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Urban Air Pollutants are Significant Risk Factors for Asthma and Pneumonia in Children: The Influence of Location on the Measurement of Pollutants

Vieira, Sandra Elisabete; Stein, Renato Tetelbom; Ferraro, Alexandre Archanjo; Pastro, Luciana Duzolina; Cosme Pedro, Sibelli Silva; Lemos, Miriam; da Silva, Emerson Rodrigues; Sly, Peter David; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario
Fonte: EDICIONES DOYMA S A; BARCELONA Publicador: EDICIONES DOYMA S A; BARCELONA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
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56.63%
Background: Air pollution is associated with a substantial burden on human health; however, the most important pollutants may vary with location. Proper monitoring is necessary to determine the effect of these pollutants on respiratory health. Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the role of outdoor, indoor and personal exposure to combustion-related pollutants NO2 and O-3 on respiratory health of children in a non-affluent urban area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Levels of NO2 and O-3 were continuously measured in outdoor and indoor air, as well as personal exposure, for 30 days using passive measurement monitors. Respiratory health was assessed with a Brazilian version of the ISAAC questionnaire. Results: Complete data were available from 64 children, aged 6-10 years. Respiratory morbidity was high, with 43 (67.2%) reporting having had wheezing at any time, 27 (42.2%) wheezing in the last month, 17 (26.6%) asthma at any time and 21(32.8%) pneumonia at any time. Correlations between levels of NO2 and O-3 measured in the three locations evaluated were poor. Levels of NO2 in indoor air and personal exposure to O-3 were independently associated with asthma (both cases P=.02), pneumonia (O-3, P=.02) and wheezing at any time (both cases P<.01). No associations were seen between outdoor NO2 and O-3 and respiratory health. Conclusions: Exposure to higher levels of NO2 and O-3 was associated with increased risk for asthma and pneumonia in children. Nonetheless...

Associação da função pulmonar em estudantes do ensino fundamental com a qualidade do ar nas cidades de Atibaia e Cubatão; Association of lung function in elementary school students with air quality in the cities of Cubatão and Atibaia

Guanabara, Ana Paula de Siqueira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/11/2011 PT
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Introdução: As disfunções respiratórias agudas por exposição à poluição atmosférica afetam a principalmente crianças e idosos. Estes grupos são mais vulneráveis, apresentando quadros de morbidade e mortalidade em função dos efeitos dos poluentes sobre a função respiratória. A qualidade do ar que respiramos tem sido de grande interesse científico, para que se possa minimizar os impactos da poluição sobre a saúde da população. Atualmente, sabe-se que os poluentes atmosféricos estão associados a uma grande variedade de sintomas, disfunções e doenças agudas e crônicas. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a associação entre poluição atmosférica e alterações da função pulmonar em crianças do ensino fundamental nas cidades Cubatão e Atibaia. Método: O método aplicado foi subdividido em fases. Inicialmente foi realizada mensuração de PTS, MP10 e O3 na cidade de Atibaia, para caracterização da concentração destes poluentes na região central do município e comparação com as concentrações da estação da CETESB Cubatão/Centro. Na seqüência foram aplicados questionários de sintomas respiratórios em ambos os municípios, em estudantes do ensino fundamental. Por ultimo foram realizados os testes espirométricos para verificar a função respiratória dos participantes. Resultados: Os resultados das medidas de concentração de poluentes em Atibaia indicam uma boa qualidade do ar. A média mensurada respectivamente foram de 36...

Ocular surface adverse effects of ambient levels of air pollution

Torricelli,André Augusto Miranda; Novaes,Priscila; Matsuda,Monique; Alves,Milton Ruiz; Monteiro,Mário Luiz Ribeiro
Fonte: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia Publicador: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2011 EN
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56.58%
It is widely recognized today that outdoor air pollution can affect human health. Various chemical components that are present in ambient pollution may have an irritant effect on the mucous membranes of the body, particularly those of the respiratory tract. Much less attention has been focused on the adverse effect on the ocular surface, despite the fact that this structure is even more exposed to air pollution than the respiratory mucosa since only a very thin tear film separates the corneal and conjunctival epithelia from the air pollutants. So far, clinical data are the more widespread tools used by ophthalmologists for assessing possible aggression to the ocular surface; however, clinical findings alone appears not to correlate properly with the complaints presented by the patients pointing out the need for further clinical and laboratory studies on the subject. The purpose of this study is to review signs and symptoms associated with chronic long-term exposure to environmental air pollutants on the ocular structures currently defined as the ocular surface and to review clinical and laboratory tests used to investigate the adverse effects of air pollutants on such structures. We also review previous studies that investigated the adverse effects of air pollution on the ocular surface and discuss the need for further investigation on the subject.

