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Efeito da poluição do tráfego na pressão arterial dos agentes de trânsito em Santo André; Traffic air pollution effect in the blood pressure of traffic agents in Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil

Chiarelli, Paulo Sérgio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/10/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
A constante exposição à poluição do ar continua acometendo a saúde das populações, resultando num aumento da morbidade e mortalidade decorrente de problemas respiratórios e cardiovasculares. O estudo é transversal, com o objetivo de avaliar as modificações na pressão arterial sistêmica, e pressão de pulso, em indivíduos do gênero masculino, jovens, expostos à poluição do tráfego no município de Santo André, região metropolitana da Grande São Paulo - Brasil. Os níveis horários diários de poluentes do ar obtidos junto a Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB), as informações sobre temperatura e precipitação foram obtidas junto ao Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET). Foi realizada a análise descritiva de todas as variáveis do estudo. Foi utilizado o modelo de equação linear, tendo como variáveis dependentes a pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), pressão arterial diastólica (PAD) e pressão de pulso (PP), os poluentes do ar como vaiáveis independentes, e como variáveis de controle a temperatura mínima, precipitação, período de trabalho e período do dia. Foram analisados 19 agentes de tráfego do município de Santo André. A média de idade do grupo estudado foi de 42...

Aplicação de modelos de volatilidade estocástica em dados de poluição do ar de duas grandes cidades: Cidade do México e São Paulo; Application of stochastic volatility models to air pollution data of two big cities: Mexico City and São Paulo

Zozolotto, Henrique Ceretta
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/06/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
Estudos recentes relacionados ao meio ambiente vêm ganhando grande destaque em todo o mundo devido ao fato dos níveis de poluição e a destruição das reservas naturais terem aumentado de maneira alarmante nos últimos anos. As grandes cidades são as que mais sofrem com a poluição e aqui serão estudados os níveis de poluição do ar em duas cidades em particular, a Cidade do México e São Paulo. A Cidade do México apresenta sérios problemas com os níveis de ozônio e São Paulo é a cidade brasileira com os maiores problemas relacionados à poluição. Entre os diferentes modelos considerados para analisar dados de poluição do ar, pode-se considerar o uso de modelos de séries temporais para modelar as médias diárias ou semanais de poluição. Nessa direção pode-se usar modelos de volatilidade estocástica. Essa família de modelos estatísticos tem sido extensivamente usada para analisar séries temporais financeiras, porém não se observa muitas aplicações em dados ambientais e de saúde. Modelos de volatilidade estocástica bivariados e multivariados, sob a aproximação Bayesiana, foram considerados para analisar os dados, especialmente usando métodos MCMC (Monte Carlo em Cadeias de Markov) para obter os sumários a posteriori de interesse...

Air pollution control with semi-infinite programming

Vaz, A. Ismael F.; Ferreira, E. C.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /10/2004 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
Air pollution control problems can be formulated as a semi-infinite programming (SIP) problem and we describe three main approaches. The first consists in optimizing an objective function while the pollution level in a given region is kept bellow a given threshold. In the second approach the maximum pollution level in a given region is computed and in the third an air pollution abatement problem is considered. These formulation allow to obtain the best control parameters and the maxima pollution positions, where the sampling stations should be placed. To illustrate this idea, the (SIP)AMPL modeling language was used to code three academic problems. The SIPAMPL software package includes an interface to connect AMPL to any SIP solver, in particular to the NSIPS solver. Numerical results are shown with the discretization method, implemented in the NSIPS solver and it proved to be efficient in solving the proposed problems.

Air pollution control with semi-infinite programming

Vaz, A. Ismael F.; Ferreira, E. C.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
Environment issues are more than ever important in a modern society. Complying with stricter legal thresholds on pollution emissions raises an important economic issue. This paper presents some ideas in the use of optimization tools to help in the planning and control of stationary pollution sources. Three main semi-infinite programming approaches are described. The first consists in optimizing an objective function while the pollution level in a given region is kept bellow a given threshold. In the second approach the maximum pollution level in a given region is computed and in the third an air pollution abatement problem is considered. These formulations allow to obtain the best control parameters and the maxima pollution positions, where the sampling stations should be placed. A specific modeling language was used to code four academic problems. Numerical results computed with a semi-infinite programming solver are shown.

