Página 1 dos resultados de 2015 itens digitais encontrados em 0.010 segundos

Redistributing Agricultural Data by a Dasymetric Mapping Methodology

Martins, Maria Belém; Xavier, António; Fragoso, Rui
Fonte: Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association Publicador: Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
This paper examines the adaptation of dasymetric mapping methodologies to agricultural data, including their testing and transposition, in order to recover the underlying statistical surface (i.e., an approximation of the real distribution of data). A methodology based on the ideas of Gallego and Peedell (2001) and on the binary method is proposed. It has several steps: (i) the exclusion of target zones for which no observations exist (binary method), (ii) the application of an iterative process to define the most precise densities for data distribution, and (iii) the stratification/definition of sub-units with homogenous characteristics if the results of the previous step are not satisfactory, and the subsequent application of step two. The methodology was applied in the Alentejo region of Portugal, using data from the 1999 Agricultural Census. Several counties are used as source zones. The aim was to generate a distribution of agro-forestry occupations as close as possible to reality. Two lines of analysis were followed: (i) application of the methodology simultaneously to all counties (definition of regional densities), and (ii) application of the methodology separately to the different subareas with similar characteristics (definition of sub-regional densities). For an easy application of the methodology...

Shaping the Future of Water for Agriculture : A Sourcebook for Investment in Agricultural Water Management

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
Agricultural water management is a vital practice in ensuring reduction, and environmental protection. After decades of successfully expanding irrigation and improving productivity, farmers and managers face an emerging crisis in the form of poorly performing irrigation schemes, slow modernization, declining investment, constrained water availability, and environmental degradation. More and better investments in agricultural water are needed. In response, the World Bank, in conjunction with many partner agencies, has compiled a selection of good experiences that can guide practitioners in the design of quality investments in agricultural water. The messages of this publication center around the key challenges to agricultural water management, specifically: building policies and incentives; designing institutional reforms; investing in irrigation systems improvement and modernization; investing in groundwater irrigation; investing in drainage and water quality management; investing in water management in rain-fed agriculture; investing in agricultural water management in multipurpose operations; coping with extreme climatic conditions; and assessing the social...

Small-Scale Irrigation Dams, Agricultural Production, and Health: Theory and Evidence from Ethiopia

Ersado, Lire
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
The author looks at the feasibility and potential of instituting small-scale irrigation dams to reduce Ethiopia s dependence on rainfed agriculture and the associated food insecurity. He develops a theoretical framework to assess the welfare implications of irrigation development programs and provides empirical evidence from microdam construction and reforestation projects in northern Ethiopia. The author pays particular attention to health-related costs of establishing small-scale irrigation dams in areas prone to waterborne diseases. While the theoretical analyses imply that the net welfare impacts of irrigation dams cannot be known a priori due to potential health costs, the empirical evidence shows that current agricultural yield and farm profit have increased in villages with closer proximity to the dams than in those more distant. The increased disease incidence due to standing pools of water has, however, led to significant declines in the returns from investment in irrigation water. Households with poor health are less likely to adopt productivity-enhancing as well as resource-conserving technologies, which are crucial for achieving the ultimate goal of sustainable agricultural development. The ensuing sickness has also led to reduction in labor allocation to off-farm activities. The findings underline the importance of weighing beforehand the magnitude of potential economic benefits against health costs of water development programs. The overall evidence...

West Africa : Community Based Natural Resource Management

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
This has to be accomplished against a background of high illiteracy rates, rapidly growing populations, low and erratic rainfall, inherently infertile soils, and development strategies which have had a strong urban bias. Under such conditions, traditional production systems are unable to sustain the population. Without significant change, land degradation will accelerate and the natural resource base on which agricultural production depends will continue to decline. The efforts made in the 1970s and 1980s to tackle this problem were not particularly successful. They tended to focus too much on production and did not attempt to involve the local population in decision-making and management. Drawing on the lessons learned from these projects, governments, and donors initiated a new generation of community-based, decentralized, multi sectoral Natural Resource Management (NRM) projects. Starting as a series of pilot operations in the late 1980s, this approach sought to ensure local community participation in the identification development and implementation of NRM projects...

