Página 1 dos resultados de 522 itens digitais encontrados em 0.009 segundos

The time course of vasoconstriction and endothelin receptor A expression in pulmonary arterioles of mice continuously exposed to ambient urban levels of air pollution

MATSUMOTO, Giselli; NAKAGAWA, Naomi Kondo; VIEIRA, Rodolfo de Paula; MAUAD, Thais; SILVA, Luis Fernando Ferraz da; ANDRE, Carmen Diva Saldiva de; CARVALHO-OLIVEIRA, Regiani; SALDIVA, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; GARCIA, Maria Lucia Bueno
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.12%
The present study aimed to verify the time course of the effects of environmental levels of urban air pollution toxicity on lung arterioles. BALB/c mice (n = 56) were continuously exposed to selective chambers equipped with (filtered, F) or without (non-filtered, NF) filter devices for particles and toxic gases for 24 h/day, over 14, 21, 30 or 45 days. After exposure, we evaluated the lumen-wall relationship (an estimator of arteriolar narrowing), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and endothelin type A receptor (ETAr) expression in the vascular wall and inflammatory influx of the peribronchiolar area. Concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM <= 2.5 mu g/m(3)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), black smoke (BS), humidity and temperature in both the environment and inside the chambers were measured daily. Filters cleared 100% of BS and 97% of PM inside the F chamber. The arteriole wall of the lungs of mice from NF chamber had an increased ETAr expression (p <= 0.042) concomitant to a decrease in the lumen/wall ratio (p = 0.02) on the early days of exposure, compared to controls. They also presented a progressive increment of inflammatory influx in the peribronchiolar area during the study (p = 0.04) and decrement of the eNOS expression on the 45th day of exposure in both vascular layers (p <= 0.03). We found that after 14 days of exposure...

Estudo de correlação das internações hospitalares por câncer, poluição relacionada ao tráfego e nível sócio-econômico no município de São Paulo; Correlation study of hospital admissions for cancer, air pollution related to traffic and socioeconomic status in the city Sao Paulo

Ribeiro, André de Almeida
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/09/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
Introdução - A exposição à poluição do ar é responsável por diversos efeitos à saúde e se distribui de forma diferenciada na população conforme o nível sócio-econômico. Objetivos - Explorar relações entre internações hospitalares por tipos de câncer e indicadores ambientais e sócioeconômico, na escala de áreas de pequeno tamanho, no município de São Paulo. Métodos - Revisaram-se estudos ecológicos sobre desigualdades sócio-econômicas em câncer e estudos sobre os efeitos da poluição ambiental do ar relacionada ao tráfego sobre o risco de câncer, publicados entre 1998 e 2008. Empreendeu-se a seguir estudo ecológico, com uso de unidade delimitada por grid (500 por 500 metros) e setor censitário, englobando todos os indivíduos internados em hospitais públicos ou privados com diagnóstico principal de neoplasia primária invasiva, no período de 2004 a 2006. As internações foram georreferenciadas e alocadas às unidades de estudo, sendo cada caso contado apenas uma vez. A densidade de tráfego foi calculada para cada unidade da grid a partir de dados de contagem veicular. Utilizaram-se modelos de regressão logística para explorar as associações entre densidade de tráfego, Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano e taxas de internação hospitalar. Resultados - O estudo de revisão mostrou que o nível sócio-econômico se associou de modo distinto de acordo com o tipo de neoplasia maligna. A maioria dos estudos observaram associação positiva da poluição ambiental do ar com câncer...

Análise espacial das doenças respiratórias e a poluição relacionada ao tráfego no município de São Paulo; Spatial analysis of respiratory diseases and traffic- related air pollution in São Paulo

Almeida, Samuel Luna de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/04/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
Introdução: A avaliação dos riscos a saúde da população associados a exposição aos poluentes de origem veicular é, ainda, um importante desafio para pesquisadores e formuladores de políticas públicas de saúde e ambiente. Objetivos: Estudar a associação espacial das internações por doenças respiratórias e a poluição relacionada ao tráfego no município de São Paulo. Método: Dados de internações hospitalares por doenças respiratórias do sistema público e privado, no periodo de 2004-2006, foram georreferenciados por endereço do paciente. Foram selecionados os CIDs J20-J22 e J40-J47 para crianças menores de 5 anos e os diagnósticos J40-J47 para idosos com idade superior a 64 anos. A área urbana do município foi dividida em uma grade com células de 500mx500m e calculada a densidade de tráfego. Variáveis populacionais, socioeconômicas e o IDH foram convertidos da base de setor censitários para a grade, usando o ArcGIS ArcInfo 9.3. Análise de clusters foi realizada usando o modelo discreto de Poisson para o cálculo do risco esperado para cada grupo etário, com o uso do Software SaTScan v8.0. Para estudo da dependência espacial entre a taxa de internação por respiratórias em cada subgrupo e a densidade de tráfego total foram empregados o índice de Moran (I) e o Local Indicator for Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA)...