A systematic review of the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from biomass burning and combustion of fossil fuels and health effects in Brazil

Oliveira,Beatriz Fátima Alves de; Ignotti,Eliane; Hacon,Sandra S.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.53%
The aim of this study was to carry out a review of scientific literature published in Brazil between 2000 and 2009 on the characteristics of air pollutants from different emission sources, especially particulate matter (PM) and its effects on respiratory health. Using electronic databases, a systematic literature review was performed of all research related to air pollutant emissions. Publications were analyzed to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from different emission sources and their related effects on the respiratory system. The PM2.5 is composed predominantly of organic compounds with 20% of inorganic elements. Higher concentrations of metals were detected in metropolitan areas than in biomass burning regions. The relative risk of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases in children was higher than in the elderly population. The results of studies of health effects of air pollution are specific to the region where the emissions occurred and should not be used to depict the situation in other areas with different emission sources.

Atmospheric pollutants and hospital admissions due to pneumonia in children

Negrisoli,Juliana; Nascimento,Luiz Fernando C.
Fonte: Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo Publicador: Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 EN
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56.53%
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between exposure to air pollutants and hospitalizations due to pneumonia in children of Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Time series ecological study, from 2007 to 2008. Daily data were obtained from the State Environmental Agency for Pollution Control for particulate matter, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, besides air temperature and relative humidity. The data concerning pneumonia admissions were collected in the public health system of Sorocaba. Correlations between the variables of interest using Pearson cofficient were calculated. Models with lags from zero to five days after exposure to pollutants were performed to analyze the association between the exposure to environmental pollutants and hospital admissions. The analysis used the generalized linear model of Poisson regression, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: There were 1,825 admissions for pneumonia, with a daily mean of 2.5±2.1. There was a strong correlation between pollutants and hospital admissions, except for ozone. Regarding the Poisson regression analysis with the multi-pollutant model, only nitrogen dioxide was statistically significant in the same day (relative risk - RR=1.016), as well as particulate matter with a lag of four days (RR=1.009) after exposure to pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: There was an acute effect of exposure to nitrogen dioxide and a later effect of exposure to particulate matter on children hospitalizations for pneumonia in Sorocaba.

The effect of air pollutants on birth weight in medium-sized towns in the state of São Paulo

Santos,Veridiana de Paula; Medeiros,Andréa Paula Peneluppi de; Lima,Thaiza Agostini Córdoba de; Nascimento,Luiz Fernando Costa
Fonte: Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo Publicador: Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
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56.54%
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of air pollution on birth weight in a medium-sized town in the State of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from live births of mothers residing in São José dos Campos from 2005 to 2009. Data was obtained from the Department of Information and Computing of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Air pollutant data (PM10, SO2, and O3) and daily averages of their concentrations were obtained from the Environmental Sanitation & Technology Company. Statistical analysis was performed by linear and logistic regressions using the Excel and STATA v.7 software programs. RESULTS: Maternal exposure to air pollutants was not associated with low birth weight, with the exception of exposure to SO2 within the last month of pregnancy (OR=1.25; 95% CI=1.00-1.56). Maternal exposure to PM10 and SO2 during the last month of pregnancy led to lower weight at birth (0.28g and 3.15g, respectively) for each 1mg/m3 increase in the concentration of these pollutants, but without statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: This study failed to identify a statistically significant association between the levels of air pollutants and birth weight, with the exception of exposure to SO2 within the last month of pregnancy.

Environmental pollution and deaths due to stroke in a city with low levels of air pollution: ecological time series study

Amancio,Camila Trolez; Nascimento,Luiz Fernando
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
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56.55%
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Little has been discussed about the increased risk of stroke after exposure to air pollutants, particularly in Brazil. The mechanisms through which air pollution can influence occurrences of vascular events such as stroke are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between exposure to some air pollutants and risk of death due to stroke. DESIGN AND SETTING: Ecological time series study with data from São José dos Campos, Brazil. METHODS: Data on deaths due to stroke among individuals of all ages living in São José dos Campos and on particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and ozone were used. Statistical analysis was performed using a generalized additive model of Poisson regression with the Statistica software, in unipollutant and multipollutant models. The percentage increase in the risk of increased interquartile difference was calculated. RESULTS: There were 1,032 deaths due to stroke, ranging from 0 to 5 per day. The statistical significance of the exposure to particulate matter was ascertained in the unipollutant model and the importance of particulate matter and sulfur dioxide, in the multipollutant model. The increases in risk were 10% and 7%...

