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Regional patterns of the temporal evolution of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy

Brito, Ana Maria de; Castilho, Euclides Ayres de; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann
Fonte: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Contexto Publishing Publicador: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Contexto Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.54%
We examined the characteristics of the AIDS epidemic in the northeastern region of Brazil, comparing it to the epidemic in Brazil as a whole, and to the state of S??o Paulo, with respect to the temporal evolution of morbidity and mortality during the period 1990 to 1999, using information from communicable disease reports and mortality records. Since 1996, the incidence rate of AIDS in adults in Brazil as a whole and in S??o Paulo has been showing a trend towards stability, whereas in the Brazilian northeast the incidence rates of the disease continue to grow. In the northeast, sexual transmission is responsible for more than 80% of cases, injectable drug users (IDU) comprising only a small percentage of cases. There is a greater incidence of AIDS among groups with lower educational levels throughout the country. The comparative analysis of cases of AIDS and of deaths from AIDS shows growth, both in the number of cases and in the number of deaths; however, from 1996 onwards there has been a progressive reduction in the number of deaths in all regions analyzed. With respect to the incidence of cases of the disease acquired by vertical transmission, a significant growth trend can be seen in all regions for cases born in the period 1990-6...

Regional patterns of the temporal evolution of the AIDS epidemic in Brazil following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy

Brito,Ana Maria de; Castilho,Euclides Ayres de; Szwarcwald,Célia Landmann
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.55%
We examined the characteristics of the AIDS epidemic in the northeastern region of Brazil, comparing it to the epidemic in Brazil as a whole, and to the state of São Paulo, with respect to the temporal evolution of morbidity and mortality during the period 1990 to 1999, using information from communicable disease reports and mortality records. Since 1996, the incidence rate of AIDS in adults in Brazil as a whole and in São Paulo has been showing a trend towards stability, whereas in the Brazilian northeast the incidence rates of the disease continue to grow. In the northeast, sexual transmission is responsible for more than 80% of cases, injectable drug users (IDU) comprising only a small percentage of cases. There is a greater incidence of AIDS among groups with lower educational levels throughout the country. The comparative analysis of cases of AIDS and of deaths from AIDS shows growth, both in the number of cases and in the number of deaths; however, from 1996 onwards there has been a progressive reduction in the number of deaths in all regions analyzed. With respect to the incidence of cases of the disease acquired by vertical transmission, a significant growth trend can be seen in all regions for cases born in the period 1990-6...

Demographic and Socioeconomic Patterns of HIV/AIDS Prevalence in Africa

Beegle, Kathleen; de Walque, Damien
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.59%
Understanding the demographic and socioeconomic patterns of the prevalence and incidence of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa is crucial for developing programs and policies to combat HIV/AIDS. This paper looks critically at the methods and analytical challenges to study the links between socioeconomic and demographic status and HIV/AIDS. Some of the misconceptions about the HIV/AIDS epidemic are discussed and unusual empirical evidence from the existing body of work is presented. Several important messages emerge from the results. First, the study of the link between socioeconomic status and HIV faces a range of challenges related to definitions, samples, and empirical methods. Second, given the large gaps in evidence and the changing nature of the epidemic, there is a need to continue to improve the evidence base on the link between demographic and socioeconomic status and the prevalence and incidence of HIV/AIDS. Finally, it is difficult to generalize results across countries. As the results presented here and in other studies based on Demographic and Health Survey datasets show...

HIV/AIDS in MENA : Assessment and Policy Recommendations

Abu-Raddad, Laith; Ayodeji Akala, Francisca; Semini, Iris; Riedner, Gabriele; Wilson, David; Tawil, Ousama
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The HIV pandemic in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region continues as one of the most devastating health crises ever. The recent regional HIV/AIDS epidemiological synthesis report entitled characterizing the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Middle East and North Africa: Time for strategic action, provides the scientific basis for the policy recommendations detailed here and provides policy makers with an overview of the specific character of the HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome) epidemic in the MENA region. The report also sets out policy and programming recommendations that respond to the epidemiological and demographic contours of the HIV epidemic in the region, and the conclusions drawn from it can potentially be used as the basis for further research and policy development at the national level. Policy is variously discussed in this report both as a conceptual approach to HIV/AIDS prevention programming and as the concrete form of the programming itself. It offers examples of best practice...

HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean : Issues and Options

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.67%
Intensified efforts are needed in the Caribbean region if inroads are to be made against the AIDS epidemic. Although many Caribbean governments have initiated a limited response to HIV/AIDS, much remains to be done to bring proven interventions quickly up to nationwide scale. Moreover there is growing recognition that HIV/AIDS is not just a serious health issue in developing countries, but a major developmental catastrophe that threatens to dismantle the social and economic achievements of the past half century. The challenge for Caribbean countries is to learn from the dramatic experiences of some African countries and act decisively now to prevent the progressive extension of the epidemic to the general population. This report provides an overview of the challenges and opportunities in addressing the problem of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean. It presents a snapshot of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the region, offers examples of ways in which Caribbean countries and regional bodies have responded to the epidemic, discusses alternative actions for addressing the crisis...

HIV/AIDS in Georgia : Addressing the Crisis

Gotsadze, Tamar; Chawla, Mukesh; Chkatarashvili, Ketevan
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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Georgia is experiencing fast growing HIV/AIDS epidemic, although the prevalence remains at low level. The primary mode of transmission are injecting drug users representing 71 percent of cases, followed by 22 percent heterosexual contacts, 3.6 percent homo-bisexual contacts, 1.4 percent blood recipients, 1 percent of vertical transmission. From 1989 to 1998 the epidemic progressed slowly with sporadic occurrences. However, even at this low level of transmission, the infection had reached all administrative regions of the country. Since 1996 the situation has changed dramatically. The number of HIV cases increased nearly three fold in 1997 compared with the previous year and accounted for 21 cases. In 2001 alone, this number reached 93. From 1998 through 2001 more than half of newly-registered HIV infection cases have been attributed to IDUs. The reports indicate that the percentage of new cases attributed to heterosexual contacts have also increased, although the absolute numbers remain small. More people (mostly women) appear to be contracting HIV through sexual transmission...

HIV/AIDS Guide for the Mining Sector : A Resource for Developing Stakeholder Competency and Compliance in Mining Communities in Southern Africa

Smart, Rose
Fonte: International Finance Corporation and Golder Associates Publicador: International Finance Corporation and Golder Associates
EN_US
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This Guide consists of five sections. Section One introduces the Guide, provides key background information on the mining sector and the HIV/AIDS epidemic, describes the contents of, and framework and roadmap for an optimal organizational response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and finally provides a template to customize the Guide. Section Two covers the strategies for managing the HIV/AIDS epidemic within a mining sector organization. Section Three deals with workplace or internal HIV/AIDS programs. Section Four describes a number of outreach or external HIV/AIDS activities. Section Five contains information and tools for monitoring, evaluating, and recording and reporting on an organizational HIV/AIDS response.

Swaziland : Selected Development Impact of HIV/AIDS

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.63%
This report was initiated as an exercise to assist policy makers in Swaziland in their effort to incorporate HIV/AIDS into the planning process on a regular basis, and provides an overview of selected, likely development impacts of the epidemic for the country. Through conventional demographic, and economic models, it analyzes the HIV/AIDS impacts on the economy, and illustrates how these impacts can be incorporated in the regular planning processes - including annual budgeting - in the finance, and development ministries of Government. It also points at the need for monitoring the progression of the epidemic, through further research, and improvements in existing instruments. Chapter I reviews the status of HIV/AIDS, and the factors exacerbating the spread of the epidemic, and Chapter II examines the demographic impact, and its effect on labor, and human resource development, for unlike population control programs, AIDS epidemic damages the economy by reducing the size of the economically active population, and imposes a "shock" on the socioeconomic status of the household. Chapter III analyzes the impact of the disease on the public service...

