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Variações na composição qualitativa e quantitativa de carboidratos solúveis em plantas de Lolium multiflorum ssp. italicum var. Lema sob a influência de poluentes aéreos na cidade de São Paulo, SP; Qualitative and quantitative variations in the composition of soluble carbohydrates in plants of Lolium multiflorum ssp. italicum var. Lema exposed to urban air pollution

Sandrin, Carla Zuliani
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/08/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
O crescimento das atividades urbano-industriais tem provocado um significativo aumento nas emissões de poluentes aéreos para a atmosfera. A poluição do ar, um dos principais fatores determinantes da destruição do meio ambiente, causa estresse às plantas, já que apresenta compostos altamente reativos e danosos, como os metais pesados. O uso de plantas bioindicadoras de poluição aérea é uma prática comum para o monitoramento da qualidade do ar e para o diagnóstico dos efeitos da poluição aérea na vegetação. Entre as plantas bioindicadoras mais utilizadas, destaca-se a gramínea C3 de clima temperado Lolium multiflorum ssp. italicum Beck var. Lema, que acumula metais pesados, fluoretos e enxofre quando se desenvolve na presença desses elementos químicos no ar. Além disso, esta espécie acumula frutano, um carboidrato solúvel cuja produção pode ser alterada por um número variado de perturbações ambientais. O presente trabalho foi dividido em três experimentos com os objetivos de (1) verificar a partição de carboidratos solúveis em cinco partes distintas (lâmina em alongamento, lâmina expandida, porção superior do estolho, porção inferior do estolho e raízes) de plantas de L. multiflorum; (2) analisar as relações sazonais e diurnas entre concentrações de poluentes aéreos urbanos...

Efeitos da exposição crônica à poluição atmosférica particulada sobre o desenvolvimento embrionário pré-implantacional in vitro em camundongos; Effects of chronic exposure to particulate air pollution on in vitro preimplantation embryo development in mice

Maluf, Mariangela
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/07/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.6%
Um Projeto Temático de Pesquisa foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Poluição Ambiental do Departamento de Patologia da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da exposição aguda/crônica ao ar ambiente de um grande centro urbano sobre a saúde. Dentro deste projeto, uma linha de pesquisa foi dedicada ao estudo dos efeitos dessa exposição sobre a saúde reprodutiva feminina. Evidências de estudos epidemiológicos e experimentais implicam os fatores ambientais na infertilidade humana e resultado obstétrico adverso. Contudo, poucos estudos foram conduzidos até o presente para avaliar um possível efeito da exposição à poluição ambiental particulada sobre a saúde reprodutiva feminina. Portanto, o objetivo dos projetos da minha linha de pesquisa é fornecer dados que possam demonstrar os possíveis efeitos da exposição crônica à poluição ambiental particulada sobre a função ovariana e o desenvolvimento embrionário inicial. O objetivo do primeiro projeto desta tese foi avaliar diferentes metodologias utilizadas para a coloração diferencial das linhagens celulares do blastocisto, um método mais adequado para a avaliação de sua qualidade e normalidade. As células de blastocistos intactos de camundongo obtidos através de fertilização in vitro (FIV) foram permeabilizadas e coradas utilizando-se diferentes concentrações de um detergente (TX-100; 0...

Indoor Air Pollution

Smith, Kirk R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.63%
Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activities. This note reviews the evidence on health effects from indoor air pollution in developing countries, looking in detail at India. It outlines possible solutions and concludes that the only feasible long-term remedy is improved access to cleaner modern energy.

Urban Transport Dysfunction and Air Pollution in Dakar : Study Conclusions

Patrick, Bultynck
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.59%
This Note presents the main conclusions of an on-site study of urban transport dysfunction and air pollution in the Dakar agglomeration carried out from August to November 1998. The study aims to define the main causes of transport dysfunction, quantify them, and recommend a suitable framework for monitoring changes in the parameters. This forms part of the sub-Saharan African air quality initiative that was launched jointly in 1998 by the Urban Transport Component of the sub-Saharan African Transport Policy Program (SSATP) and the World Bank Institute. The kinds of dysfunction the study found in Dakar agglomeration include: road safety problems, congestion, air pollution, and noise pollution. This Note recommends that air pollution caused by urban transport can be reduced through measures in a number of areas: institutional, technical, or organizational.

