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Valuation of plug-in vehicle life-cycle air emissions and oil displacement benefits

Michalek, Jeremy J.; Chester, Mikhail; Jaramillo, Paulina; Samaras, Constantine; Shiau, Ching-Shin Norman; Lave, Lester B.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
We assess the economic value of life-cycle air emissions and oil consumption from conventional vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles in the US. We find that plug-in vehicles may reduce or increase externality costs relative to grid-independent HEVs, depending largely on greenhouse gas and SO2 emissions produced during vehicle charging and battery manufacturing. However, even if future marginal damages from emissions of battery and electricity production drop dramatically, the damage reduction potential of plug-in vehicles remains small compared to ownership cost. As such, to offer a socially efficient approach to emissions and oil consumption reduction, lifetime cost of plug-in vehicles must be competitive with HEVs. Current subsidies intended to encourage sales of plug-in vehicles with large capacity battery packs exceed our externality estimates considerably, and taxes that optimally correct for externality damages would not close the gap in ownership cost. In contrast, HEVs and PHEVs with small battery packs reduce externality damages at low (or no) additional cost over their lifetime. Although large battery packs allow vehicles to travel longer distances using electricity instead of gasoline...

Atmospheric Stabilization of CO2 Emissions : Near-term Reductions and Intensity-based Targets

Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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46.43%
This study analyzes CO2 emissions reduction targets for various countries and geopolitical regions by the year 2030 in order to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at the level of 450 ppm (550 ppm including non CO2 greenhouse gases). It also determines CO2 intensity cuts that would be needed in those countries and regions if the emission reductions were achieved through intensity-based targets while assuming no effect on forecasted economic growth. Considering that the stabilization of CO2 concentrations at 450 ppm requires the global trend of CO2 emissions to reverse before 2030, this study develops two scenarios: reversing the global CO2 trend in (i) 2020 and (ii) 2025. The study shows that global CO2 emissions would be 42 percent above the 1990 level in 2030 if the increasing trend of global CO2 emissions is reversed by 2020. If reversing the trend is delayed by 5 years, the 2030 global CO2 emissions would be 52 percent higher than the 1990 level. The study also finds that to achieve these targets while maintaining assumed economic growth...

Improving Air Quality in Metropolitan Mexico City : An Economic Valuation

The Mexico Air Quality Management Team
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.5%
Mexico City has for years experienced high levels of ozone and particulate air pollution. In 1995-99 the entire population of the Mexico City metropolitan area was exposed to annual average concentrations of fine particulate pollution (particulates with a diameter of less than 10 micrometers, or PM10) exceeding 50 micrograms per cubic meter, the annual average standard in both Mexico and the United States. Two million people were exposed to annual average PM10 levels of more than 75 micrograms per cubic meter. The daily maximum one-hour ozone standard was exceeded at least 300 days a year. The Mexico Air Quality Management Team documents population-weighted exposures to ozone and PM10 between 1995 and 1999, project exposures in 2010, and computes the value of four scenarios for 2010: A 10 percent reduction in PM10 and ozone. A 20 percent reduction in PM10 and ozone. Achievement of ambient air quality standards across the metropolitan area. A 68 percent reduction in ozone and a 47 percent reduction in PM10 across the metropolitan area. The authors calculate the health benefits of reducing ozone and PM10 for each scenario using dose-response functions from the peer-reviewed literature. They value cases of morbidity and premature mortality avoided using three approaches: Cost of illness and forgone earnings only (low estimate). Cost of illness...

Air Pollution During Growth: Accounting for Governance and Vulnerability

Dasgupta, Susmita; Hamilton, Kirk; Pandey, Kiran; Wheeler, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
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46.52%
New research on urban air pollution casts doubt on the conventional view of the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality. This view holds that pollution automatically increases until societies reach middle-income status because poor countries have neither the institutional capacity nor the political commitment necessary to regulate polluters. Some policymakers and researchers have cited this model (called the "environmental Kuznets curve," or EKC) when arguing that developing countries should "grow first, clean up later." However, new evidence suggests that the EKC model is misleading because it mistakenly assumes that strong environmental governance is not possible for poor countries. As the authors show in this paper, the empirical relationship between pollution and income becomes much weaker when measures of governance are added to the analysis. Their results also suggest that previous research has underestimated the effect of geographic vulnerability (climate and terrain factors) on air quality. The authors find that weak governance and geographic vulnerability alone can account for the crisis levels of air pollution in many developing country cities. When these factors are combined with income and population effects...

