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Air Carrier Flight Operations

Midkif, Alan H.; Hansman, R. John; Reynolds, Tom G.
Fonte: MIT International Center for Air Transportation Publicador: MIT International Center for Air Transportation
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 2271636 bytes; application/pdf
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Most air carriers operate under a system of prioritized goals including safety, customer service (on-time departures and arrivals) and operating economics. The flight operations department is responsible for the safe and efficient movement of passengers and/or cargo which ultimately generate the revenue for the airline. The major components needing to be coordinated for any given flight include the aircraft and support equipment, cockpit and cabin crews (together known as the “flight crew”), maintenance, and ground service personnel. Although the maintenance and ground crew activities are critical to support flight operations, the emphasis in this document is on the regulation and scheduling of the flight crews to conduct a given flight, followed by a detailed discussion of the activities of flight crews during the phases of a typical revenue flight sequence. Note that this chapter does not attempt to address detailed airmanship and flight maneuvering topics and only includes such information in the context of the overall flight operation. However, specific flight procedures that may have a direct impact on the operational goals are included to aid in understanding the nature and complexity of the factors involved.

Supporting the Future Air Traffic Control Projection Process

Davison, H. J.; Hansman, R. J.
Fonte: International Center for Air Transportation Publicador: International Center for Air Transportation
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 265583 bytes; application/pdf
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In air traffic control, projecting what the air traffic situation will be over the next 30 seconds to 30 minutes is a key process in identifying conflicts that may arise so that evasive action can be taken upon discovery of these conflicts. A series of field visits in the Boston and New York terminal radar approach control (TRACON) facilities and in the oceanic air traffic control facilities in New York and Reykjavik, Iceland were conducted to investigate the projection process in two different ATC domains. The results from the site visits suggest that two types of projection are currently used in ATC tasks, depending on the type of separation minima and/or traffic restriction and information display used by the controller. As technologies improve and procedures change, care should be taken by designers to support projection through displays, automation, and procedures. It is critical to prevent time/space mismatches between interfaces and restrictions. Existing structure in traffic dynamics could be utilized to provide controllers with useful behavioral models on which to build projections. Subtle structure that the controllers are unable to internalize could be incorporated into an ATC projection aid.

Analysis of the Interaction Between Air Transportation and Economic Activity: A Worldwide Perspective

Hansman, R. John; Ishutkina, Mariya
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Relatório
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Air transportation usage and economic activity are interdependent. Air transportation provides employment and enables certain economic activities which are dependent on the availability of air transportation services. The economy, in turn, drives the demand for air transportation services resulting in the feedback relationship between the two. The objective of this work is to contribute to the understanding of the relationship between air transportation and economic activity. More specifically, this work seeks to (1) develop a feedback model to describe the relationship between air transportation and economic activity and (2) identify factors which stimulate or suppress air transportation development. To achieve these objectives this work uses an exploratory research method which combines literature review, aggregate data and case study analyses. First, this work uses data at the individual country level to identify different types of growth patterns between air transportation passengers and GDP for 139 countries. This analysis is then used to identify twenty-two representative countries which span a range of possible interaction behaviors, geographies and income categories. The case study analysis at the individual country level is performed to describe the air transportation impact for each individual economy. These findings help develop a feedback model which describes the relationship between air transportation and economic activity. Specifically...

Improving Air Quality in Metropolitan Mexico City : An Economic Valuation

The Mexico Air Quality Management Team
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Mexico City has for years experienced high levels of ozone and particulate air pollution. In 1995-99 the entire population of the Mexico City metropolitan area was exposed to annual average concentrations of fine particulate pollution (particulates with a diameter of less than 10 micrometers, or PM10) exceeding 50 micrograms per cubic meter, the annual average standard in both Mexico and the United States. Two million people were exposed to annual average PM10 levels of more than 75 micrograms per cubic meter. The daily maximum one-hour ozone standard was exceeded at least 300 days a year. The Mexico Air Quality Management Team documents population-weighted exposures to ozone and PM10 between 1995 and 1999, project exposures in 2010, and computes the value of four scenarios for 2010: A 10 percent reduction in PM10 and ozone. A 20 percent reduction in PM10 and ozone. Achievement of ambient air quality standards across the metropolitan area. A 68 percent reduction in ozone and a 47 percent reduction in PM10 across the metropolitan area. The authors calculate the health benefits of reducing ozone and PM10 for each scenario using dose-response functions from the peer-reviewed literature. They value cases of morbidity and premature mortality avoided using three approaches: Cost of illness and forgone earnings only (low estimate). Cost of illness...