Indoor air quality in primary schools

Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Canha, Nuno; Martinho, Maria; Almeida-Silva, Marina; Almeida, Susana Marta; Pegas, Priscilla; Alves, Célia; Pio, Casimiro; Trancoso, Maria Ascensão; Sousa, Rita; Mouro, Filomena; Contreiras, Teresa
Fonte: InTech Publicador: InTech
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em /08/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
Clean air is a basic requirement of life. The Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to an increasing concern within the scientific community on the effects of indoor air quality upon health, especially as people tend to spend more time indoors than outdoors. The quality of air inside homes, offices, schools or other private and public buildings is an essential determinant of healthy life and people’s well-being. People can be exposed to contaminants by inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact. In the past, scientists have paid much attention to the study of exposure to outdoor air contaminants, because they have realised the seriousness of outdoor air pollution problems. However, each indoor microenvironment has unique characteristics, determined by the local outdoor air, specific building characteristics and indoor activities. Indeed, hazardous substances are emitted from buildings, construction materials and indoor equipment or due to human activities indoors.

Air pollution and neonatal deaths in São Paulo, Brazil

Lin,C.A.; Pereira,L.A.A.; Nishioka,D.C.; Conceição,G.M.S.; Braga,A.L.F.; Saldiva,P.H.N.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
Air pollution has been associated with health effects on different age groups. The present study was designed to assess the impact of daily changes in air pollutants (NO2, SO2, CO, O3, and particle matter (PM10)) on total number of daily neonatal deaths (those that occur between the first and the 28th days of life) in São Paulo, from January 1998 to December 2000, since adverse outcomes such as neonatal deaths associated with air pollution in Brazil have not been evaluated before. Generalized additive Poisson regression models were used and nonparametric smooth functions (loess) were adopted to control long-term trend, temperature, humidity, and short-term trends. A linear term was used for holidays. The association between air pollutants and neonatal deaths showed a short time lag. Interquartile range increases in PM10 (23.3 µg/m³) and SO2 (9.2 µg/m³) were associated with increases of 4% (95% CI, 2-6) and 6% (95% CI, 4-8), respectively. Instead of adopting a two-pollutant model we created an index to represent PM10 and SO2 effects. For an interquartile range increase in the index an increase of 6.3% (95% CI, 6.1-6.5) in neonatal deaths was observed. These results agree with previous studies performed by our group showing the deleterious effects of air pollutants during the perinatal period. The method reported here represents an alternative approach to analyze the relationship between highly correlated pollutants and public health problems...

Urban Transport Dysfunction and Air Pollution in Dakar : Study Conclusions

Patrick, Bultynck
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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66.25%
This Note presents the main conclusions of an on-site study of urban transport dysfunction and air pollution in the Dakar agglomeration carried out from August to November 1998. The study aims to define the main causes of transport dysfunction, quantify them, and recommend a suitable framework for monitoring changes in the parameters. This forms part of the sub-Saharan African air quality initiative that was launched jointly in 1998 by the Urban Transport Component of the sub-Saharan African Transport Policy Program (SSATP) and the World Bank Institute. The kinds of dysfunction the study found in Dakar agglomeration include: road safety problems, congestion, air pollution, and noise pollution. This Note recommends that air pollution caused by urban transport can be reduced through measures in a number of areas: institutional, technical, or organizational.