Environmental Issues in the Power Sector : Long-Term Impacts and Policy Options for Karnataka

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.48%
This study of the long-term environmental impacts and policy options for power sector development in Karnataka, is one of a series undertaken by the Bank, in cooperation with the Government of India and state governments. It is a follow-up to the broader study Environmental Issues in the Power Sector (EIPS) (ESMAP/World Bank 1998), and the general methodology developed for EIPS, is used for this analysis. The study begins by evaluating the impacts of the baseline reform scenario, and then perturbs this scenario for the options examined, including a scenario of "stalled reform," to enable assessment of the costs and benefits of reform. Because Karnataka has already implemented significant reform measures, "no reform" (as used in the original 1998 EIPS study) is not a useful scenario. The critical insight of this study is that the damage costs of emissions from grid-based fossil plants are between one and two orders of magnitude smaller than those of captive and self-generation units, emissions from which are essentially uncontrolled...

Analytical Framework to Regulate Air Emissions from Maritime Transport

MIOLA Apollonia; CIUFFO BIAGIO; MARRA MARLEEN; GIOVINE EMILIANO
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
ENG
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46.51%
Maritime transport activity is becoming one of the most important topics on sustainability debate. Indeed, a part from industrial activity and energy production, maritime transport is the largest contributors to air pollution and the increasing rate of trade make the problem even more worrying. Scope of this report is to sketch the state of the art on data, methodologies, air emissions estimations, technological and policy options to design a sectorial environmental policy strategy to regulate air emissions from ships. The report gives an overview of the main methods to estimate the air emissions deriving from shipping activities and compares their results to define a reference framework. Particularly attention is done to cost effectiveness analysis of technological and policy options to abate GHG emissions from international maritime transport taking into account the legal regulatory system of this sector, and the main legal and economics constraints to implement a sectorial policy to abate CO2 emissions.; JRC.DDG.H.4-Transport and air quality

Regulating Air Emissions from Ships: The State of the Art on Methodologies, Technologies and Policy Options

MIOLA Apollonia; CIUFFO BIAGIO; GIOVINE EMILIANO; MARRA Marleen
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: JRC Reference Reports Formato: Printed
ENG
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In recent years public concerns regarding the environmental impacts of maritime transport have increased. This is because maritime transport is the fifth largest contributor to air pollution and carbon emissions, and the growth rate of trade makes the problem even more pressing. However, considerable environmental improvements can be obtained by changing shipping practices. Current policy actions targeting issues such as emissions relate mainly to the quality of fuel used and to the available technological options. Market based instruments such as emissions trading are under discussion at international level within the IMO. Furthermore, the inclusion of the maritime transport sector within the EU Emission Trading Scheme is on the agenda of the EU strategy to address GHGs. The complexity of air pollution and climate change policies for the international maritime transport sector calls for a wide range of considerations to be taken into account requiring policymakers: 1) to set binding long-term emission reduction goals, 2) to take action in a flexible manner, 3) to ensure knowledge and technology sharing of innovative practices, and 4) transparency, administrative feasibility. This Reference Report summarises the main findings of a research activity carried out over several years and provides a reference framework of the analytical tools for regulating air emissions from ships. It sketches the ¿state of the art¿ with regard to the main methodological aspects of designing policy measures to regulate air emissions from maritime transport. These are: identification of the impacts; estimation of emissions...

Viability of Current and Emerging Technologies for Domestic Solid Waste Treatment and Disposal : Implications on Dioxin and Furan Emissions

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This study was undertaken to identify and assess the technologies available worldwide for treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW), and to make a general assessment of the applicability of these technologies to various waste management 'settings' within the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) Region. Each technology was evaluated for a number of key attributes, including demonstrated commercial viability, economics, institutional factors, sustainability metrics, and environmental attributes, including emissions of dioxins and furans. The study focused on the waste treatment technologies that have been commercially demonstrated worldwide; however, selected alternative and emerging technologies were also considered. After profiling the available waste management technologies, an assessment was then made of the general applicability of these technologies to various characteristic settings found within the LAC region. Technology applicability assessment at specific locations within the LAC region will require detailed...