Air pollutants and hospital admissions due to stroke

Gavinier,Samara; Nascimento,Luiz Fernando Costa
Fonte: Instituto de Pesquisas Ambientais em Bacias Hidrográficas Publicador: Instituto de Pesquisas Ambientais em Bacias Hidrográficas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.48%
International studies have demonstrated associations between exposure to air pollutants and deaths and hospitalizations due to stroke. However, the profile of these associations is not known in Brazil. This study aims to estimate the association between exposure to air pollutants and hospital admissions due to stroke in individuals who live in a medium-sized city, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. This was ecological time-series study using hospitalization data relating to the diagnosis of stroke (ICD-10 I.60-I.64) in persons 50 years of age or older who resided in the city of Sorocaba between January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. The pollutants studied were particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxide, controlled by apparent temperature. The generalized additive model using Poisson regression for the day of hospitalization and for up to five days of lag was used for the analysis. It was not possible to estimate the association between exposure to daily levels of particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen oxide and hospitalizations for strokes, but it was possible to identify an association between exposure to nitrogen dioxide and hospitalization for stroke (RR = 1.004, 95% CI 1.000-1.008) for the third one-day lag. An increase of 10 mg m-³ in concentrations of this pollutant represented an increase of 4 percentage points in the risk of hospitalization. Thus...

Is the Association of Airborne Particles with Daily Deaths Confounded by Gaseous Air Pollutants? An Approach to Control by Matching

Schwartz, Joel David
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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56.54%
Although particulate air pollution has been associated with increased numbers of daily deaths in dozens of cities around the world, issues still remain about the association. Some have questioned the complex modeling used to control for season in Poisson regression or the role of gaseous air pollutants as potential confounders of the association. I examined the association between deaths and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 microm (PM10) using a case-crossover design. In this approach, the pollution on the day of each death is contrasted with the pollution level on control days when the subject did not die. Season and gaseous air pollutants were controlled by matching. Control days were chosen within the same month of the same year to control for season, and matched on either sulfur dioxide (SO2; within 1 ppb), nitrogen dioxide (within 1 ppb), maximum ozone (within 2 ppb), or carbon monoxide (within 0.03 ppm). The analysis was conducted in 14 U.S. cities that have daily PM10 monitoring. After matching, there were about 400,000 deaths in each analysis. Results were combined across cities using a maximum likelihood method. PM10 was a significant predictor of mortality when controlling for gaseous air pollutants...

Modeling Spatial Patterns of Traffic-Related Air Pollutants in Complex Urban Terrain

Zwack, Leonard M.; Paciorek, Christopher Joseph; Spengler, John D.; Levy, Jonathan Ian
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Background: The relationship between traffic emissions and mobile-source air pollutant concentrations is highly variable over space and time and therefore difficult to model accurately, especially in urban settings with complex terrain. Regression-based approaches using continuous real-time mobile measurements may be able to characterize spatiotemporal variability in traffic-related pollutant concentrations but require methods to incorporate temporally varying meteorology and source strength in a physically interpretable fashion. Objective: We developed a statistical model to assess the joint impact of both meteorology and traffic on measured concentrations of mobile-source air pollutants over space and time. Methods: In this study, traffic-related air pollutants were continuously measured in the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York (USA), which is affected by traffic on a large bridge and major highway. One-minute average concentrations of ultrafine particulate matter (UFP), fine particulate matter [(leq 2.5 mu m) in aerodynamic diameter ((PM_{2.5}))], and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured using a mobile-monitoring protocol. Regression modeling approaches to quantify the influence of meteorology...

