollution control: making vehicle emissions inspection more effective and understanding sources of small particulate matter. Poorly maintained older technology vehicles contribute disproportionately to total vehicular emissions. A common approach to identifying gross polluters and ensuring that they are repaired or retired is a vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) program. The analysis carried out in this study recommends that limited resources be concentrated on applying more robust (but also costly) test protocols to vehicle categories in large cities likely to contain a disproportionately large fraction of high annual-kilometer...

The Cost of Air Pollution

Sander, Klas; Mira-Salama, Daniel; Feuerbacher, Arndt
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
In 2010, the Municipality of Cuenca, through its environmental management commission (EMC), and the World Bank, through the environment and natural resources department, started a collaboration targeted towards strengthening EMC’s capacity to better manage Cuenca’s environmental assets and to provide EMC with hard evidence and data that will serve as departing point for decision-makers towards the formulation of public policy. Two main areas of focus were chosen: (i) costs of environmental degradation for Cuenca; and (ii) climate change impacts and resilience measures for Cuenca. This report describes the findings of the first area of focus. This report tries to capture the main results and to describe the assumptions and input data utilized, through a detailed step-by-step description of an internationally-accepted and validated methodology, an explanation of input data needs, equations used, assumptions made, and alternative calculation streams; and through the demonstration of this methodology as it is applied to the real case of air pollution in Cuenca. Analyses about the cost of environmental degradation are often used as an environmental priority-setting tool...

China : Air, Land, and Water - Environmental Priorities for a New Millennium

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
This report represents a further chapter in the dialogue between the World Bank and the People's Republic of China about how to promote economic growth and protect China's environment. There are three cross-cutting issues that keep recurring throughout the analysis. These issues characterize the environmental management challenge over the next decade: First, the environmental agenda is becoming so complex and large that it cannot be adequately managed by one agency--the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) and its counterparts at lower levels--working on its own. Effective solutions will require the combined and coordinated efforts of many different branches of government and the re-thinking of many development policies. Second, the systemic fiscal and budgetary problems facing the country as a whole are making it difficult for environmental institutions to do their work. There is a growing gap between assigned responsibilities and the resources provided to carry out those responsibilities. Third...

Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Adaptation in the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sector in Nicaragua; Impactos del cambio climatico en los recursos hidricos y adaptacion del sector de agua y saneamiento en las zonas rurales de Nicaragua

World Bank
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
Climate change is at the top of the development agenda in Central America. This region, together with the Caribbean, is highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change in Latin America. Climate change is manifesting itself through higher average temperatures and more frequent droughts that result in higher water stress, and through the rising frequency of extreme weather events such as tropical storms, hurricanes, floods and landslides, all of which pose significant challenges in the rural water supply and sanitation sector. The paper starts with a review of the historic data on temperature and precipitation trends in Central America and particularly at the regional level in Nicaragua. The data reveal a clear trend of the growing climate variability, increased water stress for crops, and greater frequency of extreme weather events. The rising intensity and frequency of ex-treme weather events is among the most critical risks to the region's development agenda, and they translate into high economic losses. This paper examines the impacts and implications of potential climate change on water resources in Nicaragua and makes key recommendations to integrate climate change and rural water supply and sanitation policies and programs in a way that increase resilience to current and future climate conditions.

Towards Cleaner Industry and Improved Air Quality Monitoring in Kazakhstan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
Kazakhstan's environmental situation is at a critical cross-road, where the pressures of economic growth without adequate environmental controls and the legacy of industrial production are beginning to take their toll on society in terms of health. In addition, Kazakhstan strives to promote itself as a modern and resource-efficient economy that is worthy of top international standing. In response, a series of proactive planning has emerged through such strategic initiatives as the Green Economy Concept with its accompanying actions that aim to reduce the ecological footprint of economic activities, promote sustainable economic growth and place Kazakhstan on a cleaner and greener development path. The document details the background and context of the situation in the country, and the initiatives that are being taken to improve air quality.

The Arab Republic of Egypt : For Better or For Worse, Air Pollution in Greater Cairo

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
This sector note presents the results of the World Bank-led study on the development of a strategy of the government of the Arab Republic of Egypt to respond to air quality problems in Greater Cairo. The Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area (GCMA) is the largest urban and industrial center in Egypt, which, in 2009, was ranked eighth among the world's top urban agglomerations. Twenty million people live and work in Greater Cairo, which is surrounded by major heavy industries to the north and the south, including large, as well as small and medium enterprises. As in many megacities in the world, air pollution has been a chronic problem in Greater Cairo. The persistent air quality problem represents a serious hurdle to the competitiveness that is a key to the socioeconomic development of Greater Cairo and therefore the nation. An action plan has prepared for the implementation of the main sectorial policies. This action plan will have to be developed and changed where required because it can only be implemented within a coherent framework of environmental...