How Does the Impact of an HIV/AIDS Information Campaign Vary with Educational Attainment? Evidence from Rural Uganda

De Walque, Damien
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.57%
The responsiveness to information is thought to be one channel through which education affects health outcomes. The author tests this hypothesis by examining the effectiveness of an information campaign that aims at preventing the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Uganda. Previous studies in the epidemiological literature have generally concluded that, in Africa, there was either a positive association or no association between HIV infection and schooling levels. Using individual level data from a cohort study following the general population of a cluster of villages in rural Uganda over 12 years, the author shows that, after more than a decade of prevention campaigns about the dangers of the epidemic, there has been a substantial evolution in the HIV/education gradient. Early in the epidemic, in 1990, there was no robust relation between HIV/AIDS and education. In 2000, among young individuals, in particular among females, education lowers the risk of being HIV positive. Results on HIV incidence in a duration framework confirm that finding by establishing that...

Widowhood, remarriage and migration during the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Uganda

Ntozi, James P. M
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 70605 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
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Recently the levels of widowhood have increased in countries of sub-Saharan Africa that are afflicted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This paper reviews the cultures of several societies in Uganda in relation to the treatment of widows. Using a data set based on a sample of 1797 households covering east, south and western Uganda, the study finds higher proportions of widows than widowers. Over half of widowers compared to one quarter of widows remarry. Reasons for remarriages of widowers and widows are discussed. While younger widows migrated from their late spouses’ homes more than the older ones, the pattern of the widowers shows that those in ages 20-34 migrated most. Deeper analysis indicates that widowed people who moved away from their deceased spouses’ homes did so for reasons other than the death of their spouses. The widowers were more likely to move than the widows and the unhealthy ones migrated more than the healthy ones.; no

On the limited utility of KAP-style survey data in the practical epidemiology of AIDS, with reference to the AIDS epidemic in Chile

Smith, Herbert L
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 52969 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
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Population surveys concerning ‘risk behaviours’ thought to be related to the AIDS epidemic are many. Nevertheless, unfocused inquiry into diffuse behaviours in undifferentiated populations is not productive in low-seroprevalence populations, especially when the point is to design some form of intervention that might actually avert further infection. This is because of a failure to distinguish conceptually between the relevance of AIDS-related behavioural data for individuals and for populations. An illustration is drawn from the AIDS epidemic in Santiago, Chile, and an alternative perspective, based on extensive interviews with persons with AIDS and a survey of current HIV-surveillance and blood-screening programs, is described.; yes

HIV/AIDS epidemic in the State of Amazonas: characteristics and trends from 2001 to 2012

Oliveira,Romina do Socorro Marques de; Benzaken,Adele Schwartz; Saraceni,Valeria; Sabidó,Meritxell
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.55%
A scoping review was conducted to describe the epidemiological characteristics of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from 2001 to 2012, and temporary patterns were estimated from surveillance data. The results suggest that in its third decade, the Amazon HIV/AIDS epidemic is far from being stabilized and displays rising AIDS incidence and mortality rates and late diagnoses. The data suggest that AIDS cases are hitting mostly young adults and have recently shifted toward men, both homosexual and heterosexual. AIDS cases among the indigenous people have remained stable and low. However, the epidemic has disseminated to the interior of the state, which adds difficulties to its control, given the geographical isolation, logistical barriers, and culturally and ethnically diverse population. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has been decentralized, but peripheral ARV services are still insufficient and too distant from people who need them. Recently, the expansion of point-of-care (POC) rapid HIV testing has been contributing to overcoming logistical barriers. Other new POC devices, such as the PIMA CD4 analyzer, will bring the laboratory to the patient. AIDS uniquely coexists with other tropical infections...