Farm Mechanization : A New Challenge for Agriculture in Low and Middle Income Countries of Europe and Central Asia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
This report shows that trends in farm mechanization are attributable to differing approaches to reform and differing agricultural resource endowments. The level of reform determines the pattern and extent to which labor and capital change, with land reform and commodity market liberalization as the underlying forces for change. These reforms substantially raise the incentives to invest as a means to increase productivity and incomes. In countries where this initial threshold of reform has not been attained agricultural incomes grow more slowly and there is less incentive to invest. Where the incentives to invest are high a second round of reform is necessary to facilitate investment reforms which deepen and strengthen financial markets and improve the business environment.

Agricultural transformation and the politics of hydrology in Northern Thailand: a case study of water supply and demand

Walker, Andrew
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 447434 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Water resource tensions in upland areas of northern Thailand are often attributed to reductions in water supply caused by forest clearing. This paper argues that the hydrological evidence for such reductions in supply is very weak and that, rather, the key hydrological issue in upland catchments is a significant increase in water demand, especially during the dry season. The arguments are illustrated with a detailed examination of the Mae Uam catchment, located in Chiang Mai province, where the development of dry-season soybean cultivation appears to have approached the hydrological limit of the catchment, and even exceeded this limit in drier years. The paper argues that a shift in focus from water supply to water demand has fundamentally important political implications. As long as the focus of public debate is on water supply, the regulatory focus will be on those resident in the forested upland areas that are seen as being crucial in securing downstream flows. But if the water management focus is shifted to water demand, then regulatory attention must shift to the diverse sources of that demand that exist throughout the hydrological system.; no

Policy challenges for agricultural biotechnology in the Asia Pacific: developing framework for analysis

Parthasarathy, D
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 421367 bytes; 354 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
Introduction: The paper then seeks to go beyond rhetoric and emotive debates and develop a framework for facilitating effective technology development and transfer in different countries in the Asia-Pacific region. By focusing on issues related to agrarian structure, agricultural systems, and the nature of global and regional integration, a heterodox and heterogeneous approach to the analysis of technology uptake and impact assessment will be developed. It is argued that such an approach is essential for formulating effective policies for agricultural biotechnology.; no

Aiding trade: case studies in agricultural value chain development in Cambodia

Thavat, Maylee
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
This thesis presents an inquiry into agricultural development. More specifically it addresses the question: how do development agencies construct and reconstruct new and existing agricultural commodity chains to assist the rural poor to trade their way out of poverty? Growing unevenness in the development process has led to calls for development to become more pro-poor. An increasingly popular tool employed in such efforts is agricultural commodity chain development, more recently and perhaps more salubriously called value chain development. The key idea here is to assist poor rural agriculturalists (the majority of the world’s poor) to upgrade their livelihoods through appropriately configured commodity chains. Although conceptions vary about what sort of commodity chain is best engaged or how to engage it, the primary tenet of this approach is that given appropriate assistance the poor may trade their way out of poverty. As such this thesis is as much about examining the aid agencies enrolled to instigate commodity chain development, as it is an investigation into agricultural commodity chains themselves. The four case studies of this thesis: rice seed, organic rice, fresh vegetables and chilli sauce provide examples of the different ways that aid processes may interact with trade processes with varying outcomes. At the core of my thesis lies a philosophical discussion about the role of gifts and commodities relations in cross-cultural development interactions. Gifts and commodities are often set out as two distinct and incommensurate forms of exchange. I argue that they are not. In efforts to aid trade it is evident that various material and knowledge flows necessarily combine a range of gift and commodity relations that are difficult to separate. Even those development projects with the most explicit market focus often find it hard to maintain the false dichotomy between aid and the private sector...

Republic of India : Accelerating Agricultural Productivity Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
In the past 50 years, Indian agriculture has undergone a major transformation, from dependence on food aid to becoming a consistent net food exporter. The gradual reforms in the agricultural sector (following the broader macro-reforms of the early 1990s) spurred some unprecedented innovations and changes in the food sector driven by private investment. These impressive achievements must now be viewed in light of the policy and investment imperatives that lie ahead. Agricultural growth has improved in recent years (averaging about 3.5 percent since 2004-05), but at a long-term trend rate of growth of 3 percent, agriculture has underperformed relative to its potential. The pockets of post-reform dynamism that have emerged evidently have not reached a sufficiently large scale to influence the sector's performance. For the vast population that still derives a living directly or indirectly from agriculture, achieving "faster, more inclusive, and sustainable growth', the objectives at the heart of the Twelfth five year plan...