Making a Small Market Thrive : Recommendations for Efficiency Gains in the Latin American Air Cargo Market

Serebrisky, Tomás; Schwartz, Jordan; Pachón, María Claudia; Ricover, Andrés
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Air cargo origin destination flows in the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region are heavily concentrated in the largest economies of South America and Mexico. With 32.7 percent of the airfreight moved to, from, and within the region, Brazil is the largest cargo market, followed by Colombia and Mexico, with 17.9 percent and 16.0 percent, respectively. The relatively small size of the air cargo market in LAC can be explained by: (i) low levels of demand for air cargo services (supply responds adequately to a low demand for air cargo services in/from LAC), or (ii) restrictions to a properly functioning market that impede the air cargo market to reach its full potential. The analysis carried out for the preparation of this paper indicates that the low levels of demand is the most reasonable explanation for the small size of the LAC air cargo market. There is room to improve some regulations which would make the air cargo market work more efficiently and probably at lower costs, but the size and diversity of the market will not significantly change as a result. Airport infrastructure quality fairs well overall...

Air Freight : A Market Study with Implications for Landlocked Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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To facilitate air freight, landlocked countries need to improve operations at their airports and liberalize access for foreign airlines. But until those countries become major exporters, it is unlikely that scheduled air cargo operators will have significant operations. Instead, most air cargo will move as belly cargo on passenger airlines, with some complementary use of chartered air freighters during shipment peaks. Landlocked countries should therefore provide greater access to foreign passenger airlines.

Toward Cleaner Urban Air in South Asia: Tackling Transport Pollution, Understanding Sources

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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This ESMAP study was undertaken to provide technical input to support the region-wide process of developing and adopting cost-effective and realistic policies and efficient enforcement mechanisms to reverse the deteriorating trend in urban air quality in South Asia. It focused mainly on fine particulate matter, estimated to account for most premature mortality and illnesses caused by outdoor air pollution. Through stakeholder feedback, the study examined two areas where more information and policy analysis could complement ongoing activities on air pollution control: making vehicle emissions inspection more effective and understanding sources of small particulate matter. Poorly maintained older technology vehicles contribute disproportionately to total vehicular emissions. A common approach to identifying gross polluters and ensuring that they are repaired or retired is a vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) program. The analysis carried out in this study recommends that limited resources be concentrated on applying more robust (but also costly) test protocols to vehicle categories in large cities likely to contain a disproportionately large fraction of high annual-kilometer...

Inquiry into Australian Defence Force regional air superiority

Prakash, Diwaka
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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In June 2005 the Senate referred the Joint Standing Committee for Foreign Affairs Defence and Trade (JSCFDT} to inquire into the Australian Defence Force's (ADF) ability to maintain air superiority in the region to 2020 given current planning. Air superiority is the ability of an air force to control the air space above a military operation. This ensures land and naval objectives can be achieved. It is the combat fighter aircraft that are responsible for ensuring an air force attains air superiority. The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) is currently going through a major revamp. The current fighter aircraft achieving air superiority are the F/A-18s and F-111s. The combined age of these aircraft is over 40 years. The region's air forces are in the process of modernisation. Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam are all acquiring new fighter aircraft to challenge Australia's air superiority in the region. The People's Republic of China (PRC) is also obtaining aircraft that will change the balance of air power in the region. As such Australia is in the market for a new fighter aircraft. In October 2001 Australia joined the System Development and Demonstrations (SOD) Phase of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Project in the United States. The estimated cost of this combat aircraft is US$45 million. The Chief of Air Force Air Marshal Angus Houston has intimated that Australia's F-111 's will be retired from 2010. The F-111 has been the air superiority fighter for the RAAF for over 30 years. Its range and payload are currently unmatched by any other aircraft. The early retirement of this fighter aircraft leaves a significant capability gap in Australia's air defences. The JSF will not be able to replace the F-111 s as an air superiority fighter. It is a multi-role aircraft and not designed to be an air superiority fighter. The nations in line to purchase the JSF are using the aircraft as a complement to an air superiority fighter. The F/A-22 Raptor is a true 5th generation aircraft being designed to be the superior aircraft in this era. This aircraft will be better suited to achieving the air superiority objective during military operations. Australia should continue to maintain its F-111s as the costs of sustaining these aircraft has been grossly exaggerated by the Department of Defence (DoD). Australia should also purchase the F/A-22 Raptor to complement the F-111 fleet.