Towards Cleaner Industry and Improved Air Quality Monitoring in Kazakhstan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.7%
Kazakhstan's environmental situation is at a critical cross-road, where the pressures of economic growth without adequate environmental controls and the legacy of industrial production are beginning to take their toll on society in terms of health. In addition, Kazakhstan strives to promote itself as a modern and resource-efficient economy that is worthy of top international standing. In response, a series of proactive planning has emerged through such strategic initiatives as the Green Economy Concept with its accompanying actions that aim to reduce the ecological footprint of economic activities, promote sustainable economic growth and place Kazakhstan on a cleaner and greener development path. The document details the background and context of the situation in the country, and the initiatives that are being taken to improve air quality.

Cleaning Pakistan's Air : Policy Options to Address the Cost of Outdoor Air Pollution

Sanchez-Triana, Ernesto; Enriquez, Santiago; Afzal, Javaid; Nakagawa, Akiko; Khan, Asif Shuja
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.73%
Pakistan's urban air pollution is among the most severe in the world and it engenders significant damages to human health and the economy. Air pollution, inadequate water supply, sanitation, and hygiene are the top environmental priority problems in Pakistan. Industrialization and urbanization, in conjunction with motorization, can result in further deterioration of urban air quality. This book examines policy options to strengthen the Pakistan clean air program (PCAP) to better address the cost imposed by outdoor air pollution upon Pakistan's economy and populace. The approach provided in this book recommends that the federal and provincial environmental protection agencies (EPAs) take on a limited number of high return, essential, and feasible interventions drawn largely from the PCAP. The objective of this book is to examine policy options to control outdoor air pollution in Pakistan. The findings of the analysis aim at assisting the Government of Pakistan (GoP) in the design and implementation of reforms to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of Pakistan's ambient air quality institutions. The overarching theme of this book is that prioritizing interventions is essential to address the cost of outdoor air pollution...

Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project : Background Analysis Report

Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center
Fonte: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This document was devloped as it initiated a pilot project - dubbed Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project in support of Guangzhou's efforts to improve air quality in preparation for the 2010 Asian Games. The goal of this project was to develop a proof of concept for a truck program in Guangdong Province, and possibly China, that aims to: Enhance the fuel economy of the truck fleet, Reduce black carbon and other air pollutants from trucks and consequently obtain GHG emission savings.The project was implemented by the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center (CAI-Asia Center), in cooperation with Cascade Sierra Solutions, US EPA and World Bank, and with support from Guangzhou Environmental Protection Bureau (GEPB), Guangzhou Transport Committee (GTC), and Guangzhou Project Management Office (PMO) for the World Bank.The pilot project aims to contribute to addressing three problems related to trucks in Guangzhou and the wider Guangdong province simultaneously: (a) fuel costs and security; (b) air pollution and associated health impacts...

Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project : Technology Pilot Report

Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center
Fonte: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.6%
The World Bank (WB) initiated a pilot project - dubbed "Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project" in support of Guangzhou's efforts to improve air quality in preparation for the 2010 Asian Games. The goal of this project was to develop a proof of concept for a truck program in Guangdong Province and China that aims to: Enhance the fuel economy of the truck fleet, reduce black carbon and other air pollutants from trucks and consequently obtain GHG emission savings. The following strategies were applied during the technology pilot on HDTs: Cab roof fairing, which is an integrated air deflector mounted on the top of the cab and reduces the gap between the tractor and the trailer. Fairings of the brand DongGuan CAIJI were used in the pilot. Nose cone, which is installed on the front of the trailer and reduces air turbulence. Nose cones were purchased from a Guangdong-based supplier, DongGuan CAIJI. Skirts, which are panels that hang down from the bottom of a trailer to enclose the open space between the rear wheels o the tractor and the rear wheels of the trailer. Skirts reduce the amount of wind underneath the trailer and...

Investigating the Effects of Mercury Emissions in the Four Corners Area on Local Deposition Levels and Ambient Concentrations

Weidner, Kristin
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 6998431 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 11/09/2007
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In 2005, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as a means for regulating mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers in the United States. However, there is concern that this rule may result in local ‘hot spots’ of increased mercury in the environment surrounding these facilities. Citizens of the Four Corners region in the southwest are particularly concerned about this rule due to the presence of two of the highest mercury-emitting facilities in the country. While studies have shown that an increase in atmospheric levels of mercury lead to a global increase in mercury deposition, little is known on the effects air emissions from point sources on local mercury levels in the environment. In this study, mercury emissions from the Four Corners Power Plant and the San Juan Generating Station of New Mexico were investigated for their possible impacts on local mercury levels in the environment. The analysis included statistical and back trajectory analysis of deposition data at a nearby monitoring site, as well as SCREEN dispersion modeling of mercury emissions to calculate mercury concentrations in the ambient air. Results of the statistical analysis of the deposition data showed a relationship between precipitation and deposition levels...