Improving Air Quality in Metropolitan Mexico City : An Economic Valuation

The Mexico Air Quality Management Team
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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66.72%
Mexico City has for years experienced high levels of ozone and particulate air pollution. In 1995-99 the entire population of the Mexico City metropolitan area was exposed to annual average concentrations of fine particulate pollution (particulates with a diameter of less than 10 micrometers, or PM10) exceeding 50 micrograms per cubic meter, the annual average standard in both Mexico and the United States. Two million people were exposed to annual average PM10 levels of more than 75 micrograms per cubic meter. The daily maximum one-hour ozone standard was exceeded at least 300 days a year. The Mexico Air Quality Management Team documents population-weighted exposures to ozone and PM10 between 1995 and 1999, project exposures in 2010, and computes the value of four scenarios for 2010: A 10 percent reduction in PM10 and ozone. A 20 percent reduction in PM10 and ozone. Achievement of ambient air quality standards across the metropolitan area. A 68 percent reduction in ozone and a 47 percent reduction in PM10 across the metropolitan area. The authors calculate the health benefits of reducing ozone and PM10 for each scenario using dose-response functions from the peer-reviewed literature. They value cases of morbidity and premature mortality avoided using three approaches: Cost of illness and forgone earnings only (low estimate). Cost of illness...

Air Pollution During Growth: Accounting for Governance and Vulnerability

Dasgupta, Susmita; Hamilton, Kirk; Pandey, Kiran; Wheeler, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.63%
New research on urban air pollution casts doubt on the conventional view of the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality. This view holds that pollution automatically increases until societies reach middle-income status because poor countries have neither the institutional capacity nor the political commitment necessary to regulate polluters. Some policymakers and researchers have cited this model (called the "environmental Kuznets curve," or EKC) when arguing that developing countries should "grow first, clean up later." However, new evidence suggests that the EKC model is misleading because it mistakenly assumes that strong environmental governance is not possible for poor countries. As the authors show in this paper, the empirical relationship between pollution and income becomes much weaker when measures of governance are added to the analysis. Their results also suggest that previous research has underestimated the effect of geographic vulnerability (climate and terrain factors) on air quality. The authors find that weak governance and geographic vulnerability alone can account for the crisis levels of air pollution in many developing country cities. When these factors are combined with income and population effects...

Indoor Air Pollution Associated with Household Fuel Use in India : An Exposure Assessment and Modeling Exercise in Rural Districts of Andhra Pradesh, India

Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Mehta, Sumi; Kumar, Priti; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Sambandam, Sankar; Kumar, Kannappa Satish; Smith, Kirk R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.67%
Indoor air pollutants associated with combustion of solid fuels in households of developing countries are now recognized as a major source of health risks to the exposed populations. Based on this background, the present study was designed with three major objectives: to monitor household pollution concentrations in a statistically representative rural sample in southern India; to model household indoor air pollution levels based on information on household-level parameters collected through questionnaires, in order to determine how well such survey information could be used to estimate air pollution levels without monitoring; and to record time/activity and other information at the household-level, in order to estimate the exposures of different household members. This paper contains the following headings: background, study design and methodology, results, and conclusions.

The Cost of Air Pollution

Sander, Klas; Mira-Salama, Daniel; Feuerbacher, Arndt
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.64%
In 2010, the Municipality of Cuenca, through its environmental management commission (EMC), and the World Bank, through the environment and natural resources department, started a collaboration targeted towards strengthening EMC’s capacity to better manage Cuenca’s environmental assets and to provide EMC with hard evidence and data that will serve as departing point for decision-makers towards the formulation of public policy. Two main areas of focus were chosen: (i) costs of environmental degradation for Cuenca; and (ii) climate change impacts and resilience measures for Cuenca. This report describes the findings of the first area of focus. This report tries to capture the main results and to describe the assumptions and input data utilized, through a detailed step-by-step description of an internationally-accepted and validated methodology, an explanation of input data needs, equations used, assumptions made, and alternative calculation streams; and through the demonstration of this methodology as it is applied to the real case of air pollution in Cuenca. Analyses about the cost of environmental degradation are often used as an environmental priority-setting tool...

Risk assessment for environmental health in Adelaide based on weather, air pollution and population health outcomes.