Air Power and Trans-National Terrorism: the Possibilities, Advantages and Limits to Using Australian Air Power in the 'War on Terror'.

Gray-Murphy, Sam
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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Although terrorism is by no means a new phenomenon, contemporary trans-national terrorist groups are an increasingly prominent source of threat to Australians and Australian interests around the world. Terrorism is not primarily a military problem, yet the severity of the contemporary threat calls for the Australian Defence Force (ADF) to assume a greater share of the counter-terrorism burden. The fight against trans-national terrorism will not be easy; it promises to be long and will involve all elements of national power, including air power. Air Power has the capacity to make a significant contribution to Australia's counter-terrorism efforts and effectively exploiting such a vital 'force enhancer' will benefit Australian national security. Predicting the future strategic environment is an inherently demanding task that seldom produces accurate forecasts. Whilst it is tempting to suggest that low-intensity conflicts and counter-terrorism operations will be the warfighting way of the future, one cannot discount the ever-present, albeit unlikely, threat of a high-impact, conventional military contingency. Australia's involvement in the so-called 'War on Terror' should not become the Royal Australian Air Force's (RAAF) primary strategic focus. However...

Towards Cleaner Industry and Improved Air Quality Monitoring in Kazakhstan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Kazakhstan's environmental situation is at a critical cross-road, where the pressures of economic growth without adequate environmental controls and the legacy of industrial production are beginning to take their toll on society in terms of health. In addition, Kazakhstan strives to promote itself as a modern and resource-efficient economy that is worthy of top international standing. In response, a series of proactive planning has emerged through such strategic initiatives as the Green Economy Concept with its accompanying actions that aim to reduce the ecological footprint of economic activities, promote sustainable economic growth and place Kazakhstan on a cleaner and greener development path. The document details the background and context of the situation in the country, and the initiatives that are being taken to improve air quality.

Air Transport and Energy Efficiency

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The air transport sector is enjoying an optimistic growth rate while at the same time eliciting growing concern, due to its environmental impact and its vulnerability with respect to energy security. These issues have put the sector at the forefront of the tide in achieving energy efficiency. Efforts have been made on every front to improve efficiency through better technology, optimized operation, as well as energy-saving infrastructure. This report includes five chapters. Chapter 1 will introduce the air transport energy consumption outlook though the analysis of the growth of air services as well as consumption of fossil fuel-based energy. Chapter two will discuss air transport's impact on the environment and the response and actions from the air transport sector. Chapter three will detail potential energy efficiency gains in aircraft design, air service operation, as well as infrastructure design. The role of the government and private sector in fostering and supporting those energy efficiency gains will also be discussed. Chapter four will enumerate policy options for countries with respect to air transport energy efficiency...

Air Transport : Challenges to Growth

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study
ENGLISH
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The air transport market in Sub-Saharan Africa presents a strong dichotomy. In Southern and East Africa the market is growing: three strong hubs and three major African carriers dominate international and domestic markets, which are becoming increasingly concentrated. In contrast, in Central and West Africa the sector is stagnating, with the vacuum created by the collapse of Cote d'Ivoire and the demise of several regional airlines, including Air Afrique, still unfilled. Throughout, there are many unviable small state-owned operations that depend on subsidies and have a monopoly over the domestic market. There are also some promising signs: growth in air traffic has been buoyant, the number of routes and the size of aircraft are being adapted to the market, and a number of large carriers are viable and expanding. But in spite of this, overall connectivity has been declining. As oil prices rise, the role of air transportation will be looked at even more critically. Africa is a poor continent, and some countries face the potential of further isolation as the cost of flying increases. At a time when Africa's infrastructure requirements are being widely debated...