Evaluating conflict zones of air pollution in a mid-sized city

Mendes, José F. G.; Silva, Lígia Torres
Fonte: WIT Press Publicador: WIT Press
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2007 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
The urban argument assumes currently an extreme level of relevance for the governments and the society in general, due to the exponential increase of people living in cities and the consequent associated degradation of quality of life growth is continuously applying pressures over resources, infrastructures and facilities, affecting negatively the standard of living in cities. In this context, evaluating and monitoring the urban environmental quality has become a main issue particularly important when considered as a decision-support tool that contributes to more liveable and sustainable cities. Viana do Castelo is a midsized city located on the northwest seaside, which undertook the challenge of developing an environmental program leading to the integration in a Healthy Cities European Network. The identification of urban air quality levels and people exposure was considered a priority in this program. The scientific toolbox adopted to develop the studies includes air quality simulation models and a GIS platform. Based on traffic and site physical characteristics, air pollution maps were created and overlaid together with the land-use and population distribution layers. This combination was the basis for the identification of critical zones...

Air-Pollution and Cardiometabolic Diseases (AIRCMD): A Prospective Study Investigating the Impact of Air Pollution Exposure and Propensity for Type II Diabetes

Sun, Zhichao; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Brook, Robert D.; Gatts, Geoffrey A.; Yang, Fumo; Fan, Zhongjie; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Sun, Qinghua; Rajagopalan, Sanjay
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
There is a paucity of prospective cohort studies investigating the impact of environmental factors on the development of cardiometabolic (CM) disorders like Type II diabetes (T2DM). The objective of the Air-Pollution and Cardiometabolic Diseases (AIRCMD) study is to investigate the impact of personal level air pollution measures [personal black carbon (BC)/sulfate measures] and ambient fine particulate matter [(PM2.5)/NO2] levels on propensity to Type II diabetes in Beijing, China. Subjects with metabolic syndrome will undergo 4 repeated study visits within each season over a 1-year period following an initial screening visit. At each study visit, subjects will be monitored for sub-acute exposure to personal and ambient measures of air-pollution exposure and will undergo a series of functional CM outcomes. The primary endpoints include independent associations between integrated 5-day mean exposure to PM2.5 and BC and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) measures, 24-hour mean diastolic and mean arterial pressure and endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. The secondary endpoints will explore the mechanistic explanation for a causal relationship between exposures and propensity for Type II diabetes and will include additional functional outcomes such as arterial compliance...

Baseline Repeated Measures from Controlled Human Exposure Studies: Associations between Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and the Systemic Inflammatory Biomarkers IL-6 and Fibrinogen

Thompson, Aaron M.S.; Silverman, Frances; Urch, Bruce; Speck, Mary; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Manno, Michael; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel David; Coull, Brent Andrew; Gold, Diane R.
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
Introduction: Systemic inflammation may be one of the mechanisms mediating the association between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and fibrinogen are biomarkers of systemic inflammation that are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Objective: We investigated the association between ambient air pollution and systemic inflammation using baseline measurements of IL-6 and fibrinogen from controlled human exposure studies. Methods: In this retrospective analysis we used repeated-measures data in 45 nonsmoking subjects. Hourly and daily moving averages were calculated for ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5). Linear mixed-model regression determined the effects of the pollutants on systemic IL-6 and fibrinogen. Effect modification by season was considered. Results: We observed a positive association between IL-6 and O3 [0.31 SD per O3 interquartile range (IQR); 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.08–0.54] and between IL-6 and SO2 (0.25 SD per SO2 IQR; 95% CI, 0.06–0.43). We observed the strongest effects using 4-day moving averages. Responses to pollutants varied by season and tended to be higher in the summer...

