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The Evolution of Agricultural Trade Flows

Aksoy, M. Ataman; Ng, Francis
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.69%
Earlier research showed that during the 1980s and 1990s most of the global agricultural trade expansion took place among the industrial countries and among countries within trade blocs. These were also periods of declining agricultural prices. These prices increased during the 2000s, there were continuous trade reforms, and many developing countries started to support their agricultural sectors. This paper analyzes trade flows during the past two decades, and tries to measure whether all these developments have changed the trade balances and the share of different groups within the global trade flows. In addition, it looks at the trade balances on food to see the impact of these changes on net food importing countries. In conclusion, unlike the case with manufacturing, developing countries have not been able to increase their export shares in agriculture as significantly. They have maintained their trade shares by primarily expanding exports to other developing countries.

Changing Contributions of Different Agricultural Policy Instruments to Global Reductions in Trade and Welfare

Croser, Johanna; Anderson, Kym
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.62%
Trade negotiators and policy advisors are keen to know the relative contribution of different farm policy instruments to international trade and economic welfare. Nominal rates of assistance or producer support estimates are incomplete indicators, especially when (especially in developing countries) some commodities are taxed and others are subsidized, in which case positive contributions can offset negative contributions. This paper develops and estimates a new set of more-satisfactory indicators to examine the relative contribution of different farm policy instruments to reductions in agricultural trade and welfare, drawing on recent literature on trade restrictiveness indexes and a recently compiled database on distortions to agricultural prices for 75 developing and high-income countries over the period 1960 to 2004. Results confirm earlier findings that border taxes are the dominant instrument affecting global trade and welfare, but they also suggest declines in export taxes contributed nearly as much as cuts in import protection to global welfare gains from agricultural policy reforms since the 1980s.

Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries

Aksoy, M. Ataman; Beghin, John C.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.71%
This book explores the outstanding issues in global agricultural trade policy and evolving world production and trade patterns. Its coverage of agricultural trade issues ranges from the details of cross-cutting policy issues to the highly distorted agricultural trade regimes of industrial countries and detailed studies of agricultural commodities of economic importance to many developing countries. The book brings together the background issues and findings to guide researchers and policymakers in their global negotiations and domestic policies on agriculture. The book also explores the key questions for global agricultural policies, both the impacts of current trade regimes and the implications of reform. It complements the recent agricultural trade handbook that focuses primarily on the agricultural issues within the context of the World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations (Ingco and Nash 2004).

Reforming Agricultural Trade for Developing Countries : Volume 1. Key Issues for a Pro-Development Outcome of the Doha Round

McCalla, Alex F.; Nash, John
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.69%
Reforming agricultural trade for developing countries is a two-volume set. The first volume is subtitled Key issues for a pro- development outcome of the Doha Round, and it is focused on specific concerns that are being encountered in the agricultural negotiations, and on strategies for dealing with them to arrive at a final agreement that will significantly spur growth and reduce poverty in developing countries. The companion volume is subtitled Quantifying the impact of multilateral trade reform. It comprises chapters that take different approaches to modeling trade reform and quantifying the resulting benefits and costs to various players in the negotiations. The study explains the differences in results that come out of these different approaches, and compares them to some other recent estimates of the gains from global trade reform.

Reforming Agricultural Trade for Developing Countries : Volume 2. Quantifyng the Impact of Multilateral Trade Reform

McCalla, Alex F.; Nash, John
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.7%
Reforming agricultural trade for developing countries is a two-volume set. The first volume is subtitled Key issues for a pro- development outcome of the Doha Round, and it is focused on specific concerns that are being encountered in the agricultural negotiations, and on strategies for dealing with them to arrive at a final agreement that will significantly spur growth and reduce poverty in developing countries. The companion volume is subtitled Quantifying the impact of multilateral trade reform. It comprises chapters that take different approaches to modeling trade reform and quantifying the resulting benefits and costs to various players in the negotiations. The study explains the differences in results that come out of these different approaches, and compares them to some other recent estimates of the gains from global trade reform.

Key issues for freer agricultural trade from the perspective of developing countries

Zhong, Funing
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 107242 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.56%
Almost eight years have passed since the Uruguay Round of multi-lateral negotiations were conducted under GATT, but developing countries are yet to see or benefit from the freer agricultural trade projected by most studies during the negotiations. Because most developing economies depend heavily on agricultural production and trade, the world agricultural market has a significant impact on their growth, as well as on their attitude towards the next round of negotiations. It was predicted that, following the completion of the Uruguay Round of negotiations and the establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the prices of most farm products in the world market would greatly increase because of cuts in domestic price support and export subsidies in developed countries. As a result, developing countries – with the exception of the poorest and most food-deficient ones – would benefit significantly from freer trade in agriculture and see their GDP growth accelerate. In reality, however, this has not been the case. World prices for major farm products remain low, while trade volumes remain the same. The reason for this is not new: the developed countries have kept their domestic price support and export subsidies at the same high levels...

