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Uma análise da evolução do diferencial regional de rendimentos no setor agrícola brasileiro - 1995 a 2009; An analysis of the evolution of the regional earnings gap in the Brazilian agricultural sector - 1995 to 2009

Paiva, André Ricardo Noborikawa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/04/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
O presente trabalho analisa a evolução do diferencial de rendimentos entre os empregados no setor agrícola brasileiro, no período entre 1995 e 2009. Utilizando-se dos microdados da PNAD disponibilizados pelo IBGE, são estimadas cinco equações de rendimento como forma de verificar quais os determinantes do rendimento no setor, considerando-se idade, nível de escolaridade, situação censitária, região, atividade, entre outras variáveis. Também são consideradas interações entre região e atividade como forma de identificar o efeito de cada atividade dentro de uma mesma região e entre regiões. Os dois primeiros modelos permitem constatar que o nível educacional é um determinante significativo para a formação do rendimento no setor, o qual passa a ser intensificado a partir dos dez anos de escolaridade. Houve, entretanto, redução do retorno do rendimento à escolaridade, o que corrobora a convexidade do rendimento à educação verificada para outros setores. As horas trabalhadas também mostraram-se um fator significativo para a formação do rendimento do trabalho no setor. Verifica-se ainda um efeito regional significativo, o que está associado aos diferentes níveis de desenvolvimento de atividades agropecuárias entre as regiões. Já os coeficientes associados à cor do indivíduo indicaram que tal variável não apresenta um efeito relevante para a formação dos rendimentos no setor...

Efficiency Measures in the Agricultural Sector With Applications

Santos, Jorge; Silva, Emiliana; Mendes, Armando
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Livro
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.32%
Offers a thorough introduction to efficiency modeling in agriculture Incorporates both Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) Provides a lucid, non-specialist’s approach to sophisticated modeling for agricultural efficiency Efficiency Measures in the Agricultural Sector opens with detailed descriptions of measurement techniques such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA), which are often used to support models in analysis of agricultural productivity, based on mathematical programming (non-parametric, non-stochastic) models or econometric (stochastic, parametric) models. Among the factors studied using these techniques are the abundance of subsidies, strong competition between regions worldwide and the need for efficient production systems. In some countries like Portugal, this sector is being revitalized in face of the need for reducing imports. The editors draw on a 3-year project that analyzed a Portuguese area in detail, comparing this study with papers from other regions. Applications include the estimation of technical efficiency in agricultural grazing systems (dairy, beef and mixed) and specifically for dairy farms. The conclusions indicate that it is now necessary to help small dairy farms in order to make them more efficient. These results can be compared with the technical efficiency of a sample of Spanish dairy processing firms presented by Magdalena Kapelko and co-authors.

Poverty Decline, Agricultural Wages, and Non-Farm Employment in Rural India 1983–2004

Lanjouw, Peter; Murgai, Rinku
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
The authors analyze five rounds of National Sample Survey data covering 1983, 1987/8, 1993/4, 1999/0, and 2004/5 to explore the relationship between rural diversification and poverty. Poverty in rural India declined at a modest rate during this period. The authors provide region-level estimates that illustrate considerable geographic heterogeneity in this progress. Poverty estimates correlate well with region-level data on changes in agricultural wage rates. Agricultural labor remains the preserve of the uneducated and also to a large extent of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Although agricultural labor grew as a share of total economic activity over the first four rounds, it had fallen back to the levels observed at the beginning of the survey period by 2004. This all-India trajectory masks widely varying trends across states. During this period, the rural non-farm sector grew modestly, mainly between the last two survey rounds. Regular non-farm employment remains largely associated with education levels and social status that are rare among the poor. However...