Improving Air Quality in Metropolitan Mexico City : An Economic Valuation

The Mexico Air Quality Management Team
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
Mexico City has for years experienced high levels of ozone and particulate air pollution. In 1995-99 the entire population of the Mexico City metropolitan area was exposed to annual average concentrations of fine particulate pollution (particulates with a diameter of less than 10 micrometers, or PM10) exceeding 50 micrograms per cubic meter, the annual average standard in both Mexico and the United States. Two million people were exposed to annual average PM10 levels of more than 75 micrograms per cubic meter. The daily maximum one-hour ozone standard was exceeded at least 300 days a year. The Mexico Air Quality Management Team documents population-weighted exposures to ozone and PM10 between 1995 and 1999, project exposures in 2010, and computes the value of four scenarios for 2010: A 10 percent reduction in PM10 and ozone. A 20 percent reduction in PM10 and ozone. Achievement of ambient air quality standards across the metropolitan area. A 68 percent reduction in ozone and a 47 percent reduction in PM10 across the metropolitan area. The authors calculate the health benefits of reducing ozone and PM10 for each scenario using dose-response functions from the peer-reviewed literature. They value cases of morbidity and premature mortality avoided using three approaches: Cost of illness and forgone earnings only (low estimate). Cost of illness...

Air Pollution During Growth: Accounting for Governance and Vulnerability

Dasgupta, Susmita; Hamilton, Kirk; Pandey, Kiran; Wheeler, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
New research on urban air pollution casts doubt on the conventional view of the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality. This view holds that pollution automatically increases until societies reach middle-income status because poor countries have neither the institutional capacity nor the political commitment necessary to regulate polluters. Some policymakers and researchers have cited this model (called the "environmental Kuznets curve," or EKC) when arguing that developing countries should "grow first, clean up later." However, new evidence suggests that the EKC model is misleading because it mistakenly assumes that strong environmental governance is not possible for poor countries. As the authors show in this paper, the empirical relationship between pollution and income becomes much weaker when measures of governance are added to the analysis. Their results also suggest that previous research has underestimated the effect of geographic vulnerability (climate and terrain factors) on air quality. The authors find that weak governance and geographic vulnerability alone can account for the crisis levels of air pollution in many developing country cities. When these factors are combined with income and population effects...

India : Diagnostic Assessment of Select Environmental Challenges, Volume 2. Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability, What Are the Tradeoffs?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.37%
This report provides estimates of social and financial costs of environmental damage in India from three pollution damage categories: (i) urban air pollution, including particulate matter and lead; (ii) inadequate water supply, poor sanitation, and hygiene; (iii) indoor air pollution; and four natural resource damage categories: (a) agricultural damage from soil salinity, water logging, and soil erosion; (b) rangeland degradation; (c) deforestation; and (d) natural disasters. The estimates are based on a combination of Indian data from secondary sources and on the transfer of unit costs of pollution from a range of national and international studies. The quantification and monetary valuation of environmental damage involves many scientific disciplines including environmental, physical, and biological and health sciences, epidemiology, and environmental economics. Estimates of the costs of degradation are generally reported as a percent of conventional gross domestic product (GDP). This provides a useful estimate of the importance of environmental damages but it should not be interpreted that GDP will increase by a given percent if the degradation were to be reduced to zero. Any measures to reduce environmental degradation will have a cost and the additional cost goes up the greater is the reduction that is made. Hence a program to remove all degradation can well result in a lower GDP. This report provides a measure of the overall damage relative to a benchmark...

Technology Assessment of Clean Coal Technologies for China : Volume 3. Environmental Compliance in the Energy Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.36%
Analysts expect China to continue improving the efficiency of energy production and use, thereby decoupling the traditional relationship between gross domestic product (GDP) and energy consumption. Environmentally acceptable economic growth is closely linked with further improvements in the overall efficiency of energy use. Both of these goals will require a continued increase in the use of coal to produce electricity, along with a more deliberate and rapid transition from direct coal combustion to the use of electricity and other cleaner coal-based fuel sources, especially for cooking, space heating, and industrial furnaces. The opportunity for environmental improvement in conjunction with economic growth lies in the wise adoption of clean coal technologies (CCT) for both the electric power and non-power sectors. This report presents CCT options for the power sector that can help China achieve these twin goals. The CCT options are: 1) air pollution controls for particulates, sulphur dioxide, and nitrous oxide; and 2) advanced electricity generation technologies--supercritical pulverized-coal boilers...

Indoor Air Pollution in Cold Climates : The Cases of Mongolia and China

Baris, Enis; Rivera, Salvador; Boehmova, Zuzana; Constant, Samantha
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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66.23%
This note provides a snapshot of indoor air pollution interventions in two cold climate environments. It illustrates the different methodologies used for each of the cases and presents a comparative analysis of results and lessons learned.