The AIDS epidemic and infant and child mortality in six districts of Uganda

Ntozi, James P. M; Nakanaabi, Immaculate M
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 53272 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Several studies in sub-Saharan Africa have associated infant and child mortality with the AIDS epidemic in the region. The paper uses retrospective survey data of six districts in the east, south and west of Uganda to study infant and child mortality, which increased in the 1980s probably because of the AIDS epidemic and started declining in the early 1990s, a period when the epidemic was reported to be subsiding. Deeper analysis of data indicates that children whose parents are polygamous, educated, formally employed and in business are at a higher risk of death from AIDS and related illness. Although AIDS as a direct cause of death is the fourth leading killer of children, other serious diseases such as diarrhoea, respiratory infection and measles are associated with AIDS.; no

Addressing Youth within the World Bank's Multi-Country HIV/AIDS Program (MAP)

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Young people are central in the battle against HIV/AIDS. Each day 5,000-6,000 new infections occur among young people age 15-24, representing half of new infections. The disease disproportionately affects young females; rates of infection among girls in the hardest-hit countries of Africa are 1.3 to 12 times higher than for boys of the same age. Young people are also the best hope for fighting the epidemic; where HIV prevalence has fallen, youth have led the way by delaying sex, reducing partners, and increasing condom use. As one of Africa's largest donors for HIV/AIDS, the World Bank can help ensure that programs to contend with the disease adequately focus on young people. This study, based on six in-depth country case examples, examines the experience of the World Bank in addressing the youth dimension of the HIV/AIDS epidemic through its Multi-Country HIV/AIDS Program (MAP) in Africa. The study hopes to provide further guidance to the Bank on improving the effectiveness of its investments in youth and HIV/AIDS programming.

HIV/AIDS in Latin America : The Challenges Ahead

Garcia-Abreu, Anabela; Noguer, Isabel; Cowgill, Karen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Information on HIV/AIDS epidemics in Latin America is disperse and lacks comprehensiveness. Sound and timely policies can limit the current and future impact of the epidemics but good policies are built on a strong epidemiological base and according to the countries' needs. The aim of this study was to assemble all the information available on the epidemiological pattern of the epidemics in Latin America and to gather information on current national surveillance capacity, national responses of the health sector to identify key areas where specific interventions are needed. Through national statistics, data published by international organizations, and databases searches, the authors collected data on the extent, trends and patterns of HIV/AIDS epidemic in 17 Latin American countries. Data on national surveillance systems and national responses from the health sector were gathered through questionnaires applied to managers of the national HIV/AIDS surveillance system, director of the National HIV/AIDS program...

The World Bank's Commitment to HIV/AIDS in Africa : Our Agenda for Action, 2007-2011; O compromisso do Banco Mundial com o VIH/SIDA em Africa : o nosso plano de actividades, 2007-2011

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.52%
The World Bank is committed to support Sub-Saharan Africa in responding to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This Agenda for Action (AFA) is a road map for the next five years to guide Bank management and staff in fulfilling that commitment. It underscores the lessons learned and outlines a line of action. HIV/AIDS remains and will remain for the foreseeable future an enormous economic, social, and human challenge to Sub-Saharan Africa. This region is the global epicenter of the disease. About 22.5 million Africans are HIV positive, and AIDS is the leading cause of premature death on the continent. HIV/AIDS affects young people and women disproportionately. Some 61 percent of those who are HIV positive are women, and young women are three times more likely to be HIV positive than are young men. As a result of the epidemic, an estimated 11.4 million children under age 18 have lost at least one parent. Its impact on households, human capital, the private sector, and the public sector undermines the alleviation of poverty, the Bank's overarching mandate. In sum...

HIV/AIDS in the Western Balkans : Priorities for Early Prevention in a High-Risk Environment

Godinho, Joana; Jaganjac, Nedim; Eckertz, Dorothee; Renton, Adrian; Novotny, Thomas; Garbus, Lias
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.71%
In recent years, Europe and Central Asia (ECA) has seen the world's fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. The Balkans countries and territories under study - Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, and the UN-administered Kosovo -- have reported over 2,000 HIV/AIDS cases since the beginning of the epidemic in 1985. In ECA, HIV/AIDS disproportionably affects the youth population: 80 percent of HIV infected people are 30 years old or younger. This study confirms that the Balkans region faces a triple jeopardy: 1) All structural factors are present to drive epidemics transmitted predominantly by heterosexual drug users; 2) Conflict and economic decline handicap the ability of governments and civil society to make an effective response; and 3) Old ideologies and vested interests are set against key elements of intervention known to be effective. Although the low number of cases identified, and lack of reliability of existing data, do not allow future trends of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Balkans to be predicted with certainty...

