La protéine AID (déaminase induite par l’activation) joue un rôle central dans la
réponse immunitaire adaptative. En désaminant des désoxycytidines en désoxyuridines au
niveau des gènes immunoglobulines, elle initie l’hypermutation somatique (SHM), la
conversion génique (iGC) et la commutation isotypique (CSR). Elle est essentielle à une
réponse humorale efficace en contribuant à la maturation de l’affinité des anticorps et au
changement de classe isotypique. Cependant, son activité mutagénique peut être oncogénique et
causer une instabilité génomique propice au développement de cancers et de maladies
autoimmunes. Il est donc critique de réguler AID, en particulier ses niveaux protéiques, pour
générer une réponse immunitaire efficace tout en minimisant les risques de cancer et d’autoimmunité.
Un élément de régulation est le fait qu’AID transite du cytoplasme vers le noyau
mais reste majoritairement cytoplasmique à l’équilibre. AID est par ailleurs plus stable dans le
cytoplasme que dans le noyau, ce qui contribue à réduire sa présence à proximité de l’ADN.
Le but de cette thèse était d’identifier de nouveaux partenaires et déterminants d’AID
régulant sa stabilité et ses fonctions biologiques. Dans un premier temps...
The 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid
Effectiveness sets targets for increased use by donors of
recipient country systems for managing aid. A consensus view
holds that country systems are strengthened when donors
trust recipients to manage aid funds, but undermined when
donors manage aid through their own separate parallel
systems. This paper provides an analytical framework for
understanding donors decisions to trust in country systems
or instead to micro-manage aid using their own systems and
procedures. Where country systems are sufficiently weak, the
development impact of aid is reduced by donors reliance on
them. Trust in country systems will be sub-optimal, however,
if donors have multiple objectives in aid provision rather
than a sole objective of maximizing development outcomes.
Empirical tests are conducted using data from an OECD survey
designed to monitor progress toward Paris Declaration goals.
Trust in country systems is measured in three ways: use of
the recipient s public financial management systems, use of
direct budget support...
Fragile and conflict-affected states
face daunting challenges for development. Aid has a greater
importance on development in these states than in others,
and therefore aid effectiveness management and delivery of
aid bears serious consideration. Despite its significance,
aid effectiveness is appreciably lower in fragile and
conflict-affected states than in others. What are the key
aid effectiveness challenges in these states and how can
these issues be better addressed? As important initial
steps, this paper aims to identify (i) aid effectiveness
challenges facing fragile and conflict-affected states and
(ii) good aid effectiveness examples using the results of
the Survey on Monitoring the Paris Declaration on aid
effectiveness, which was designed as a mechanism to support
global and country level accountability. Both fragile and
conflict-affected states (recipients) and development
partners (providers) are mutually accountable for aid
effectiveness; therefore, this paper focuses on both sides.
While the analysis confirms the significantly lower aid
effectiveness performance in fragile and conflict-affected
states -- especially on aid on budget...
There are significant weaknesses in some of the traditional justifications for assuming that aid will foster development. This paper looks at what the cross-country aid effectiveness literature and World Bank Operations Evaluation Department reviews have suggested about effective aid, first in terms of promoting income growth, and then for promoting other goals. This review forms the basis for a discussion of recommendations to improve aid effectiveness and a discussion of effective aid allocation. Given the multiple potential objectives for aid, there is no one right answer. However, it appears that there are a number of reforms to aid practices and distribution that might help to deliver a more significant return to aid resources. We should provide aid where institutions are already strong, where they can be strengthened with the help of donor resources, or where they can be bypassed with limited damage to existing institutional capacity. The importance of institutions to aid outcomes, as well as the fungibility of aid flows, suggests that programmatic aid should be expanded in countries with strong institutions, while project aid should be supported based on its ability to transfer knowledge and test new practices and support global public good provision rather than (merely) as a tool of financial resource transfer. The importance of institutions also suggests that we should be cautious in our expectations regarding the results of increased aid flows.
Delivering aid differently was written
at a time when the future of foreign aid is being fiercely
debated. The book includes an overview; case studies of
Aceh/Indonesia, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Kenya, Pakistan, and
Tajikistan; and thematic chapters on joint assistance
strategies, information systems, and humanitarian aid. This
new aid environment is characterized by three important
shifts that have emerged in the last decade: 1) strong
growth in many developing countries has redefined the role
of aid; 2) the donor landscape has changed fundamentally
over the last decade, a trend that will likely accelerate in
the coming years; and 3) innovation, especially in
information technology, has started to reshape development
aid. Knowledge transfer has become as important as financial
aid, and combining the two can be remarkably transformative.