Indoor Air Pollution Associated with Household Fuel Use in India : An Exposure Assessment and Modeling Exercise in Rural Districts of Andhra Pradesh, India

Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Mehta, Sumi; Kumar, Priti; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Sambandam, Sankar; Kumar, Kannappa Satish; Smith, Kirk R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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Indoor air pollutants associated with combustion of solid fuels in households of developing countries are now recognized as a major source of health risks to the exposed populations. Based on this background, the present study was designed with three major objectives: to monitor household pollution concentrations in a statistically representative rural sample in southern India; to model household indoor air pollution levels based on information on household-level parameters collected through questionnaires, in order to determine how well such survey information could be used to estimate air pollution levels without monitoring; and to record time/activity and other information at the household-level, in order to estimate the exposures of different household members. This paper contains the following headings: background, study design and methodology, results, and conclusions.

Cleaning Pakistan's Air : Policy Options to Address the Cost of Outdoor Air Pollution

Sanchez-Triana, Ernesto; Enriquez, Santiago; Afzal, Javaid; Nakagawa, Akiko; Khan, Asif Shuja
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Pakistan's urban air pollution is among the most severe in the world and it engenders significant damages to human health and the economy. Air pollution, inadequate water supply, sanitation, and hygiene are the top environmental priority problems in Pakistan. Industrialization and urbanization, in conjunction with motorization, can result in further deterioration of urban air quality. This book examines policy options to strengthen the Pakistan clean air program (PCAP) to better address the cost imposed by outdoor air pollution upon Pakistan's economy and populace. The approach provided in this book recommends that the federal and provincial environmental protection agencies (EPAs) take on a limited number of high return, essential, and feasible interventions drawn largely from the PCAP. The objective of this book is to examine policy options to control outdoor air pollution in Pakistan. The findings of the analysis aim at assisting the Government of Pakistan (GoP) in the design and implementation of reforms to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of Pakistan's ambient air quality institutions. The overarching theme of this book is that prioritizing interventions is essential to address the cost of outdoor air pollution...

Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project : Background Analysis Report

Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center
Fonte: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This document was devloped as it initiated a pilot project - dubbed Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project in support of Guangzhou's efforts to improve air quality in preparation for the 2010 Asian Games. The goal of this project was to develop a proof of concept for a truck program in Guangdong Province, and possibly China, that aims to: Enhance the fuel economy of the truck fleet, Reduce black carbon and other air pollutants from trucks and consequently obtain GHG emission savings.The project was implemented by the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center (CAI-Asia Center), in cooperation with Cascade Sierra Solutions, US EPA and World Bank, and with support from Guangzhou Environmental Protection Bureau (GEPB), Guangzhou Transport Committee (GTC), and Guangzhou Project Management Office (PMO) for the World Bank.The pilot project aims to contribute to addressing three problems related to trucks in Guangzhou and the wider Guangdong province simultaneously: (a) fuel costs and security; (b) air pollution and associated health impacts...

Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project : Guangzhou Truck Sector Survey Report

Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center
Fonte: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39%
The World Bank (WB) initiated a pilot project - dubbed "Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project" in support of Guangzhou's efforts to improve air quality in preparation for the 2010 Asian Games. The goal of this project was to develop a "proof of concept" for a truck program in Guangdong Province and China that aims to : Enhance the fuel economy of the truck fleet, reduce black carbon and other air pollutants from trucks, and consequently obtain GHG emission savings.This document is the Survey Report, which summarizes the results of a survey of truck drivers and companies conducted between June 17, 2009 and June 23, 2009. The survey intends to fill the gaps in information needed to determine the program design and the potential fuel savings and emission reductions through a wider green freight program.

Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project : Technology Pilot Report

Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center
Fonte: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.44%
The World Bank (WB) initiated a pilot project - dubbed "Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project" in support of Guangzhou's efforts to improve air quality in preparation for the 2010 Asian Games. The goal of this project was to develop a proof of concept for a truck program in Guangdong Province and China that aims to: Enhance the fuel economy of the truck fleet, reduce black carbon and other air pollutants from trucks and consequently obtain GHG emission savings. The following strategies were applied during the technology pilot on HDTs: Cab roof fairing, which is an integrated air deflector mounted on the top of the cab and reduces the gap between the tractor and the trailer. Fairings of the brand DongGuan CAIJI were used in the pilot. Nose cone, which is installed on the front of the trailer and reduces air turbulence. Nose cones were purchased from a Guangdong-based supplier, DongGuan CAIJI. Skirts, which are panels that hang down from the bottom of a trailer to enclose the open space between the rear wheels o the tractor and the rear wheels of the trailer. Skirts reduce the amount of wind underneath the trailer and...