Hansen, Alana L.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.6%
Background: The progression of climate change may have wide ranging and varied implications for population health. Climatologists predict increases in heatwaves, droughts and bushfires for Australia, with health consequences including a potential rise in heatrelated illnesses and adverse effects from increases in some air pollutants. Epidemiological evidence of the impact of temperature extremes and air pollution on morbidity and mortality at the local level is essential to identify site specific characteristics of vulnerable sub-populations and in projections of future scenarios. This study aimed to assess the impact of weather and air pollution on population health outcomes in Adelaide, and to inform decision makers on likely health impacts of climate change. Method: Health outcome, meteorological and air quality data for periods of up to 12 years were used to assess the environmental health impact of heatwaves and air pollution on morbidity in Adelaide. The first part of the study investigated the impact of heatwaves, defined as being three or more consecutive days of maximum temperatures 35°C or above, on hospital admissions, ambulance callouts and emergency department visits using a case series approach. Spatial analytical techniques were used to identify regions at increased risk in the metropolitan area. The second part of the study investigated...

Air Pollution, Politics, and Environmental Reform in Birmingham, Alabama 1940--1971

McKinney, J. Merritt
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: 311 p.; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This dissertation contends that efforts to reduce air pollution in Birmingham, Alabama, from the 1940s through the early 1970s relied on citizens who initially resisted federal involvement but eventually realized that they needed Washington's help. These activists had much in common with clean air groups in other U.S. cities, but they were somewhat less successful because of formidable industrial opposition. In the 1940s the political power of the Alabama coal industry kept Birmingham from following the example of cities that switched to cleaner-burning fuels. The coal industry's influence on Alabama politics had waned somewhat by the late 1960s, but U.S. Steel and its allies wielded enough political power in 1969 to win passage of a weak air pollution law over one favored by activists. Throughout this period the federal government gradually increased its involvement in Alabama's air pollution politics, culminating in the late 1960s and early 1970s with the enactment of environmental laws that empowered federal officials to pressure Alabama to pass a revised 1971 air pollution law that met national standards. After the passage of this law, but before the appointment of an air pollution control board to enforce it, a federal judge temporarily shut down Birmingham-area industries at the request of the Environmental Protection Agency...

Racing to the Bottom? Foreign Investment and Air Pollution in Developing Countries

Wheeler, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.67%
Critics of free trade have raised the specter of a "race to the bottom," in which environmental standards collapse because polluters threaten to relocate to "pollution havens" in the developing world. Proponents of this view advocate high, globally uniform standards enforced by punitive trade measures that neutralize the cost advantage of would-be pollution havens. To test the race-to-the-bottom model, the author analyzes recent air quality trends in the United States and in Brazil, China, and Mexico, the three largest recipients of foreign investment in the developing world. The evidence clearly contradicts the model's central prediction. The most dangerous form of air pollution--suspended particulate matter--has actually declined in major cities in all four countries during the era of globalization. Citing recent research, the author argues that the race-to-the-bottom model is flawed because its basic assumptions misrepresent the political economy of pollution control in developing countries. He proposes a more realistic model...

The Arab Republic of Egypt : For Better or For Worse, Air Pollution in Greater Cairo

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.68%
This sector note presents the results of the World Bank-led study on the development of a strategy of the government of the Arab Republic of Egypt to respond to air quality problems in Greater Cairo. The Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area (GCMA) is the largest urban and industrial center in Egypt, which, in 2009, was ranked eighth among the world's top urban agglomerations. Twenty million people live and work in Greater Cairo, which is surrounded by major heavy industries to the north and the south, including large, as well as small and medium enterprises. As in many megacities in the world, air pollution has been a chronic problem in Greater Cairo. The persistent air quality problem represents a serious hurdle to the competitiveness that is a key to the socioeconomic development of Greater Cairo and therefore the nation. An action plan has prepared for the implementation of the main sectorial policies. This action plan will have to be developed and changed where required because it can only be implemented within a coherent framework of environmental...