Albania : Strategic Policies for a More Competitive Agriculture Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.51%
Recent trends in Albania suggest that it has the potential for a modern and competitive agricultural sector, provided there is sufficient private investment and the right policy environment. This chapter looks at the role of agriculture in the economy and the current status of the sector, and outlines the implications of modernization and transformation of agriculture for rural areas. It also identifies trends and sources of growth for agriculture, and concludes by presenting the key policy challenges for the sector. The rest of this report analyzes the challenges facing the agricultural sector and recommends policies for addressing them. These challenges are analyzed in greater detail, and more specific policy recommendations are given in the following chapters, which focus on strengthening supply chains, improving food safety, and ensuring that reforms are carried out in compliance with EU legislation. The final chapter looks at how well public expenditures in agriculture are managed in order to achieve these policy objectives.

Tunisia Agricultural Finance Study : Main Summary Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.47%
The Tunisia agricultural finance study was carried out in response to a request made in December 2009 by the Tunisian Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) for support for a study on the key constraints in agricultural finance. Technical and financial support was specifically requested for: (i) a comprehensive diagnostic analysis of the current mechanisms and problems of financing of the agricultural sector in Tunisia, including those by financial institutions and from budget resources, foreign direct investment, and insurance; (ii) a comparison of the Tunisian experience with successful experiences made in other comparable countries; and (iii) the formulation of concrete proposals. The diagnostic part was also requested to include the regulations pertaining to agricultural credit, other constraints impeding the development of agricultural finance, such as costs, profitability, professional organizations, extension services, research etc., and to look at the indebtedness of smallholders. It was also requested that the recommendations help to: (i) better define the objectives to be achieved in terms of financing of agriculture; (ii) increase the participation of the financial sector in financing agriculture; (iii) help identify need for support by different types of farmers; (iv) identify new instruments geared at qualitative and technological changes; (v) reduce the indebtedness of farmers; and (vi) help improve the subsidies for agricultural investment. There are two main written outputs of the Tunisia agricultural finance study. The experts working on the study have compiled a great deal of detailed background information diagnosing the current situation...

'Japan Inc.' in the agricultural sector: reform or regression?

Mulgan, Aurelia George
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 326719 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.37%
‘Japan Inc.’ is manifested in the agricultural sector as a classic subgovernment consisting of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the Liberal Democratic Party, and the agricultural cooperative organisation (Nokyo). This three-way coalition of bureaucratic, party and producer organisations forms an ‘iron triangle’ of vested interest in agricultural support and protection. The agricultural public works component of the agricultural iron triangle is also linked to the larger iron triangle of public works, one of Japan’s most notorious interest coalitions. In the past decade, processes of electoral reform, administrative reform and financial liberalisation have presented each of the elements in the agricultural iron triangle with problems of political and organisational adjustment. At the same time, tripartite policymaking within the agricultural policy subgovernment has been institutionalised, and the LDP’s agricultural leadership is now directly penetrating the agricultural bureaucracy. Similarly, macro-policy trends such as deregulation, trade liberalization and fiscal stimulus have influenced the concessions and benefits flowing to the agricultural and rural sectors both positively and negatively. While a degree of induced marketisation and liberalisation has taken place...

Basic Agricultural Public Expenditure Diagnostic Review : Ghana's Ministry of Food and Agriculture

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Public Expenditure Review; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.53%
Ghana, like many other African countries, had made a commitment in 2003 to allocate at least ten percent of their national budgetary resources to develop the agricultural sector by 2008, following the adoption of the Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), with an aim towards realizing food security and poverty reduction. This Agriculture Public Expenditure Review (AgPER) for Ghana analyzes data on public spending from both government and donor sources to assess: 1) the alignment between expenditure patterns within the agricultural sector and stated policy priorities; and 2) the effectiveness of public spending by comparing spending against results. The outputs of the review include a comprehensive agricultural expenditure assessment to help provide a solid foundation for carrying out specialized studies, such as Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys (PETS), and the establishment of the levels and composition of public expenditure in the selected subsectors

Kyrgyz Republic : Agricultural Policy Update, Volume1. Overview

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.48%
This policy note examines the policy and investment framework between 2003 and 2010, resulting sector performance and the priorities for future development. It draws attention to the need to refocus on completing the fundamental reforms and investments on which Kyrgyzstan's early successes were built. These include further development of land market, building rural finance markets, further public investment and institutional development in the irrigation sector, encouraging greater private investment in the seeds sector and machinery services, public-private partnerships for advisory service provision, completion of ongoing reforms in pasture management, development of veterinary services and improving the business environment for private investment in agro-processing. The policy Note discusses the government's approach to achieving greater food security, which centers on food self-sufficiency and discusses why this is not the best route to raising low rural incomes - the root cause of food insecurity. The report discusses some of the policies conceived after the food price crisis...