Structural equation modeling of parasympathetic and sympathetic response to traffic air pollution in a repeated measures study

Baja, Emmanuel S; Schwartz, Joel D; Coull, Brent A; Wellenius, Gregory A; Vokonas, Pantel S; Suh, Helen H
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
Background: Traffic-related air pollution has been associated to a range of adverse health impacts, including decreased heart rate variability (HRV). The association between traffic-related pollution and HRV, however, has varied by traffic-related or HRV marker as well as by study, suggesting the need for a more comprehensive and integrative approach to examining air pollution-mediated biological impacts on these outcomes. In a Bayesian framework, we examined the effect of traffic pollution on HRV using structural equation models (SEMs) and looked at effect modification by participant characteristics. Methods: We studied measurements of 5 HRV markers [high frequency (HF), low frequency (LF), 5-min standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to-normal intervals (rMSSD), and LF/HF ratio (LF/HF)] for 700 elderly men from the Normative Aging Study. Using SEMs, we fit a latent variable for traffic pollution that is reflected by levels of carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon (BC) to estimate its effect on latent variable for parasympathetic tone that included HF, SDNN and rMSSD, and the sympathetic tone marker, LF/HF. Exposure periods were assessed using 4-...

Urban Transport Dysfunction and Air Pollution in Dakar : Study Conclusions

Patrick, Bultynck
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
This Note presents the main conclusions of an on-site study of urban transport dysfunction and air pollution in the Dakar agglomeration carried out from August to November 1998. The study aims to define the main causes of transport dysfunction, quantify them, and recommend a suitable framework for monitoring changes in the parameters. This forms part of the sub-Saharan African air quality initiative that was launched jointly in 1998 by the Urban Transport Component of the sub-Saharan African Transport Policy Program (SSATP) and the World Bank Institute. The kinds of dysfunction the study found in Dakar agglomeration include: road safety problems, congestion, air pollution, and noise pollution. This Note recommends that air pollution caused by urban transport can be reduced through measures in a number of areas: institutional, technical, or organizational.

Integrated Air Pollution Management in China : Developing Particulate Matter Control

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.35%
This study is a joint effort of the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP), Chinese experts, and the World Bank to inform the policy-making process in line with the government of China s medium- and long-term objectives. Specifically the study aims to assist MEP, provincial governments, and municipalities by: (1) Proposing a national PM10 compliance plan to help non-compliant cities attain grade II - preferably by 2015 or in certain cases by 2020 at the latest - and already compliant cities to further reduce PM concentrations. The plan would include (a) policies and regulations and associated physical interventions/measures; (b) geographical scope; (c) sequencing of interventions; and (d) feasible environmental investments likely to have high benefit/cost ratios. (2) recommending a PM2.5 monitoring system and related data applications.

Urban Air Quality Management : Coordinating Transport, Environment, and Energy Policies in Developing Countries

Kojima, Masami; Lovei, Magda
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.46%
Transport-related air pollution is increasingly contributing to environmental health risks in many developing country cities. The social costs of poor urban quality can be significant, making this issue an immediate priority. Long-term measures for dealing with the problem include urban planning, and traffic demand management. This paper however, focuses primarily on cost-effective measures, that are feasible to implement, and that can bring measurable results in the short to medium term. There is a tendency in the environment sector, to focus narrowly on controlling emissions by importing the best available technology. Cost-effective, and sustainable solutions, however, require much broader approaches. In developing countries, improving air quality is not simply a matter of importing advanced technologies, while, choices concerning feasibility, sequencing, and timing of pollution reducing measures, have serious fiscal, and economic consequences. Thus the guiding principle for selection of strategies, should be the balancing of costs...

Air Pollution During Growth: Accounting for Governance and Vulnerability

Dasgupta, Susmita; Hamilton, Kirk; Pandey, Kiran; Wheeler, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.3%
New research on urban air pollution casts doubt on the conventional view of the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality. This view holds that pollution automatically increases until societies reach middle-income status because poor countries have neither the institutional capacity nor the political commitment necessary to regulate polluters. Some policymakers and researchers have cited this model (called the "environmental Kuznets curve," or EKC) when arguing that developing countries should "grow first, clean up later." However, new evidence suggests that the EKC model is misleading because it mistakenly assumes that strong environmental governance is not possible for poor countries. As the authors show in this paper, the empirical relationship between pollution and income becomes much weaker when measures of governance are added to the analysis. Their results also suggest that previous research has underestimated the effect of geographic vulnerability (climate and terrain factors) on air quality. The authors find that weak governance and geographic vulnerability alone can account for the crisis levels of air pollution in many developing country cities. When these factors are combined with income and population effects...