Investigating the mixture of air pollutants associated with adverse health outcomes

Roberts, Steven; Martin, Michael
Fonte: Pergamon Press Publicador: Pergamon Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.56%
Most investigations of the adverse health effects of multiple air pollutants analyse the time series involved by simultaneously entering the multiple pollutants into a Poisson log-linear model. Concerns have been raised about this type of analysis, and it

A new model for investigating the mortality effects o multiple air pollutants in air pollution mortality time-series studies

Roberts, Steven
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.49%
Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulates air pollutants independently, the majority of time-series studies on air pollution and mortality have focused on estimating the adverse health effects of a single pollutant. However, due to the so

Hazardous air pollution from mobile sources: A comparison of alternative fuel and reformulated gasoline vehicles

Winebrake, James; Deaton, Michael
Fonte: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association Publicador: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.45%
Although there have been several studies examining emissions of criteria pollutants from in-use alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), little is known about emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from these vehicles. This paper explores HAP tailpipe emissions from a variety of AFVs operating in the federal government fleet and compares these emissions to emissions from identical vehicles operating on reformulated gasoline. Emissions estimates are presented for a variety of fuel/model combinations and on four HAPs (acetaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and formaldehyde). The results indicate that all AFVs tested offer reduced emissions of HAPs, with the following exceptions: ethanol fueled vehicles emit more acetaldehyde than RFG vehicles, and ethanol- and methanol-fueled vehicles emit more formaldehyde than RFG vehicles. The results from this paper can lead to more accurate emissions factors for HAPs, thus improving HAP inventory and associated risk estimates for both AFVs and conventional vehicles.; Article from the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, copyright 1995. The magazine publisher is the copyright holder of this article and it is reproduced with permission. Further reproduction of this article in violation of the copyright is prohibited.

Qualidade do ar e transtornos respiratórios agudos em crianças; Air quality and acute respiratory disorders in children

Moura, Marisa; Junger, Washington Leite; Mendonça, Gulnar Azevedo e Silva; Ponce De Leon, Antonio
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2008 POR; ENG
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OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre poluição do ar e efeitos respiratórios agudos em crianças. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo ecológico de séries temporais em três unidades públicas de saúde do bairro de Jacarepaguá, município do Rio de Janeiro, entre abril de 2002 e março de 2003. Foram analisados dados diários de PM10, SO2, NO2, CO e O3, e como variáveis de desfecho 45.595 atendimentos pediátricos de emergência por sintomas respiratórios ou específicos por transtornos nas vias aéreas superiores e nas vias aéreas inferiores. Foram incluídas no modelo para controle de confundimento as variáveis referentes à tendência temporal, sazonalidade, temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, precipitação de chuva, infecções respiratórias e os efeitos do calendário (como feriados e finais de semana). Foi empregada a regressão de Poisson via modelos aditivos generalizados para estimar os efeitos dos poluentes e dos fatores de confusão. RESULTADOS: Somente o O3 apresentou resultado positivo e estatisticamente significativo, tanto com todos os atendimentos de emergência por queixas respiratórias como com os atendimentos motivados por sintomas nas vias aéreas inferiores. O efeito foi no mesmo dia da exposição (lag 0). Associação significativa e de sentido inverso ocorreu com o CO e os atendimentos pediátricos por queixas respiratórias. Não se observou resultado significativo com os demais poluentes atmosféricos. CONCLUSÕES: Foram encontradas associações entre indicadores de poluição atmosférica e o número de atendimentos pediátricos de emergência por motivos respiratórios em Jacarepaguá...

A systematic review of the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from biomass burning and combustion of fossil fuels and health effects in Brazil

Oliveira,Beatriz Fátima Alves de; Ignotti,Eliane; Hacon,Sandra S.
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.53%
The aim of this study was to carry out a review of scientific literature published in Brazil between 2000 and 2009 on the characteristics of air pollutants from different emission sources, especially particulate matter (PM) and its effects on respiratory health. Using electronic databases, a systematic literature review was performed of all research related to air pollutant emissions. Publications were analyzed to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from different emission sources and their related effects on the respiratory system. The PM2.5 is composed predominantly of organic compounds with 20% of inorganic elements. Higher concentrations of metals were detected in metropolitan areas than in biomass burning regions. The relative risk of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases in children was higher than in the elderly population. The results of studies of health effects of air pollution are specific to the region where the emissions occurred and should not be used to depict the situation in other areas with different emission sources.