Kyrgyz Republic : Agricultural Policy Update, Volume 2. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
This policy note examines the policy and investment framework between 2003 and 2010, resulting sector performance and the priorities for future development. It draws attention to the need to refocus on completing the fundamental reforms and investments on which Kyrgyzstan's early successes were built. These include further development of land market, building rural finance markets, further public investment and institutional development in the irrigation sector, encouraging greater private investment in the seeds sector and machinery services, public-private partnerships for advisory service provision, completion of ongoing reforms in pasture management, development of veterinary services and improving the business environment for private investment in agro-processing. The policy Note discusses the government's approach to achieving greater food security, which centers on food self-sufficiency and discusses why this is not the best route to raising low rural incomes - the root cause of food insecurity. The report discusses some of the policies conceived after the food price crisis...

Republic of India : Accelerating Agricultural Productivity Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.49%
In the past 50 years, Indian agriculture has undergone a major transformation, from dependence on food aid to becoming a consistent net food exporter. The gradual reforms in the agricultural sector (following the broader macro-reforms of the early 1990s) spurred some unprecedented innovations and changes in the food sector driven by private investment. These impressive achievements must now be viewed in light of the policy and investment imperatives that lie ahead. Agricultural growth has improved in recent years (averaging about 3.5 percent since 2004-05), but at a long-term trend rate of growth of 3 percent, agriculture has underperformed relative to its potential. The pockets of post-reform dynamism that have emerged evidently have not reached a sufficiently large scale to influence the sector's performance. For the vast population that still derives a living directly or indirectly from agriculture, achieving "faster, more inclusive, and sustainable growth', the objectives at the heart of the Twelfth five year plan...

Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment in Niger : Moving from Crisis Response to Long-Term Risk Management

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.48%
Niger, owing to its climatic, institutional, livelihood, economic, and environmental context, is one of the most vulnerable countries of the world. Poverty is pervasive in Niger and it ranks low on almost all the human development indicators. Agriculture is the most important sector of Niger's economy and accounts for over 40 percent of national gross domestic product (GDP) and is the principle source of livelihood for over 80 percent of the country's population. The performance of the agricultural sector, however, due to its high exposure to risks, is very volatile. Niger has experienced multiple shocks, largely induced by agricultural risks over the past 30 years, which impose high welfare cost in terms of food availability, food affordability, and malnutrition. It also adversely affects household incomes, performance of the agricultural sector, the government's fiscal balance, and the growth rate of Niger's economy. Niger is a case of living perpetually with risk, thus more emphasis on long-term structural solutions...

Uruguay : The Rural Sector and Natural Resources, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.48%
The report reviews the macroeconomic perspectives of Uruguay, focused on its rural development and natural resources intensive sectors, to form the basis for expanding agricultural production, and increasing productivity. It reviews the country's sectoral composition, exports of natural resource intensive products, and labor and capital use, as well as the tax burden. Although agriculture represents less than ten percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) of Uruguay, the combination of agriculture, and agro-industry makes up twenty three percent of GDP, of which half of the output is exported, which represented in 2000, seventy three percent of the country's total export earnings, with the composition of exports, significantly diversified. Nonetheless, the agricultural sector remains vulnerable to both external shocks, and domestic factors, and, while the government's ability to ameliorate the impacts of these shocks is limited, the likely increasing importance of international trade calls for a long-term approach to agricultural...