The Social Context of Environmental Exposures: an Application to Swine CAFO Air Effluent and Pregnancy Outcomes in North Carolina

Tosiano, Melissa Ann
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012
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46.5%

Compared to full weight infants, low birth weight infants are at greater risk for short and long term health consequences. Maternal exposure to air pollution is associated with low birth weight, although these studies did not extend to rural sources of air pollution[1]. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of maternal exposure to swine CAFO air emissions with birth weight. Information on all North Carolina births from 2004-2008 was extracted from the NCDBR. Maternal exposure to swine CAFO air emissions were estimated using NC CAFO water release permitting in a geographic information system. Using ordinary least squares regression modeling, this study implicates a statistically, but not clinically significant association with exposure to swine CAFO emissions and a decrease in birth weight. As the metric of estimated maternal exposure to swine CAFO air emissions became more refined (binary< interaction< exponential decay) the association between swine CAFO exposure and decreased birth weight was increased. Prior studies have found associations between swine CAFOs and poor health in proximate communities, but none have addressed birth weight [2-8]. The results of this research indicate rural sources of air pollution could potentially adversely impact birth outcomes of especially sensitive mothers.

; Thesis

Comparing lifetime emissions of natural gas and conventional fuel vehicles: An Application of the generalized ANCOVA model

Deaton, Michael; Winebrake, James
Fonte: Air & Waste Management Association Publicador: Air & Waste Management Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
New regulations and incentives are encouraging the use of clean, alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) in urban areas. These vehicles are seen as one option for reducing air pollution from mobile sources. However, because of the limited number of AFVs on the road, little is known about actual lifetime emissions characteristics of in-use AFVs. This study describes the use of a generalized analysis of covariance model to evaluate and compare the emissions from natural gas vehicles with emissions from reformulated gasoline vehicles. The model describes fleet-wide emissions deterioration, while also accounting for individual vehicle variability within the fleet. This ability to measure individual vehicle variability can then be used to provide realistic bounds for the emissions deterioration in individual vehicles and the fleet as a whole. In order to illustrate the use of the model, the carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), and carbon dioxide emissions characteristics of a fleet of dedicated natural gas Dodge Ram vans and a fleet of dedicated reformulated gasoline Dodge Ram vans operating in the U.S. government fleet are explored. The analysis demonstrates the utility of the statistical method and suggests a potential for natural gas Dodge Ram vans to be generally cleaner than their conventional fuel counterparts. However...

Toxic emissions from mobile sources: A Total fuel-cycle analysis for conventional and alternative fuel vehicles

Winebrake, James; Wang, Michael; He, Dongquan
Fonte: Air & Waste Management Association Publicador: Air & Waste Management Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
Mobile sources are among the largest contributors of four hazardous air pollutants—benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde—in urban areas. At the same time, federal and state governments are promoting the use of alternative fuel vehicles as a means to curb local air pollution. As yet, the impact of this movement toward alternative fuels with respect to toxic emissions has not been well studied. The purpose of this paper is to compare toxic emissions from vehicles operating on a variety of fuels, including reformulated gasoline (RFG), natural gas, ethanol, methanol, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and electricity. This study uses a version of Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gas, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model, appropriately modified to estimate toxic emissions. The GREET model conducts a total fuel-cycle analysis that calculates emissions from both downstream (e.g., operation of the vehicle) and upstream (e.g., fuel production and distribution) stages of the fuel cycle. We find that almost all of the fuels studied reduce 1,3-butadiene emissions compared with conventional gasoline (CG). However, the use of ethanol in E85 (fuel made with 85% ethanol) or RFG leads to increased acetaldehyde emissions...