The foreign policy behaviour of the European Union towards the Latin American Southern Cone States (1980-2000): has it become more cooperative? The cases of foreign direct investment and agricultural trade; Die Aussenpolitik der Europäischen Union gegenüber den Lateinamerikanischen Cone Sur Staaten (1980-2000): ist sie kooperativer geworden? Fallstudien zu Auslandsinvestitionen und Agrarhandel

Ribeiro Hoffmann, Andrea
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.54%
The present study seeks to answer two questions in particular: whether, or not, EU foreign policy behaviour towards the Southern Cone States has become more cooperative since the mid-to-end 1980s, and why the change, if any, occurred. Among the explanatory factors usually pointed out in the literature and in the general media, three are the most recurrent: the EU intention to balance the US hegemony, the accession of Portugal and Spain to the EU, and the processes of democratisation, economic liberalisation, and regional integration which took place in the Southern Cone States. Most of the explanations for this rapprochement have, however, not been treated in a methodologically systematic fashion. This study attempts to fill this gap, and to develop an in-depth empirical analysis with a conceptual framework based on current IR literature. Two case studies were selected, both for their representativeness of the most conflictuous aspects of the bi-regional relationship, as well as for methodological considerations, namely, foreign direct investment and agricultural trade. The analysis developed for the first question was based on a descriptive inference of the level of the EU foreign policy behaviour towards the Southern Cone States. This level was analysed on the basis of a number of indicators of the relevant EU policies...

Winners and Losers from World Agricultural Trade Liberalisation

SENIOR NELLO, Susan
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 138541 bytes; application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.5%
This paper aims at showing the role of agriculture in determining many of the controversies and problems of the current phase of globalisation. This first entails presenting key statistics indicating the main developments in world agricultural trade, illustrating how there has been a relative deterioration of the export performance of developing countries. The Doha Development Agenda of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) is then analysed, indicating the positions of the main actors involved as this illustrates the perceived vulnerabilities and opportunities arising from agricultural trade liberalisation. The final part of the article provides a survey of the main estimates of the impact of agricultural trade liberalisation, and tackles the issue of those countries, sectors and households that might be adversely affected by the process. In particular, the paper will attempt to illustrate how the possible negative consequences of the failure of the Doha Round could be overcome.

Australia in the Asian Century: The Australia-Indonesia Agricultural Trade Relationship

Gratton, Katherine
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.52%
This report discusses and analyses the key factors that will shape Australia's agricultural trade relationship with Asia into the future. The key factors are the Asian Century, the AANZFTA, the potential IA-CEPA and the growing demand for animal protein in Asia. The Asian Century and the AANZITA offers a framework within which to discuss Australia's and Indonesia's diplomatic and trade relationship as representative of the opportunities and challenges arising in Asia. The Australia-Indonesia trade relationship is a complex one. The IA-CEPA will provide a platform to address these complexities by opening up greater avenues for trade and cooperation. This will enable Australian Government and business to address the opportunities and challenges arising from the growing consumer demand for animal protein. This growing demand is a major opportunity for Australia's agriculture sector. It is being driven by an increasingly affluent, urbanised and middle class population. Currently, there is a shortfaJI between Indonesian consumption and its production of animal protein and it is predicted that the shortfall will continue in the future. Australia is in a prime position to provide Indonesia with sufficient animal protein through increased exports...

Are the "Salad days over and the dog days here" An overview of how Australia can increase agricultural trade with China

White, Joanna
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.65%
This report identifies how Australia can increase its agricultural trade with China in the future global context of food insecurity. Its primary focus is on the free trade agreement negotiations and foreign direct investment in the Australian agricultural sector. The first section argues that the free trade agreement negotiations have broken down for a number of reasons including the differing political and economic systems of Australia and China, as well as sectoral factors, primarily agriculture. The report then analyzes the current trade and investment trends between Australia and China finding that agricultural trade between the two countries is already increasing at a rapid rate. lt also finds that Chinese investment in Australia is increasing but it is not possible to obtained a precise rate or number of investments in Australian agricultural land because of insufficient public record keeping. The third section compares Australia's trade and investment trends to that of New Zealand's, a country which has been successful in finalizing a free trade agreement with China. This section finds that Australia's agricultural trade is increasing at a greater rate than that of New Zealand's, but New Zealand's trade is more secure into the future because of the Free Trade Agreement. This section highlights some of the concessions New Zealand made in the agricultural sector during free trade agreement negotiations and shows how these concessions could be adopted by Australia without detrimental effect. This section also analyses New Zealand's Foreign Investment Review regime...