The author advocates two institutional changes. First,
authors encourage the development of one (or more)
geographically based development authorities within poor
The literature on aid and growth has not
found a convincing instrumental variable to identify the
causal effects of aid. This paper exploits an instrumental
variable based on the fact that since 1987, eligibility for
aid from the International Development Association (IDA) has
been based partly on whether or not a country is below a
certain threshold of per capita income. The paper finds
evidence that other donors tend to reinforce rather than
compensate for reductions in IDA aid following threshold
crossings. Overall, aid as a share of gross national income
(GNI) drops about 59 percent on average after countries
cross the threshold. Focusing on the 35 countries that have
crossed the income threshold from below between 1987 and
2010, a positive, statistically significant, and
economically sizable effect of aid on growth is found. A one
percentage point increase in the aid to GNI ratio from the
sample mean raises annual real per capita growth in gross
domestic product by approximately 0.35 percentage points.
The analysis shows that the main channel through which aid
promotes growth is by increasing physical investment.
Burundi has experienced a significant
increase in aid flows in recent years. Currently, about half
of the budget is funded by aid, mostly grants. The high
external assistance has, however, not yet translated into
high and sustainable growth rates. This paper analyzes (i)
the policy response of the government to the aid surge and
its impact on macroeconomic variables; and (ii) the
allocation of external assistance and its implications for
growth. Since not all aid affects economic development in
the same way, aid disbursements are disaggregated by sector
as well as by their lag in impacting growth. The analysis
shows that Burundi has mostly spent and absorbed increased
aid flows, but has until now not suffered significantly from
the possible negative effects of an appreciating exchange
rate and the related loss of competitiveness, but the
possibility of a Dutch disease effect remains a risk. The
country s low growth performance, despite high aid inflows,
is not necessarily a sign that aid is ineffective or
exceeding Burundi s absorptive capacity. It reflects that a
large share of aid has been allocated to either humanitarian
and emergency aid or long-run growth enhancing sectors.
Some multilateral agencies implement aid
projects in a broad range of sectors, with aid disbursements
showing a strong overlap with those of bilateral donors. The
question then arises of why do bilateral donors delegate
sizable shares of their aid to non-specialized agencies for
implementation? This paper develops a game theoretic model
to explain this puzzle. Donors delegate aid implementation
to the multilateral agency (ML) to strengthen the policy
selectivity of aid, incentivizing policy improvements in
recipient countries, in turn improving aid’s development
effectiveness. Bilateral donors are better off delegating
aid to ML even when they are purely altruistic but disagree
on how aid should be distributed across recipients. Key for
our result to hold is that ML searches some middle ground
among disagreeing donors. Aid selectivity—in terms of both
policy and poverty—emerges endogenously and is credible, as
it is the solution to ML’s optimization problem. Moreover,
the model shows that if one sufficiently large donor is
policy selective in its aid allocations...
How can we close the gap between the policy commitments governments make at the
international level and policy implementation at the domestic level in order to address global problems such as poverty and climate change? I integrate the constructivist perspective in international relations and self-categorization theory in social psychology to propose an identitybased
approach to bottom-up policy reform. Identities are context-dependent categorisations of ‘self’ and ‘other’ which help actors navigate reality. I argue that policy outputs are determined by the state’s identity whereas each citizen’s policy preferences are determined by the multiple
identities which comprise their self-concept. State identities constitute cultural norms and the state’s international image relative to other states. Citizen identities constitute personal value
priorities (personal identities) and group memberships (social identities).
Citizens contribute to the state identity but a state’s identity is bigger than the sum of its parts. Therefore, the aggregate preferences of individual citizens may not necessarily correspond to policy outputs. This is not undemocratic because people do not engage in policy issues unless
doing so is stereotypical of their current context-dependent identity. In addition...
The relationship between Australia and Indonesia has fluctuated sharply over the decades, since Indonesia first declared independence in 1945. After Suharto took power in 1966, aid began to flow to the country, after the new Indonesian leader transformed Indonesia's outlook to be proWest and anti-Communist. Events such as the annexation of East Timor in 1975 soured relations for a time, however the two nations had essentially converging interests up until the
Asian financial crisis of 1997. Indonesia was heavily hit by the crisis, and the secession of East Timar in 1999, with heavy Australian involvement meant relations were at a new low. However, the tsunami disaster of 2004 marked a turning point, with a strong Australian aid response helping significantly in putting relations back on track. Despite this, people-to-people links in Australia are still weak, and there are high levels of mistrust and misunderstanding between the public in both nations. Culturally, the two nations could not be more different, although geographically they are close. Indonesian language
programs are also falling away in Australia, as well as public diplomacy funding. From an economic standpoint, business links are weak also. However, the one positive in this regard are the strong elite and government-to-government relations that the two countries share. The relationship with Indonesia can be seen as one of Australia's most important relationships. Primarily...