Cleaning Pakistan's Air : Policy Options to Address the Cost of Outdoor Air Pollution

Sanchez-Triana, Ernesto; Enriquez, Santiago; Afzal, Javaid; Nakagawa, Akiko; Khan, Asif Shuja
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.73%
Pakistan's urban air pollution is among the most severe in the world and it engenders significant damages to human health and the economy. Air pollution, inadequate water supply, sanitation, and hygiene are the top environmental priority problems in Pakistan. Industrialization and urbanization, in conjunction with motorization, can result in further deterioration of urban air quality. This book examines policy options to strengthen the Pakistan clean air program (PCAP) to better address the cost imposed by outdoor air pollution upon Pakistan's economy and populace. The approach provided in this book recommends that the federal and provincial environmental protection agencies (EPAs) take on a limited number of high return, essential, and feasible interventions drawn largely from the PCAP. The objective of this book is to examine policy options to control outdoor air pollution in Pakistan. The findings of the analysis aim at assisting the Government of Pakistan (GoP) in the design and implementation of reforms to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of Pakistan's ambient air quality institutions. The overarching theme of this book is that prioritizing interventions is essential to address the cost of outdoor air pollution...

Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project : Background Analysis Report

Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center
Fonte: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.61%
This document was devloped as it initiated a pilot project - dubbed Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project in support of Guangzhou's efforts to improve air quality in preparation for the 2010 Asian Games. The goal of this project was to develop a proof of concept for a truck program in Guangdong Province, and possibly China, that aims to: Enhance the fuel economy of the truck fleet, Reduce black carbon and other air pollutants from trucks and consequently obtain GHG emission savings.The project was implemented by the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center (CAI-Asia Center), in cooperation with Cascade Sierra Solutions, US EPA and World Bank, and with support from Guangzhou Environmental Protection Bureau (GEPB), Guangzhou Transport Committee (GTC), and Guangzhou Project Management Office (PMO) for the World Bank.The pilot project aims to contribute to addressing three problems related to trucks in Guangzhou and the wider Guangdong province simultaneously: (a) fuel costs and security; (b) air pollution and associated health impacts...

Health, Wealth, and Air Pollution: Advancing Theory and Methods

O'Neill, Marie S; Jerrett, Michael; Cohen, Aaron J; Gouveia, Nelson; Wilkinson, Paul; Fletcher, Tony; Cifuentes, Luis; Kawachi, Ichiro; Levy, Jonathan Ian; Schwartz, Joel David
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.61%
The effects of both ambient air pollution and socioeconomic position (SEP) on health are well documented. A limited number of recent studies suggest that SEP may itself play a role in the epidemiology of disease and death associated with exposure to air pollution. Together with evidence that poor and working-class communities are often more exposed to air pollution, these studies have stimulated discussion among scientists, policy makers, and the public about the differential distribution of the health impacts from air pollution. Science and public policy would benefit from additional research that integrates the theory and practice from both air pollution and social epidemiologies to gain a better understanding of this issue. In this article we aim to promote such research by introducing readers to methodologic and conceptual approaches in the fields of air pollution and social epidemiology; by proposing theories and hypotheses about how air pollution and socioeconomic factors may interact to influence health, drawing on studies conducted worldwide; by discussing methodologic issues in the design and analysis of studies to determine whether health effects of exposure to ambient air pollution are modified by SEP; and by proposing specific steps that will advance knowledge in this field...

Controlling air pollution from passenger ferries: Cost-effectiveness of seven technological options

Farrell, Alexander; Corbett, James; Winebrake, James
Fonte: Journal of Air and Waste Management Association Publicador: Journal of Air and Waste Management Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.44%
Continued interest in improving air quality in the United States along with renewed interest in the expansion of urban passenger ferry service has created concern about air pollution from ferry vessels. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the air pollution emissions from passenger ferries and the costs of emissions control strategies. The methodology is used to estimate the emissions and costs of retrofitting or re-powering ferries with seven technological options (combinations of propulsion and emission control systems) onto three vessels currently in service in San Francisco Bay. The technologies include improved engine design, cleaner fuels (including natural gas), and exhaust gas cleanup devices. The three vessels span a range of ages and technologies, from a 25-year-old monohull to a modern, high-speed catamaran built only four years ago. By looking at a range of technologies, vessel designs, and service conditions, a sense of the broader implications of controlling emissions from passenger ferries across a range of vessels and service profiles is provided. Tier 2-certified engines are the most cost-effective choice, but all options are cost-effective relative to other emission control strategies already in place in the transportation system.; The magazine publisher is the copyright holder of this article and it is reproduced with permission. Further reproduction of this article in violation of the copyright is prohibited. To contact the publisher: http://www.awma.org/