Análisis de la calidad del aire en dos localidades de Cantabria: Torrelavega y Los Corrales de Buelna; Analysis of air quality in two different locations of Cantabria: Torrelavega and Los Corrales de Buelna

Díaz Aguayo, Clara
Fonte: Universidade de Cantabria Publicador: Universidade de Cantabria
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
ABSTRACT Air pollution is an environmental and health problem which is becoming increasingly important as industrial and urban development increases worldwide. At local scale, air quality conditions are related to both industrial and traffic emission but also weather conditions, because temperature, rainfall and wind regimes also contribute to the dispersion of the pollutants. Because of its climate conditions, Cantabria seems not to be a “hot spot” of bad air quality conditions, but from time to time the population is confronted with news appeared in the media about high levels of pollution, mostly in the city of Torrelavega. The purpose of this textbox is to explore air pollution in two locations of Cantabria, Torrelavega and Los Corrales de Buelna, based on official data, and compare it with the perception of their inhabitants, relating those aspects with the geographical and socioeconomic background of both locations. To check the current air quality conditions, actual air pollution data, retrieved from the CIMA (Centro para la Investigación del Medio Ambiente) network, were analyzed. The most hazardous pollutants are particulates (PM10) in both locations, and sulfur oxides (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO2) in Torrelavega. Such spatial diversity is consequence of the type of industries and the different levels of traffic. Daily exceedences of those air pollutants...

Towards Cleaner Industry and Improved Air Quality Monitoring in Kazakhstan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.32%
Kazakhstan's environmental situation is at a critical cross-road, where the pressures of economic growth without adequate environmental controls and the legacy of industrial production are beginning to take their toll on society in terms of health. In addition, Kazakhstan strives to promote itself as a modern and resource-efficient economy that is worthy of top international standing. In response, a series of proactive planning has emerged through such strategic initiatives as the Green Economy Concept with its accompanying actions that aim to reduce the ecological footprint of economic activities, promote sustainable economic growth and place Kazakhstan on a cleaner and greener development path. The document details the background and context of the situation in the country, and the initiatives that are being taken to improve air quality.

The Arab Republic of Egypt : For Better or For Worse, Air Pollution in Greater Cairo

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
This sector note presents the results of the World Bank-led study on the development of a strategy of the government of the Arab Republic of Egypt to respond to air quality problems in Greater Cairo. The Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area (GCMA) is the largest urban and industrial center in Egypt, which, in 2009, was ranked eighth among the world's top urban agglomerations. Twenty million people live and work in Greater Cairo, which is surrounded by major heavy industries to the north and the south, including large, as well as small and medium enterprises. As in many megacities in the world, air pollution has been a chronic problem in Greater Cairo. The persistent air quality problem represents a serious hurdle to the competitiveness that is a key to the socioeconomic development of Greater Cairo and therefore the nation. An action plan has prepared for the implementation of the main sectorial policies. This action plan will have to be developed and changed where required because it can only be implemented within a coherent framework of environmental...

Cleaning Pakistan's Air : Policy Options to Address the Cost of Outdoor Air Pollution

Sanchez-Triana, Ernesto; Enriquez, Santiago; Afzal, Javaid; Nakagawa, Akiko; Khan, Asif Shuja
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.42%
Pakistan's urban air pollution is among the most severe in the world and it engenders significant damages to human health and the economy. Air pollution, inadequate water supply, sanitation, and hygiene are the top environmental priority problems in Pakistan. Industrialization and urbanization, in conjunction with motorization, can result in further deterioration of urban air quality. This book examines policy options to strengthen the Pakistan clean air program (PCAP) to better address the cost imposed by outdoor air pollution upon Pakistan's economy and populace. The approach provided in this book recommends that the federal and provincial environmental protection agencies (EPAs) take on a limited number of high return, essential, and feasible interventions drawn largely from the PCAP. The objective of this book is to examine policy options to control outdoor air pollution in Pakistan. The findings of the analysis aim at assisting the Government of Pakistan (GoP) in the design and implementation of reforms to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of Pakistan's ambient air quality institutions. The overarching theme of this book is that prioritizing interventions is essential to address the cost of outdoor air pollution...