The focus of this project is to describe and analyse the submissions to the Senate Legal and
Constitutional Reference Committee's inquiry into legal aid.
Complexity of the legal system and cost of use of that system are barriers preventing people from
using the legal system at their own accord. As ideas for civil rights and equality have expanded,
the goal of giving all people, regardless of wealth, the right to use the legal system has come
into existence. Legal aid is fundamentally a political issue and the resolution of the existing
problems will require that the proponents and opponents can agree on the structure, goals, and
clientele of legal aid (Abel, 1985).
Australia has a mixed model of legal aid that utilizes charitable organizations, judicare services,
and salaried lawyers. The Commonwealth funds legal aid for matters arising under federal laws and
the States and Territories have the responsibility to fund legal aid for matters involving
state/territory laws. Australia provides legal aid through the services of legal aid commissions
(LACs), community legal centres (CLCs), and pro bono work by lawyers.
The submissions made to the Senate Legal and Constitutional References Committee inquiry identified
some strengths of the Australian legal aid system. The strengths that are highlighted are:lawyers
are providing a large amount of pro bono work and contingency fees have been beneficial to the
legal community; the separation of indigenous legal aid and non-indigenous legal aid has been
beneficial ; the expansion of legal aid offices is evident; the lack of funds has forced the system
be efficient with its delivery of legal aid; and the vast number of people that have volunteered
for a CLC or LAC is notable.
While some of the submissions identified some strengths of the current legal aid system...
The purpose of this report is to examine the viability of funding an increase in Northern Australia's
tropical health and medical research capacity through a foreign aid budget allocation. The report
reviewed the scope for increasing medical research funding and improving aid effectiveness. It also
entailed a case study of the Australian Centre of International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) that
could form a model for supporting an increased medical research capability. Further, the report analysed the existing foreign aid budget allocation and the proposed future increases. Australian Centre of International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) pose a significant public health challenge to Northern Australia. These challenges are primarily attributable to Northern Australia's geographical location, climate, rapid population growth, and tropical health threats from the neighbouring countries with underdeveloped health capacity. To mitigate these health threats, Australian governments should consider providing more funding support to increase the tropical health and medical research capacity in Northern Australia. Australia's foreign aid budget could be an important funding source. In the context of a relatively large and rapidly increasing aid budget...
This paper adds to aid volatility
literature in three ways: First it tests the validity of the
aid volatility and growth relationship from various aspects:
across different time horizons, by sources of aid, and by
aid volatility interactions with country characteristics.
Second, it investigates the relationship by the level of aid
absorption and spending. Third, when examining the
relationship between International Development Association
aid volatility and growth, it isolates International
Development Association aid volatility due to the recipient
country's performance from that due to other sources.
The findings suggest that, in the long run, on average, aid
volatility is negatively correlated with real economic
growth. But the relationship is not even. It is stronger for
Sub-Saharan African countries than for other regions and it
is not present in middle-income countries or countries with
strong institutions. For economies where aid is fully
absorbed, aid volatility matters for long-run growth;
economies with full aid spending also bear a negative impact
of aid volatility on long-run growth. Where aid is not fully
This study tests two opposing hypotheses
about the impact of aid fragmentation on the practice of aid
tying. In one, when a small number of donors dominate the
aid market in a country, they may exploit their monopoly
power by tying more aid to purchases from contractors based
in their own countries. Alternatively, when donors have a
larger share of the aid market, they may have stronger
incentives to maximize the development impact of their aid
by tying less of it. Empirical tests strongly and
consistently support the latter hypothesis. The key finding
-- that higher donor aid shares are associated with less aid
tying -- is robust to recipient controls, donor fixed
effects and instrumental variables estimation. When
recipient countries are grouped by their scores on
corruption perception indexes, higher shares of aid are
significantly related to lower aid tying only in the
less-corrupt sub-sample. This finding is consistent with the
argument that aid tying can be an efficient response by
donors when losses from corruption may rival or exceed
losses from tying aid. When aid tying is more costly...