Cleaning Pakistan's Air : Policy Options to Address the Cost of Outdoor Air Pollution

Sanchez-Triana, Ernesto; Enriquez, Santiago; Afzal, Javaid; Nakagawa, Akiko; Khan, Asif Shuja
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
Pakistan's urban air pollution is among the most severe in the world and it engenders significant damages to human health and the economy. Air pollution, inadequate water supply, sanitation, and hygiene are the top environmental priority problems in Pakistan. Industrialization and urbanization, in conjunction with motorization, can result in further deterioration of urban air quality. This book examines policy options to strengthen the Pakistan clean air program (PCAP) to better address the cost imposed by outdoor air pollution upon Pakistan's economy and populace. The approach provided in this book recommends that the federal and provincial environmental protection agencies (EPAs) take on a limited number of high return, essential, and feasible interventions drawn largely from the PCAP. The objective of this book is to examine policy options to control outdoor air pollution in Pakistan. The findings of the analysis aim at assisting the Government of Pakistan (GoP) in the design and implementation of reforms to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of Pakistan's ambient air quality institutions. The overarching theme of this book is that prioritizing interventions is essential to address the cost of outdoor air pollution...

Cleaner Transport Fuels for Cleaner Air in Central Asia and the Caucasus

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.07%
Combating pollution needs to be based on standards supported by enforced regulatory, and physical infrastructure, not always in place in countries in transition from central planning to a market economy. Policymakers in the Central Asia and the Caucus region, however, are recognizing the need for such steps against pollution, demonstrated by their commitment to phase out lead from gasoline. To support these efforts, the Bank undertook a regional study on cleaner transport fuels for urban quality improvement in the region, recognizing that fuel quality improvements should be linked to broader air quality management, to ensure cost-effectiveness, and in addressing these issues, it is therefore possible to build on economies of scale, avoid duplications, allow the transfer of experience, and facilitate intra-regional trade in petroleum products. This lead to this study's observations, and recommendations. The establishment of continuous monitoring of the "classical" pollutants, should permit comparison with international standards...

Clean Air and Healthy Lungs : Enhancing the World Bank's Approach to Air Quality Management

Awe, Yewande; Nygard, Jostein; Larssen, Steinar; Lee, Heejoo; Dulal, Hari; Kanakia, Rahul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.12%
This report specifically deals with air pollution, which was reported, by the World Health Organization (WHO), as the single largest environmental health risk globally in 2012 (WHO, 2014a). Air pollution from outdoor and household sources jointly account for more than 7 million deaths (3.7 million from ambient air pollution and 4.3 million from household air pollution). The following sections of this chapter present the objectives of, and key aspects of the institutional context for, this report followed by an examination of some of the major drivers of deteriorating ambient air quality in developing countries; air pollution sources and impacts; and the status of air quality management in developing countries. Chapter two presents the results of a desk-based portfolio review of World Bank projects that are relevant to reduction of air pollution. This is followed, in chapter three, by an examination of case studies of World Bank projects whose objectives include addressing ambient air pollution, highlighting good practices and lessons for future work of the Bank in supporting clients. Chapter four presents possible approaches for enhancing future Bank support in helping clients to improve air quality and reduce the associated adverse health outcomes. Chapter five presents overall conclusions and recommendations.

Potencial de contaminación atmosférica en la República Argentina; Air pollution potential in the Argentina Republic

Gassmann, María Isabel
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1998 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.2%
Una política adecuada en el desarrollo de un país debe contemplar todos aquellos aspectos relacionados con la protección y control de sus recursos. En la evaluación del costo - beneficio de la adjudicación de zonas rurales para la ubicación de centros industriales o urbanos, uno de los recursos a considerar es el aire. Entre los estudios que se deben realizar para conocer el impacto que produciría la ubicación de una zona industrial o urbana sobre la calidad del aire, es necesario estudiar el potencial de contaminación atmosférico de la región. Este potencial se define como la capacidad de la atmósfera de asimilar o diluir los contaminantes a ser emitidos al aire. En general, el potencial se estudia conociendo el comportamiento de dos variables atmosféricas: el espesor de la capa límite atmosférica y la velocidad del viento promediada dentro de la capa límite o viento transporte. El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los parámetros atmosféricos que determinan el potencial de contaminación atmosférico desde el punto de vista climatológico para la República Argentina, de manera de poder caracterizar zonas con mayor potencial de contaminación dentro del país y proveer de una herramienta sobre la cual basarse en la planificación urbana e industrial del país. Utilizando once años de información meteorológica correspondiente a ocho estaciones meteorológicas de altura de la red del Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (Salta...