Cleaning Pakistan's Air : Policy Options to Address the Cost of Outdoor Air Pollution

Sanchez-Triana, Ernesto; Enriquez, Santiago; Afzal, Javaid; Nakagawa, Akiko; Khan, Asif Shuja
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Pakistan's urban air pollution is among the most severe in the world and it engenders significant damages to human health and the economy. Air pollution, inadequate water supply, sanitation, and hygiene are the top environmental priority problems in Pakistan. Industrialization and urbanization, in conjunction with motorization, can result in further deterioration of urban air quality. This book examines policy options to strengthen the Pakistan clean air program (PCAP) to better address the cost imposed by outdoor air pollution upon Pakistan's economy and populace. The approach provided in this book recommends that the federal and provincial environmental protection agencies (EPAs) take on a limited number of high return, essential, and feasible interventions drawn largely from the PCAP. The objective of this book is to examine policy options to control outdoor air pollution in Pakistan. The findings of the analysis aim at assisting the Government of Pakistan (GoP) in the design and implementation of reforms to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of Pakistan's ambient air quality institutions. The overarching theme of this book is that prioritizing interventions is essential to address the cost of outdoor air pollution...

Clean Air and Healthy Lungs : Enhancing the World Bank's Approach to Air Quality Management

Awe, Yewande; Nygard, Jostein; Larssen, Steinar; Lee, Heejoo; Dulal, Hari; Kanakia, Rahul
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This report specifically deals with air pollution, which was reported, by the World Health Organization (WHO), as the single largest environmental health risk globally in 2012 (WHO, 2014a). Air pollution from outdoor and household sources jointly account for more than 7 million deaths (3.7 million from ambient air pollution and 4.3 million from household air pollution). The following sections of this chapter present the objectives of, and key aspects of the institutional context for, this report followed by an examination of some of the major drivers of deteriorating ambient air quality in developing countries; air pollution sources and impacts; and the status of air quality management in developing countries. Chapter two presents the results of a desk-based portfolio review of World Bank projects that are relevant to reduction of air pollution. This is followed, in chapter three, by an examination of case studies of World Bank projects whose objectives include addressing ambient air pollution, highlighting good practices and lessons for future work of the Bank in supporting clients. Chapter four presents possible approaches for enhancing future Bank support in helping clients to improve air quality and reduce the associated adverse health outcomes. Chapter five presents overall conclusions and recommendations.

Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project : Background Analysis Report

Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center
Fonte: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This document was devloped as it initiated a pilot project - dubbed Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project in support of Guangzhou's efforts to improve air quality in preparation for the 2010 Asian Games. The goal of this project was to develop a proof of concept for a truck program in Guangdong Province, and possibly China, that aims to: Enhance the fuel economy of the truck fleet, Reduce black carbon and other air pollutants from trucks and consequently obtain GHG emission savings.The project was implemented by the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center (CAI-Asia Center), in cooperation with Cascade Sierra Solutions, US EPA and World Bank, and with support from Guangzhou Environmental Protection Bureau (GEPB), Guangzhou Transport Committee (GTC), and Guangzhou Project Management Office (PMO) for the World Bank.The pilot project aims to contribute to addressing three problems related to trucks in Guangzhou and the wider Guangdong province simultaneously: (a) fuel costs and security; (b) air pollution and associated health impacts...

Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project : Guangzhou Truck Sector Survey Report

Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center
Fonte: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.38%
The World Bank (WB) initiated a pilot project - dubbed "Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project" in support of Guangzhou's efforts to improve air quality in preparation for the 2010 Asian Games. The goal of this project was to develop a "proof of concept" for a truck program in Guangdong Province and China that aims to : Enhance the fuel economy of the truck fleet, reduce black carbon and other air pollutants from trucks, and consequently obtain GHG emission savings.This document is the Survey Report, which summarizes the results of a survey of truck drivers and companies conducted between June 17, 2009 and June 23, 2009. The survey intends to fill the gaps in information needed to determine the program design and the potential fuel savings and emission reductions through a wider green freight program.

Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project : Technology Pilot Report

Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center
Fonte: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center and the World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
The World Bank (WB) initiated a pilot project - dubbed "Guangzhou Green Trucks Pilot Project" in support of Guangzhou's efforts to improve air quality in preparation for the 2010 Asian Games. The goal of this project was to develop a proof of concept for a truck program in Guangdong Province and China that aims to: Enhance the fuel economy of the truck fleet, reduce black carbon and other air pollutants from trucks and consequently obtain GHG emission savings. The following strategies were applied during the technology pilot on HDTs: Cab roof fairing, which is an integrated air deflector mounted on the top of the cab and reduces the gap between the tractor and the trailer. Fairings of the brand DongGuan CAIJI were used in the pilot. Nose cone, which is installed on the front of the trailer and reduces air turbulence. Nose cones were purchased from a Guangdong-based supplier, DongGuan CAIJI. Skirts, which are panels that hang down from the bottom of a trailer to enclose the open space between the rear wheels o the tractor and the rear wheels of the trailer. Skirts reduce the amount of wind underneath the trailer and...

Controlling air pollution from passenger ferries: Cost-effectiveness of seven technological options

Farrell, Alexander; Corbett, James; Winebrake, James
Fonte: Journal of Air and Waste Management Association Publicador: Journal of Air and Waste Management Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Continued interest in improving air quality in the United States along with renewed interest in the expansion of urban passenger ferry service has created concern about air pollution from ferry vessels. This paper presents a methodology for estimating the air pollution emissions from passenger ferries and the costs of emissions control strategies. The methodology is used to estimate the emissions and costs of retrofitting or re-powering ferries with seven technological options (combinations of propulsion and emission control systems) onto three vessels currently in service in San Francisco Bay. The technologies include improved engine design, cleaner fuels (including natural gas), and exhaust gas cleanup devices. The three vessels span a range of ages and technologies, from a 25-year-old monohull to a modern, high-speed catamaran built only four years ago. By looking at a range of technologies, vessel designs, and service conditions, a sense of the broader implications of controlling emissions from passenger ferries across a range of vessels and service profiles is provided. Tier 2-certified engines are the most cost-effective choice, but all options are cost-effective relative to other emission control strategies already in place in the transportation system.; The magazine publisher is the copyright holder of this article and it is reproduced with permission. Further reproduction of this article in violation of the copyright is prohibited. To contact the publisher: http://www.awma.org/

Hazardous air pollution from mobile sources: A comparison of alternative fuel and reformulated gasoline vehicles

Winebrake, James; Deaton, Michael
Fonte: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association Publicador: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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46.3%
Although there have been several studies examining emissions of criteria pollutants from in-use alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), little is known about emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from these vehicles. This paper explores HAP tailpipe emissions from a variety of AFVs operating in the federal government fleet and compares these emissions to emissions from identical vehicles operating on reformulated gasoline. Emissions estimates are presented for a variety of fuel/model combinations and on four HAPs (acetaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and formaldehyde). The results indicate that all AFVs tested offer reduced emissions of HAPs, with the following exceptions: ethanol fueled vehicles emit more acetaldehyde than RFG vehicles, and ethanol- and methanol-fueled vehicles emit more formaldehyde than RFG vehicles. The results from this paper can lead to more accurate emissions factors for HAPs, thus improving HAP inventory and associated risk estimates for both AFVs and conventional vehicles.; Article from the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, copyright 1995. The magazine publisher is the copyright holder of this article and it is reproduced with permission. Further reproduction of this article in violation of the copyright is prohibited.

An investigation of distributed lag models in the context of air pollution and mortality time series analysis

Roberts, Steven
Fonte: Air and Waste Management Association Publicador: Air and Waste Management Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In particulate air pollution mortality time series studies, the particulate air pollution exposure measure used is typically the current day's or the previous day's air pollution concentration or a multi-day moving average air pollution concentration. Distributed lag models (DLMs) that allow for differential air pollution effects that are spread over multiple days are seen as an improvement over using a single- or multi-day moving average air pollution exposure measure. However, at the current time, the statistical properties of DLMs as a measure of air pollution exposure have not been investigated. In this paper, a simulation study is used to investigate the performance of DLMs as a measure of air pollution exposure in comparison with single- and multi-day moving average air pollution exposure measures under various forms for the true effect of air pollution on mortality. The simulation study shows that DLMs offer a more robust measure of the effect of air pollution on mortality and avoid the potential for a large negative bias compared with single- or multi-day moving average air pollution exposure measures. This is important information. In many U.S. cities, particulate air pollution concentrations are observed only once every six days...