Assessing Aid: What Works, What
Doesn't, and Why (The World Bank, 1998) generated a new
wave of controversy about foreign aid and policy
conditionality that had seen several decades of intense
debate. Much of the recent debate has focused on the
aid-growth relationship and the role of "good"
policies. While a great deal has been said about qualitative
aspects of aid effectiveness (that is, fungibility, among
other things), little attention has been paid so far to some
important quantitative aspects. The author draws attention
to this neglected aspect of the aid debate to show that the
level of aid requirements of a country is an equally
important and integral part of aid and aid effectiveness.
The author compares the World Bank/IMF approaches to
estimation of external assistance requirements of a country
in quantitative terms with an alternative model, the
"balance of payments constrained growth model"
(based on the Harrod trade multiplier). He finds that the
latter model is not a real alternative as it is an
incomplete model. More important...
The authors examine the allocation of
foreign aid by 41 donor agencies, bilateral and
multilateral. Their policy selectivity index measures the
extent to which a donor's assistance is targeted to
countries with sound institutions and policies, controlling
for per capita income and population. The poverty
selectivity index analogously looks at how well a
donor's assistance is targeted to poor countries,
controlling for institutional and policy environment as
measured by a World Bank index. The authors' main
finding is that the same group of multilateral and bilateral
aid agencies that are very policy focused are also very
poverty focused. The donors that appear high up in both
rankings are the World Bank's International Development
Association, the International Monetary Fund's Enhanced
Structural Adjustment Facility, Denmark, the United Kingdom,
Norway, Ireland, and the Netherlands. As a robustness check
the authors alternatively use institutional quality measures
independent of the World Bank and find the same pattern of
selectivity. They also find that policy selectivity is a new
phenomenon: in the 1984-89 period...
This project estimates the first sub-national model of foreign aid allocation and impact. Newly geocoded aid project data from Malawi is used in combination with multiple rounds of living standards data to predict the allocation of health aid, water aid, and education aid. In addition, the impacts of the three aid categories are detected using both instrumentation and propensity score matching methods to adjust for aid being allocated non-randomly. The three allocation models varied greatly with respect to the significant predictive covariates of diarrhea incidence, geographic region, and rural setting, but other aid allocation was a positive predictor in all three models such that areas receiving health aid were likely to also receive substantial water aid and education aid. A significant, positive effect of health aid on decreasing disease severity and a significant, positive effect of water aid on decreasing diarrhea incidence were found through both instrumentation and propensity score matching. An appropriate instrument for education aid could not be determined, but propensity score matching methods found a positive effect of education aid on school enrollment. These results suggest that foreign aid plays a useful role in poverty alleviation in Malawi and that governments should use information about local disease severity...
Previous studies in the development aid literature have concluded that bilateral aid flows have been dominated by strategic objectives of major donors. Similar analysis of multilateral aid flows has determined that these allocations are more sensitive to economic need and quality of institutions and policy of the recipient country. A consensus has emerged that all bilateral aid is strategically driven while multilateral aid is independent of these political pressures. This paper challenges these conventional notions of the different aid types by analyzing allocation decisions from U.S. bilateral and multilateral aid agencies. It finds that strategic considerations influence both bilateral and multilateral aid. Donor influence over multilateral aid allocations requires a rethinking of how strategic aid is pursued. Improvements to the models of aid flows are offered, and a preliminary empirical analysis is attempted. It is found that the dynamics of strategic uses of aid are more complex that previous studies have concluded. The impact of these findings on the flows and efficacy of aid is discussed.; Honors Thesis, Department of Economics
A swathe of research attests to the importance of governance in achieving economic growth and poverty reduction in developing countries. Whether governance has an equal effect across sectors, however, is a question that has been neglected empirically. This study adds to the literature by examining the differential impacts of governance on aid to the water/sanitation and health sectors.
I used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) to estimate the effect of health aid and water/sanitation aid on immunization rates and access to improved water and sanitation sources, respectively. My data on aid is from the OECD; I collected annual data for 5 aid flows: health aid, basic health aid, water/sanitation aid, water aid for large projects and sanitation aid for large projects, from 1996 to 2009. Annual data on immunization rates from 1990 to 2009 were collected from the World Bank World Development Indicators, and data on access to an improved water source and access to improved sanitation were collected from the WHO; 5 data points were available on this indicator. My covariates include governance, civil war, GDP per capita, GDP growth (percentage), decentralization, an indicator variable for Africa and log of population, which is consistent with the literature.
I found that governance had a statistically significant impact on aid to the water and sanitation sectors—the sanitation sector appeared to be most negatively affected by poor governance—and no impact on aid to the health sector. These findings have potential implications for donor funding; they provide evidence that governance does not have an equal effect across sectors and that sector-level analysis of governance conditions in countries is important to undertake before giving aid. This study could also support increased aid to the water sector...