Tokyo's Emissions Trading System : A Case Study

Lee, Marcus; Colopinto, Kimberly
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
The Tokyo Metropolitan Government (TMG) has developed the world's first cap and trade program at the city level targeting energy-related CO2. Called the Emissions Trading System (ETS), the program took effect in April 2010 and covers 1,340 large facilities including industrial factories, public buildings, educational institutions and commercial buildings. Targeting the city level for the reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions is of vital importance for climate change mitigation goals. Although there are several ETSs targeting GHGs around the world, none have operated at the city level until Tokyo's. City-based ETS systems have been largely aimed at enhancing local air quality by targeting local pollutants that may also happen to be GHGs. There are three particularly relevant cases of ETSs covering local pollutants at the city level. Tokyo's ETS is unique because it is the only one targeting GHGs, with the primary objective of mitigating climate change. Emissions trading are a market-based approach for addressing air pollution problems. If designed and implemented well...

China : Air Pollution and Acid Rain Control - The Case of Shijiazhuang and the Changsha Triangle Area

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
This study, and the associated technical assistance project, has three main objectives. The first is to help localities in China address several questions related to the planning, and implementation of SO2 emissions, and acid rain control: What are the environmental consequences, specifically for localities of different pollution control strategies, in terms of the impacts on human health, agricultural productivity, and other sectors and activities? What are the relative costs of different sulfur emission reduction plans? Will the proposed strategies enable localities to meet the environmental targets set by the central government? The second objective is to assist with capacity building, and training in China. to enable cities and regions to carry out environmental, and economic analyses of sulfur emission impacts, and control programs. The third objective is to provide a forum for discussion with the central government, primarily the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), on the results of the case studies...

Clean Air and Healthy Lungs : Enhancing the World Bank's Approach to Air Quality Management

Awe, Yewande; Nygard, Jostein; Larssen, Steinar; Lee, Heejoo; Dulal, Hari; Kanakia, Rahul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.46%
This report specifically deals with air pollution, which was reported, by the World Health Organization (WHO), as the single largest environmental health risk globally in 2012 (WHO, 2014a). Air pollution from outdoor and household sources jointly account for more than 7 million deaths (3.7 million from ambient air pollution and 4.3 million from household air pollution). The following sections of this chapter present the objectives of, and key aspects of the institutional context for, this report followed by an examination of some of the major drivers of deteriorating ambient air quality in developing countries; air pollution sources and impacts; and the status of air quality management in developing countries. Chapter two presents the results of a desk-based portfolio review of World Bank projects that are relevant to reduction of air pollution. This is followed, in chapter three, by an examination of case studies of World Bank projects whose objectives include addressing ambient air pollution, highlighting good practices and lessons for future work of the Bank in supporting clients. Chapter four presents possible approaches for enhancing future Bank support in helping clients to improve air quality and reduce the associated adverse health outcomes. Chapter five presents overall conclusions and recommendations.

Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project : Background Analysis Report

Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center
Fonte: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
This document was devloped as it initiated a pilot project - dubbed Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project in support of Guangzhou's efforts to improve air quality in preparation for the 2010 Asian Games. The goal of this project was to develop a proof of concept for a truck program in Guangdong Province, and possibly China, that aims to: Enhance the fuel economy of the truck fleet, Reduce black carbon and other air pollutants from trucks and consequently obtain GHG emission savings.The project was implemented by the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center (CAI-Asia Center), in cooperation with Cascade Sierra Solutions, US EPA and World Bank, and with support from Guangzhou Environmental Protection Bureau (GEPB), Guangzhou Transport Committee (GTC), and Guangzhou Project Management Office (PMO) for the World Bank.The pilot project aims to contribute to addressing three problems related to trucks in Guangzhou and the wider Guangdong province simultaneously: (a) fuel costs and security; (b) air pollution and associated health impacts...