Agricultural Trade Liberalization in a New Trade Round : Perspectives of Developing Countries and Transition Economies

Ingco, Merlinda; Winters, L. Alan
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.69%
This discussion paper contains seven studies, designed to a) review, and assess the impact of the implementation of the Uruguay Round (UR) Agreement on Agriculture, and, b) to analyze the key issues, interests, and options for developing countries in the new World Trade Organization's (WTO) round of multilateral trade negotiations in agriculture. Six regional case studies are presented: Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Latin America, Eastern Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, and industrial countries. A quantitative analysis of the dynamics of multilateral liberalization in food, and agricultural trade is also presented. Among some of the key conclusions, it is suggested that much preparatory work was achieved in bringing agriculture fully into the multilateral trading system during the UR, and, a significant achievement was the development of a broad framework for reductions in trade-distorting policies. The UR was also successful in negotiating reduced volumes of subsidized exports, and in providing at least...

Lobbying and Agricultural Trade Policy in the United States

Gawande, Kishore; Hoekman, Bernard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.57%
The authors study whether political campaign contributions influence agricultural protection in the United States in the manner suggested by the political economy model of Grossman and Helpman (1994). This is the first attempt to test this model using agricultural data. The authors test the model using a detailed cross-sectional data set of agricultural protection, subsidies, and political action committee (PAC) contributions in the late 1990s. The model is qualitatively affirmed by the data. They make a novel attempt to solve a puzzle about the model's quantitative implications, also found in recent studies. This solution makes the simple model consistent with the complicated decisionmaking process in real world government. The results imply the underpinnings of a political economy equilibrium that will be hard to dislodge.

Agricultural Trade Reform and the Doha Development Agenda

Anderson, Kym; Martin, Will
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.7%
Anderson and Martin examine the extent to which various regions, and the world as a whole, could gain from multilateral trade reform over the next decade. They use the World Bank's linkage model of the global economy to examine the impact first of current trade barriers and agricultural subsidies, and then of possible outcomes from the World Trade Organization's Doha round. The results suggest moving to free global merchandise trade would boost real incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia (and in Cairns Group countries) proportionately more than in other developing countries or high-income countries. Real returns to farm land and unskilled labor and real net farm incomes would rise substantially in those developing country regions, thereby alleviating poverty. A Doha partial liberalization could take the world some way toward those desirable outcomes, but more so the more agricultural subsidies are disciplined and applied tariffs are cut.

Agricultural Trade : What Matters in the Doha Round?

Laborde, David; Martin, Will
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.71%
This survey concludes that including agriculture in the Doha Agenda negotiations was important both economically and politically, although the political resistance to reform is particularly strong in this sector. While agriculture accounts for less than 10 percent of merchandise trade, high and variable agricultural distortions appear to cause the majority of the cost of distortions to global merchandise trade. Within agriculture, most of the costs appear to arise from trade barriers levied on imports since these barriers tend to be high, variable across time and over products, and are levied by a wide range of countries. The negotiations faced a need for balance between discipline in reducing tariffs and hence creating the market access gains that are central to the negotiations, and flexibility in managing political pressures. While the approach of providing flexibility on a certain percentage of tariff lines is seriously flawed, the proposed Modalities still appear to provide worthwhile market access. Better ways appear to be needed to deal with developing countries' concerns about food price volatility while reducing the collective-action problems resulting from price insulation.

Agricultural Trade Reform and Poverty Reduction in Developing Countries

Anderson, Kym
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.56%
The author offers an economic assessment of the opportunities and challenges provided by the World Trade Organization's Doha Development Agenda, particularly through agricultural trade liberalization, for low-income countries seeking to trade their way out of poverty. After discussing links between poverty, economic growth, and trade, he reports modeling results showing that farm product markets remain the most costly of all goods market distortions in world trade. The author focuses on what such reform might mean for developing countries both with and without their involvement in the multilateral trade negotiations. What becomes clear is that if those countries want to maximize their benefits from the Doha round, they need also to free up their own domestic product and factor markets so their farmers are better able to take advantage of new market opportunities abroad. The author also addresses other concerns of low-income countries about farm trade reform: whether there would be losses associated with tariff preference erosion...