The Cost of Air Pollution

Sander, Klas; Mira-Salama, Daniel; Feuerbacher, Arndt
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
In 2010, the Municipality of Cuenca, through its environmental management commission (EMC), and the World Bank, through the environment and natural resources department, started a collaboration targeted towards strengthening EMC’s capacity to better manage Cuenca’s environmental assets and to provide EMC with hard evidence and data that will serve as departing point for decision-makers towards the formulation of public policy. Two main areas of focus were chosen: (i) costs of environmental degradation for Cuenca; and (ii) climate change impacts and resilience measures for Cuenca. This report describes the findings of the first area of focus. This report tries to capture the main results and to describe the assumptions and input data utilized, through a detailed step-by-step description of an internationally-accepted and validated methodology, an explanation of input data needs, equations used, assumptions made, and alternative calculation streams; and through the demonstration of this methodology as it is applied to the real case of air pollution in Cuenca. Analyses about the cost of environmental degradation are often used as an environmental priority-setting tool...

Racing to the Bottom? Foreign Investment and Air Pollution in Developing Countries

Wheeler, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
Critics of free trade have raised the specter of a "race to the bottom," in which environmental standards collapse because polluters threaten to relocate to "pollution havens" in the developing world. Proponents of this view advocate high, globally uniform standards enforced by punitive trade measures that neutralize the cost advantage of would-be pollution havens. To test the race-to-the-bottom model, the author analyzes recent air quality trends in the United States and in Brazil, China, and Mexico, the three largest recipients of foreign investment in the developing world. The evidence clearly contradicts the model's central prediction. The most dangerous form of air pollution--suspended particulate matter--has actually declined in major cities in all four countries during the era of globalization. Citing recent research, the author argues that the race-to-the-bottom model is flawed because its basic assumptions misrepresent the political economy of pollution control in developing countries. He proposes a more realistic model...

Cleaning Pakistan's Air : Policy Options to Address the Cost of Outdoor Air Pollution

Sanchez-Triana, Ernesto; Enriquez, Santiago; Afzal, Javaid; Nakagawa, Akiko; Khan, Asif Shuja
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.36%
Pakistan's urban air pollution is among the most severe in the world and it engenders significant damages to human health and the economy. Air pollution, inadequate water supply, sanitation, and hygiene are the top environmental priority problems in Pakistan. Industrialization and urbanization, in conjunction with motorization, can result in further deterioration of urban air quality. This book examines policy options to strengthen the Pakistan clean air program (PCAP) to better address the cost imposed by outdoor air pollution upon Pakistan's economy and populace. The approach provided in this book recommends that the federal and provincial environmental protection agencies (EPAs) take on a limited number of high return, essential, and feasible interventions drawn largely from the PCAP. The objective of this book is to examine policy options to control outdoor air pollution in Pakistan. The findings of the analysis aim at assisting the Government of Pakistan (GoP) in the design and implementation of reforms to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of Pakistan's ambient air quality institutions. The overarching theme of this book is that prioritizing interventions is essential to address the cost of outdoor air pollution...

Who Suffers from Indoor Air Pollution? Evidence from Bangladesh

Dasgupta, Susmita; Huq, Mainul; Khaliquzzaman, M.; Pandey, Kiran; Wheeler, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
In this paper the authors investigate individuals' exposure to indoor air pollution. Using new survey data from Bangladesh, they analyze exposure at two levels-differences within households attributable to family roles, and differences across households attributable to income and education. Within households, they relate individuals' exposure to pollution in different locations during their daily round of activity. The authors find high levels of exposure for children and adolescents of both sexes, with particularly serious exposure for children under 5. Among prime-age adults, they find that men have half the exposure of women (whose exposure is similar to that of children and adolescents). They also find that elderly men have significantly lower exposure than elderly women. Across households, they draw on results from their previous paper (Dasgupta et al, 2004), which relate pollution variation across households to choices of cooking fuel, cooking locations, construction materials, and ventilation practices. They find that these choices are significantly affected by family income and adult education levels (particularly for women). Overall...

Urban Air Quality in Cotonou; Qualite de l'air dans la ville de Cotonou

World Bank
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.39%
This note shows the results of the "Clean Air Initiative in Sub-Saharan African Cities," a study to evaluate air pollution launched and coordinated by the World Bank. The following items are addressed: (i) estimation of the present global level of air pollution in Cotonou; (ii) determination of transportation's role; (iii) evaluation of the risk to human health and estimation of resulting expenses; (iv) examination of foreseeable future pollution evaluation of results of measures likely to be taken to reduce pollution and (v) proposal of a strategy for the implementation of these measures.

Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project : Background Analysis Report

Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center
Fonte: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
This document was devloped as it initiated a pilot project - dubbed Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project in support of Guangzhou's efforts to improve air quality in preparation for the 2010 Asian Games. The goal of this project was to develop a proof of concept for a truck program in Guangdong Province, and possibly China, that aims to: Enhance the fuel economy of the truck fleet, Reduce black carbon and other air pollutants from trucks and consequently obtain GHG emission savings.The project was implemented by the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center (CAI-Asia Center), in cooperation with Cascade Sierra Solutions, US EPA and World Bank, and with support from Guangzhou Environmental Protection Bureau (GEPB), Guangzhou Transport Committee (GTC), and Guangzhou Project Management Office (PMO) for the World Bank.The pilot project aims to contribute to addressing three problems related to trucks in Guangzhou and the wider Guangdong province simultaneously: (a) fuel costs and security; (b) air pollution and associated health impacts...

An investigation of distributed lag models in the context of air pollution and mortality time series analysis

Roberts, Steven
Fonte: Air and Waste Management Association Publicador: Air and Waste Management Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.5%
In particulate air pollution mortality time series studies, the particulate air pollution exposure measure used is typically the current day's or the previous day's air pollution concentration or a multi-day moving average air pollution concentration. Distributed lag models (DLMs) that allow for differential air pollution effects that are spread over multiple days are seen as an improvement over using a single- or multi-day moving average air pollution exposure measure. However, at the current time, the statistical properties of DLMs as a measure of air pollution exposure have not been investigated. In this paper, a simulation study is used to investigate the performance of DLMs as a measure of air pollution exposure in comparison with single- and multi-day moving average air pollution exposure measures under various forms for the true effect of air pollution on mortality. The simulation study shows that DLMs offer a more robust measure of the effect of air pollution on mortality and avoid the potential for a large negative bias compared with single- or multi-day moving average air pollution exposure measures. This is important information. In many U.S. cities, particulate air pollution concentrations are observed only once every six days...

Poluição atmosférica e atendimentos por pneumonia e gripe em São Paulo, Brasil; Air pollution and emergency room visits due to pneumonia and influenza in São Paulo, Brazil

Martins, Lourdes Conceição; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Gonçalves, Fábio Luiz Teixeira; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/02/2002 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos causados pela poluição atmosférica na morbidade por pneumonia e por gripe em idosos entre 1996 e 1998. MÉTODOS: Foram obtidos dados diários de atendimentos por pneumonia e gripe para idosos em pronto-socorro médico de um hospital-escola de referência no Município de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Os níveis diários de CO, O3, SO2, NO2 e PM10 foram obtidos na Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, e os dados diários de temperatura e umidade relativa do ar foram obtidos no Instituto Astronômico e Geofísico da USP. Para verificar a relação existente entre pneumonia e gripe e poluição atmosférica, utilizou-se o modelo aditivo generalizado de regressão de Poisson, tendo como variável dependente o número diário de atendimentos por pneumonia e gripe e como variáveis independentes as concentrações médias diárias dos poluentes atmosféricos. A análise foi ajustada para sazonalidade de longa duração (número de dias transcorridos), sazonalidade de curta duração (dias da semana), temperatura mínima, umidade média, períodos de rodízio e os atendimentos por doenças não-respiratórias em idosos. RESULTADOS: O3 e SO2 estão diretamente associados à pneumonia e à gripe, independentemente das variáveis de controle. Porém...

Particulate air pollution and daily mortality: Can results be generalized to Latin American countries?

ROMIEU,ISABELLE; BORJA-ABURTO,VÍCTOR HUGO
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
Objective. Recently, a series of reports, based on ecological analyses of routinely collected data, have shown positive associations between measures of particle concentration and daily mortality counts in various cities of the US and Europe. Material and methods. We reviewed the process of generalization of these results to Latin American countries addressing possible differences in air pollution mixtures, exposure profiles, and population susceptibility. Results. A limitation to the process of generalization is the lack of a well-established biological mechanism by which particles may act on daily mortality. Also, sources and levels of ambient air pollution as well as population characteristics and habits vary widely between Northern communities of Europe and the US, and Latin American countries, which impairs the process of generalization. However, results of studies conducted in Latin American countries suggest a similar effect to that observed in Northern countries of Europe and the US. Conclusions. Despite uncertainty about the mechanism, there is sufficient evidence that particles are harmful for health. Control measures of particle emission are urgently needed in Latin American countries. Given the potential of misclassification of exposure...