Towards a Vision for Agricultural Innovation in Chile in 2030

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.51%
This paper aims to develop a vision statement for the agricultural sector that may then guide the future investments in Chile's agricultural innovation system, A joint and shared perspective on how the sector might look and what role agricultural innovation should play in getting there is a prerequisite for any effective strategy. But developing such a vision is not only a function of what the country wants: it also depends on the context in which Chile's agricultural sector will find itself. This paper therefore reports on a participatory process to explore the many uncertainties that surround Chile's agriculture and to derive possible implications and answers. This will then lead to a vision for the sector that should be realistic both in terms of Chile's agricultural ambitions and its surrounding uncertainties. Based on the vision, a series of topics that needs to be explored in the agricultural innovation system if Chile wishes to make its vision come true will be identified and briefly described. The current paper is the second one in a series of three that were agreed between the Government of Chile and the World Bank to support the development of a long term agricultural innovation strategy. The first paper reviewed the functioning of the three main public technological institutes and made recommendations on how their performance can be improved. This second study explores the future of Chile's agriculture towards 2030...

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Agricultural Sector Review; Revitalizing Agriculture for Economic Growth, Job Creation and Food Security

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.43%
Economic growth, job creation, and development are central to the decade of transformation (2015-25) and long-term security for the people of Afghanistan. The Bank and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (GoIRA) recognize that agriculture and rural development are a key to inclusive growth, and hence need renewed vigor and strategic long-term investments. Further, the Bank and the GoIRA acknowledge that increases in agricultural productivity and market access for smallholders are critical for rural development, job creation, and food security in Afghanistan. Sections two and three of this report describe the agricultural sector and its current and potential roles in the Afghan economy, and present the rationale for choosing certain areas and subsectors for a selective 'first mover' strategy to achieve early gains. Section four outlines the constraints and potential in each of the three value chains proposed for the selective strategy, irrigated wheat, intensive livestock production, and horticulture. Section five describes cross-cutting constraints and how best to address them...

Comprehensive Assessment of the Agriculture Sector in Liberia : Volume 1, Synthesis Report

Ministry of Agriculture (Liberia)
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Rural Development Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.53%
The overall objective of the Comprehensive Assessment of the Agricultural Sector (CAAS) is to provide an evidence base to enable appropriate strategic policy responses by the Government of Liberia (GoL) and its development partners in order to maximize the contribution of the agriculture sector to the Government's overarching policy objectives. Given the strong relationship between growth in agricultural productivity and poverty reduction, future efforts in Liberia need to focus on productivity enhancing measures with a pro-poor focus that increase incomes. Growth based on extensification using traditional technologies is generally not profitable and has damaging implications for the environment. Given the low level of assets possessed by most Liberians, future efforts need to address the question of access to assets (i.e. land, knowledge and inputs) in addition to providing opportunities and an enabling environment. Liberia needs to make concerted efforts to preserve and consolidate its emerging stability by focusing on interventions to ensure food security and poverty alleviation at the community and household levels. Improving access to food and generating sustainable...

Comprehensive Assessment of the Agriculture Sector in Liberia : Volume 2, Sub-sector Reports, Part I

Ministry of Agriculture (Liberia)
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Rural Development Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.51%
The overall objective of the Comprehensive Assessment of the Agricultural Sector (CAAS) is to provide an evidence base to enable appropriate strategic policy responses by the Government of Liberia (GoL) and its development partners in order to maximize the contribution of the agriculture sector to the Government's overarching policy objectives. Given the strong relationship between growth in agricultural productivity and poverty reduction, future efforts in Liberia need to focus on productivity enhancing measures with a pro-poor focus that increase incomes. Growth based on extensification using traditional technologies is generally not profitable and has damaging implications for the environment. Given the low level of assets possessed by most Liberians, future efforts need to address the question of access to assets (i.e. land, knowledge and inputs) in addition to providing opportunities and an enabling environment. Liberia needs to make concerted efforts to preserve and consolidate its emerging stability by focusing on interventions to ensure food security and poverty alleviation at the community and household levels. Improving access to food and generating sustainable...