Committing to Results : Improving the Effectiveness of HIV/AIDS Assistance, An OED Evaluation of the World Bank's Assistance for HIV/AIDS Control

Operations Evaluation Department
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.65%
This evaluation assesses the development effectiveness of the World Bank's country-level HIV/AIDS assistance defined as policy dialogue, analytic work, and lending with the explicit objective of reducing the scope or impact of the AIDS epidemic. This is the first comprehensive evaluation of the World Bank's HIV/AIDS support to countries, from the beginning of the epidemic through mid-2004. Because the Bank's assistance is for implementation of government programs by government, it provides important insights on how national AIDS programs can be made more effective. For the purposes of the evaluation, HIV/AIDS assistance includes policy dialogue, analytic work, and lending with the explicit objective of reducing the scope or impact of the AIDS epidemic. Few HIV/AIDS projects have been completed and the vast majority of projects and commitments are ongoing. With this in mind, the three substantive chapters address: 1) The evolution and phases of the Bank's institutional response and an overview of the portfolio of HIV/AIDS assistance since the start of the epidemic. 2) Findings on the efficacy of the "first generation" of completed World Bank country-level...

Expressão geografica da Aids no municipio de Campinas - SP : duas decadas de epidemia Aids; Geographic expression of aids in Campinas municipal area/SP : two decades of the Aids epidemic

Carlos Alberto Henn
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/02/2007 PT
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A compreensão da epidemia do HIV e da Aids em suas diferentes dimensões socioeconômica, cultural, biológica e política entre outras representa, ainda, um grande desafio para a Saúde Pública no Brasil em mais de vinte anos de doença, no país e no mundo. A dinâmica atual da epidemia da Aids atinge de forma diferenciada populações em seus "habitat", e caracteriza-se pelas tendências de "heterossexualização", 'feminização", "interiorização", "pauperização" e, mais recentemente, acometimento de faixa etária mais idosa, concentrando-se nas populações marginalizadas e vulneráveis. Foram georreferenciados os endereços dos indivíduos maiores de 13 anos notificados com Aids no município de Campinas, no período de 1980 a 2005. Utilizou-se o estimador de densidade de pontos kernel para investigar aglomeração de casos. Foram georreferenciados 4.175 casos de Aids, 90% do total notificado pelo Sistema de Vigilância Epidemiológica, segundo as variáveis sexo e faixa etária em diferentes períodos da epidemia. Os mapas indicam uma crescente dispersão dos casos para áreas urbanizadas da periferia da cidade no decorrer dos anos. A distribuição espacial dos casos de Aids em mulheres é diferente da observada entre os homens...

A epidemia da Aids: impacto social, científico, econômico e perspectivas; The AIDS epidemic: social, scientific and economical impacts and perspectives

Greco, Dirceu B.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Avançados Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Estudos Avançados
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2008 POR; ENG
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O surgimento da Aids e o aumento da incidência da infecção pelo HIV continuam como um dos grandes desafios mundiais para o século XXI. A maneira como esse enfrentamento vem se dando e como será nos próximos anos será de importância fundamental para a discussão geral sobre saúde pública, ética e direitos humanos. Os diversos aspectos relacionados à epidemia da Aids são aqui discutidos, incluindo as possíveis intervenções para seu controle. Mudanças nas decisões sobre a alocação de recursos, tanto para a saúde pública quanto para as pesquisas, bem como a expansão da discussão ética, dos direitos humanos e a necessidade de melhorar o padrão de vida da população são condições indispensáveis para enfrentar esse grave problema de saúde pública.; The emergence of the Aids epidemic and the increase in the incidence of HIV infection are still a health challenge for the 21st century. The way the epidemic is being confronted and how it will be in the years to come will be of fundamental importance on the discussion of public health, ethics and human rights. The diverse aspects of the epidemic are here discussed, including the possible interventions necessary to its control. Changes in the decision-making process for the allocation of resources...