Distributional Effects of WTO Agricultural Reforms in Rich and Poor Countries

Hertel, Thomas W.; Keeney, Roman; Ivanic, Maros; Winters, L. Alan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.64%
Rich countries' agricultural trade policies are the battleground on which the future of the WTO's troubled Doha Round will be determined. Subject to widespread criticism, they nonetheless appear to be almost immune to serious reform, and one of their most common defenses is that they protect poor farmers. The authors' findings reject this claim. The analysis uses detailed data on farm incomes to show that major commodity programs are highly regressive in the United States, and that the only serious losses under trade reform are among large, wealthy farmers in a few heavily protected subsectors. In contrast, analysis using household data from 15 developing countries indicates that reforming rich countries' agricultural trade policies would lift large numbers of developing country farm households out of poverty. In the majority of cases these gains are not outweighed by the poverty-increasing effects of higher food prices among other households. Agricultural reforms that appear feasible, even under an ambitious Doha Round, achieve only a fraction of the benefits for developing countries that full liberalization promises, but protect U.S. large farms from most of the rigors of adjustment. Finally, the analysis indicates that maximal trade-led poverty reductions occur when developing countries participate more fully in agricultural trade liberalization.

Republic of Malawi Diagnostic Trade Integration Study Update : Reducing Trade Costs to Promote Competitiveness and Inclusive Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Foreign Trade, FDI, and Capital Flows Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.58%
The diagnostic trade integration study (DTIS) update identifies the trade related constraints holding back Malawi from diversifying and deepening its production base, and increasing trade. The DTIS update identifies and quantifies specific trade costs that determine the availability and price of inputs and the ability of producers to get their products to regional and international markets. The report focuses on tariff policies, regulatory issues impacting on trade, trade facilitation and logistics, and policies affecting agricultural trade and trade in services. Recognizing that the (enhanced) integrated framework and the DTIS (including the 2003 DTIS for Malawi) have not been effective in addressing many of the broader issues requiring large-scale physical investments in most countries, this DTIS update focuses on specific trade related policy and regulatory issues within the mandate and policy space of the ministry of trade and the national implementation unit or similar implementation mechanisms. In this context...

Republic of India : Accelerating Agricultural Productivity Growth

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.58%
In the past 50 years, Indian agriculture has undergone a major transformation, from dependence on food aid to becoming a consistent net food exporter. The gradual reforms in the agricultural sector (following the broader macro-reforms of the early 1990s) spurred some unprecedented innovations and changes in the food sector driven by private investment. These impressive achievements must now be viewed in light of the policy and investment imperatives that lie ahead. Agricultural growth has improved in recent years (averaging about 3.5 percent since 2004-05), but at a long-term trend rate of growth of 3 percent, agriculture has underperformed relative to its potential. The pockets of post-reform dynamism that have emerged evidently have not reached a sufficiently large scale to influence the sector's performance. For the vast population that still derives a living directly or indirectly from agriculture, achieving "faster, more inclusive, and sustainable growth', the objectives at the heart of the Twelfth five year plan...

Agricultural Trade Reform and the Doha Development Agenda

Martin, Will; Anderson, Kym
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72%
Agriculture is yet again causing contention in international trade negotiations. It caused long delays to the Uruguay round in the late 1980s and 1990s, and it is again proving to be the major stumbling block in the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha round of multilateral trade negotiations (formally known as the Doha Development Agenda, or DDA). This study builds on numerous recent analyses of the Doha Development Agenda and agricultural trade, including five very helpful books that appeared in 2004. One, edited by Aksoy and Beghin (2004), provides details of trends in global agricultural markets and policies, especially as they affect nine commodities of interest to developing countries. Another, edited by Ingco and Winters (2004), includes a wide range of analyses based on papers revised following a conference held just before the aborted WTO trade ministerial meeting in Seattle in 1999. The third, edited by Ingco and Nash (2004), provides a follow-up to the broad global perspective of the Ingco and winters volume: it explores a wide range of key issues and options in agricultural trade reform from a developing-country perspective. The fourth...

Liberalizing Trade in Agriculture: Developing Countries in Asia and the Post-Doha Agenda; ?

Wilson, John S.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.66%
The author provides an overview and data relevant to the interests of developing countries as they engage in continuing agricultural trade negotiations set forth in the World Trade Organization Ministerial held in Doha, Qatar in November 2001. He examines country performance in agricultural trade, income levels, and population characteristics, with a focus on developing country members of the Asian Development Bank. The author concludes that trends in agricultural trade in the past 10 years are quite heterogeneous across developing regions. Shares of agriculture in GDP are still high in the East Asia and Pacific and South Asia regions. Moreover, data indicate that trade reform in export partners, particularly OECD countries, will affect a significant share of the population in these developing countries, resulting in rural poverty alleviation. Trade liberalization is expected to benefit net exporter countries, particularly those that are highly open to trade. What is also important, but often neglected, is a country's pattern of specialization between domestic supply and exports. The impact of trade reform through the WTO negotiations...