Spatial analysis of annual air pollution exposure and mortality

Scoggins, Amanda; Kjellstrom, Tord; Fisher, Gavin; Connor, Jennie; Gimson, Neil
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.6%
The aim of this study was to relate ambient air pollution levels to mortality in Auckland, New Zealand. We used urban airshed modelling and GIS-based techniques to quantify long-term exposure to ambient air pollution levels and associated mortality. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status, and urban/rural domicile there was a 1.3% (95%CI: 1-1.5%) increase in non-external cause mortality, and 1.8% (95%CI: 1.5-2.1%) increase in circulatory and respiratory causes per 1 μg/m3 increase in annual average NO2. Based on these exposure-response relationships and applying an annual average threshold of 13 μg/m3, the average annual (for 1996-1999) number of people estimated to die from non-external causes and circulatory and respiratory causes attributable to air pollution in Auckland is 268 (95% range: 227-310) (3.9% of total all cause deaths) and 203 (95% range: 169-237) (5.9% of total circulatory and respiratory deaths) per year, respectively. The number of attributable deaths found in this study are consistent with a previous New Zealand risk assessment using a different methodology, and is approximately twice the number of people dying from motor vehicle accidents in the region, which is on average (1996-1999) 103 per year. The GIS-based exposure maps identify high exposure areas for policy developers and planners in a simple and realistic manner. Taken together with overseas studies the study provides additional evidence that long-term exposure to poor air quality...

Interactions Between Particulate Air Pollution and Temperature in Air Pollution Mortality Time Series Studies

Roberts, Steven
Fonte: Academic Press Publicador: Academic Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.66%
In many community time series studies on the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality, particulate air pollution is modeled additively. In this study, we investigated the interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature in Cook County, Illinois and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, using data for the period 1987-1994. This was done through the use of joint particulate air pollution-temperature response surfaces and by stratifying the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality by temperature. Evidence that the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality may depend on temperature is found. However, the results were sensitive to the number of degrees of freedom used in the confounder adjustments, the particulate air pollution exposure measure, and how the effects of temperature on mortality are modeled. The results were less sensitive to the estimation method used - generalized linear models and natural cubic splines or generalized additive models and smoothing splines. The results of this study suggest that in community particulate air pollution mortality time series studies the possibility of an interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature should be considered.

Air pollution and its health impacts: the changing panorama

Kjellstrom, Tord; Neller, Anne; Simpson, Rod
Fonte: Australasian Medical Association Publicador: Australasian Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.6%
Urban air pollution levels are associated with increased mortality and cardiorespiratory morbidity. These health effects occur even at exposure levels below those stipulated in current air-quality guidelines, and it is unclear whether a safe threshold exists. Air pollution in Australia and New Zealand comes primarily from motor vehicle emissions, electricity generation from fossil fuels, heavy industry, and home heating using wood and coal. In individual patients a direct link between symptoms and air pollution exposure may be difficult to establish and may not change their clinical management. However, avoiding exposure during periods of peak pollution may be beneficial. Although there is some evidence that urban air pollution in Australia and New Zealand has been decreasing (through reduced car use, improved emission-control technology and use of more energy-efficient devices in the household and in industry), pollution levels are still unsatisfactory. Further reductions may prevent hundreds of cardiorespiratory hospital admissions and deaths each year.

An investigation of distributed lag models in the context of air pollution and mortality time series analysis

Roberts, Steven
Fonte: Air and Waste Management Association Publicador: Air and Waste Management Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.71%
In particulate air pollution mortality time series studies, the particulate air pollution exposure measure used is typically the current day's or the previous day's air pollution concentration or a multi-day moving average air pollution concentration. Distributed lag models (DLMs) that allow for differential air pollution effects that are spread over multiple days are seen as an improvement over using a single- or multi-day moving average air pollution exposure measure. However, at the current time, the statistical properties of DLMs as a measure of air pollution exposure have not been investigated. In this paper, a simulation study is used to investigate the performance of DLMs as a measure of air pollution exposure in comparison with single- and multi-day moving average air pollution exposure measures under various forms for the true effect of air pollution on mortality. The simulation study shows that DLMs offer a more robust measure of the effect of air pollution on mortality and avoid the potential for a large negative bias compared with single- or multi-day moving average air pollution exposure measures. This is important information. In many U.S. cities, particulate air pollution concentrations are observed only once every six days...