Comprehensive Assessment of the Agriculture Sector in Liberia : Volume 4, Crosscutting Issues

Ministry of Agriculture (Liberia)
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Rural Development Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
The overall objective of the Comprehensive Assessment of the Agricultural Sector (CAAS) is to provide an evidence base to enable appropriate strategic policy responses by the Government of Liberia (GoL) and its development partners in order to maximize the contribution of the agriculture sector to the Government's overarching policy objectives. Given the strong relationship between growth in agricultural productivity and poverty reduction, future efforts in Liberia need to focus on productivity enhancing measures with a pro-poor focus that increase incomes. Growth based on extensification using traditional technologies is generally not profitable and has damaging implications for the environment. Given the low level of assets possessed by most Liberians, future efforts need to address the question of access to assets (i.e. land, knowledge and inputs) in addition to providing opportunities and an enabling environment. Liberia needs to make concerted efforts to preserve and consolidate its emerging stability by focusing on interventions to ensure food security and poverty alleviation at the community and household levels. Improving access to food and generating sustainable...

An ultra violet optical fibre based sensor for ammonia detection in the agricultural sector

Manap, Hadi
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: Doctoral thesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations; none
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.22%
peer-reviewed; This thesis describes an optical fibre sensor to detect and accurately measure ammonia gas in the agricultural sector. Increases in ammonia emission especially from the farming industry have created the need for a sensor that is capable of measuring ammonia gas in the agricultural environment. The research of this investigation is validated by measurement in a barn at a cattle farm and in the most stringent weather condition. The optical fibre sensor system described in this thesis is based on an openpath spectral absorption gas cell addressed by optical fibres. A stainless steel hollow cylinder is used as the absorption cell and two Ultra Violet (circa 220 nm wavelength)optical fibres are used to transmit the light. The construction of the sensor uses robust material and is able to withstand the weather conditions encountered in this environment and is relatively low in cost. An Ultra Violet light source is used to avoid potential cross sensitivity problems with atmospheric gases. The optical sensor system uses a spectrometer as a detector and it is interfaced with a computer hosting data capture and analysis software. A specially designed in-house program has been developed using graphical programming software in order to monitor the ammonia concentration in real time. Following optimisations for better performance...

Impactos de la inversión extranjera en el sector agrario 2003-2013; Foreign Direct Investment impacts on agricultural sector 2003-2013

Bohorquez Navas, David Alejandro; Cañon, Raul
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Economía Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Economía
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.4%
Este trabajo se centra en los impactos económicos sociales y medioambientales que ha generado la IED en el sector agrario, se examinan las principales empresas multinacionales presentes en el período descrito, las regiones de Colombia con mayor atracción de IED y se analizan variables macroeconómicas del sector agropecuario tales como el PIB y crecimiento económico. Palabras clave: Inversión extranjera directa, Sector agrario, Impacto social, Impacto ambiental e Impacto económico.; This paper is focuses in the economic, social and environmental impacts that provide the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on the agricultural sector; it sees the main multinational companies present at the described period, places of Colombia with most attraction of FDI and shows the main macroeconomic indicators on the agricultural sector (PBI and economic growth) Keywords: Foreign direct investment, Agricultural sector, Social impact, Environmental impact and Economic impact.

Productivity growth and technological progress in the Brazilian agricultural sector

Pereira,Marcelo Farid; Silveira,João Serafim Tusi da; Lanzer,Edgar Augusto; Samohyl,Robert Wayne
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Operacional Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisa Operacional
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
Starting in the 1970's, the Brazilian agricultural sector has experienced an important process of modernization, whose principal effects include advances in technological progress and gains in productivity. The primary objective of this paper is to analyze technological progress and total productivity growth in the Brazilian agricultural sector during the period from 1970 to 1996. The methodology used here is based on the Malmquist productivity index and techniques in mathematical programming called Data Envelopment Analysis. The results show that significant progress was made in this sector of the economy but concentrated in only some regions of the country.