Controlling air pollution from passenger ferries: Cost-effectiveness of seven technological options

Farrell, Alexander; Corbett, James; Winebrake, James
Fonte: Journal of Air and Waste Management Association Publicador: Journal of Air and Waste Management Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
Continued interest in improving air quality in the United States along with renewed interest in the expansion of urban passenger ferry service has created concern about air pollution from ferry vessels. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the air pollution emissions from passenger ferries and the costs of emissions control strategies. The methodology is used to estimate the emissions and costs of retrofitting or re-powering ferries with seven technological options (combinations of propulsion and emission control systems) onto three vessels currently in service in San Francisco Bay. The technologies include improved engine design, cleaner fuels (including natural gas), and exhaust gas cleanup devices. The three vessels span a range of ages and technologies, from a 25-year-old monohull to a modern, high-speed catamaran built only four years ago. By looking at a range of technologies, vessel designs, and service conditions, a sense of the broader implications of controlling emissions from passenger ferries across a range of vessels and service profiles is provided. Tier 2-certified engines are the most cost-effective choice, but all options are cost-effective relative to other emission control strategies already in place in the transportation system.; The magazine publisher is the copyright holder of this article and it is reproduced with permission. Further reproduction of this article in violation of the copyright is prohibited. To contact the publisher: http://www.awma.org/

Hazardous air pollution from mobile sources: A comparison of alternative fuel and reformulated gasoline vehicles

Winebrake, James; Deaton, Michael
Fonte: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association Publicador: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
Although there have been several studies examining emissions of criteria pollutants from in-use alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), little is known about emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from these vehicles. This paper explores HAP tailpipe emissions from a variety of AFVs operating in the federal government fleet and compares these emissions to emissions from identical vehicles operating on reformulated gasoline. Emissions estimates are presented for a variety of fuel/model combinations and on four HAPs (acetaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and formaldehyde). The results indicate that all AFVs tested offer reduced emissions of HAPs, with the following exceptions: ethanol fueled vehicles emit more acetaldehyde than RFG vehicles, and ethanol- and methanol-fueled vehicles emit more formaldehyde than RFG vehicles. The results from this paper can lead to more accurate emissions factors for HAPs, thus improving HAP inventory and associated risk estimates for both AFVs and conventional vehicles.; Article from the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, copyright 1995. The magazine publisher is the copyright holder of this article and it is reproduced with permission. Further reproduction of this article in violation of the copyright is prohibited.

Possibilities for change: incorporating technology policy and analysis of stakeholder preferences into the environmental policy framework for reducing air emissions from containerized supply chains

Woehl, Melissa
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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56.43%
Corbett, James J.; This research, through a detailed assessment of the vessel emissions issue and the containerized shipping segment, examines the environmental policy-making framework within the area of international maritime shipping. It evaluates current approaches and methods being used and investigates whether or not alterations could be made to improve the current policy-making process for environmental issues. Specifically, this work probes whether or not the incorporation of concepts from technology policy and decision theory, explicitly through tools designed to identify stakeholder values, could provide new insights to or approaches for environmental policy-making within the international marine transportation system. The study then provides direction as to how these elements might be integrated with the current structure. An industry born from and controlled by the supply and demand requirements of growing domestic and global economies, international marine transportation has a reputation of fierce internal competition. This characteristic rewards forward thinking and has led to a focus on technological change and innovation for advancement. Unlike many land-based industries, though, international marine transportation has been able to continue to drive its development - from a regulatory standpoint - in a uniquely independent manner due to its distinctive situation as a business where every nation has a stake but no one has ultimate control [1-6]. Knowledge regarding the harmful effects and sources of various air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides...

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT METHODS FOR DETERMINING AMMONIA EMISSIONS IN POULTRY BUILDINGS AND THEIR APPLICABILITY TO OPEN FACILITIES

OSORIO SARAZ,JAIRO ALEXANDER; FERREIRA TINÔCO,ILDA DE FÁTIMA; GATES,RICHARD S.; OLIVEIRA DE PAULA,MARCOS; MENDES,LUCIANO B.
Fonte: DYNA Publicador: DYNA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
In regions of tropical and subtropical climates, nearly all installations used for intensive broiler chicken production and other animals of economic interest operate as curtain-sided open structures with assisted mechanical ventilation. The lack of ventilation control in these facilities, along with wind direction and velocity effects on ventilation uniformity, complicates calculation of the quantity of gases (ammonia and others) generated by the litter at a given moment. This fact constitutes a pitfall when evaluating the polluting potential of open environments, and when comparisons with data encountered in closed environment facilities used in temperate climates need to be done. All developed countries of Europe and North America already possess methodologies to determine gas emissions in closed installations commonly found in these regions. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate some specific methodologies used for determining ammonia emissions from broiler houses located in countries of Europe and the United States, and verify the possibility for application of these methodologies to open structures commonly found in Brazil and other countries of South America. A quantitative evaluation showed that the methods with best characteristics for adaptability to the operational conditions and the different types of conditioned environments of buildings with positive pressure or natural ventilation systems were the internal tracer gas...