Agricultural Sector Policy Note for Bosnia and Herzegovina : Trade and Integration Policy Notes; Studija o politici poljoprivrednog sektora u Bosni i Hercegovini : studija o politikama trgovine i integracije

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
The agricultural season in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) begins earlier than in most European countries, shipping costs are relatively low, and land and labor prices are more favorable than in other southern European countries. As a result, the country's agriculture sector should be well positioned to compete on the export markets. With 20.6 percent of all employed in BH, agriculture remains an important sector for employment, despite a decline in the working-age population in rural areas. Additionally, it will be important for BH to develop well-functioning land institutions, so that the land market can operate more efficiently and thus enable business development. Finally, BH should integrate climate change adaptation and environmental sustainability into agricultural policies, programs, and investments. To succeed in agriculture, producers and governments will have to adapt, and the way to start is to focus on reducing agriculture's vulnerability to current climate variability.

Sri Lanka - Agricultural Commercialization : Improving Farmers’ Incomes in the Poorest Regions

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
The issue of regional differences in development has moved to the center of the development debate in Sri Lanka, partly after the release of regional poverty data. For the past many years, there have been significant and increasing differences between the Western province and the rest of the country in terms of per capita income levels, growth rates of per capita income, poverty rates, and the structure of provincial economies. The structure of the report is as follows: chapter two looks at the poverty/growth/agriculture nexus in the poorest regions of Sri Lanka. It presents data on poverty and growth in the poorest provinces, especially Uva and Sabaragamuwa, and provides an analysis of factors associated with the rural poor. Chapter three provides an overview and brief discussion of the Government's agricultural policies and programs. Chapter four identifies constraints that restrict farmers' incomes in the four poorest provinces. It presents results from extensive stakeholder consultations carried out in these provinces. These results are complemented with findings from the 2005 rural investment climate assessment to identify some of the general constraints in the agriculture sector in Sri Lanka. Chapter five presents the findings of an agricultural resource audit of small-scale farmers in the poorest regions that analyzed production...

Towards a Vision for Agricultural Innovation in Chile in 2030

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
This paper aims to develop a vision statement for the agricultural sector that may then guide the future investments in Chile's agricultural innovation system, A joint and shared perspective on how the sector might look and what role agricultural innovation should play in getting there is a prerequisite for any effective strategy. But developing such a vision is not only a function of what the country wants: it also depends on the context in which Chile's agricultural sector will find itself. This paper therefore reports on a participatory process to explore the many uncertainties that surround Chile's agriculture and to derive possible implications and answers. This will then lead to a vision for the sector that should be realistic both in terms of Chile's agricultural ambitions and its surrounding uncertainties. Based on the vision, a series of topics that needs to be explored in the agricultural innovation system if Chile wishes to make its vision come true will be identified and briefly described. The current paper is the second one in a series of three that were agreed between the Government of Chile and the World Bank to support the development of a long term agricultural innovation strategy. The first paper reviewed the functioning of the three main public technological institutes and made recommendations on how their performance can be improved. This second study explores the future of Chile's agriculture towards 2030...

Republic of India : Accelerating Agricultural Productivity Growth

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.49%
In the past 50 years, Indian agriculture has undergone a major transformation, from dependence on food aid to becoming a consistent net food exporter. The gradual reforms in the agricultural sector (following the broader macro-reforms of the early 1990s) spurred some unprecedented innovations and changes in the food sector driven by private investment. These impressive achievements must now be viewed in light of the policy and investment imperatives that lie ahead. Agricultural growth has improved in recent years (averaging about 3.5 percent since 2004-05), but at a long-term trend rate of growth of 3 percent, agriculture has underperformed relative to its potential. The pockets of post-reform dynamism that have emerged evidently have not reached a sufficiently large scale to influence the sector's performance. For the vast population that still derives a living directly or indirectly from agriculture, achieving "faster, more inclusive, and sustainable growth', the objectives at the heart of the Twelfth five year plan...

Distortions to Agricultural versus Nonagricultural Producer Incentives; Annual Review of Resource Economics

Anderson, Kym
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
For more than a century, government policies have grossly distorted resource use in agriculture, both within and between countries. Earnings from farming in many developing countries have been depressed by a pro-urban bias in own-country policies as well as by governments of richer countries favoring their farmers with import barriers and subsidies. Both sets of policies reduce national and global economic welfare and inhibit economic growth; they also add to inequality and poverty in developing countries. Since the 1980s, however, numerous developing and some high-income country governments have reduced their sectoral and trade policy distortions. This paper draws on new empirical studies to show the changing extent of policy distortions to prices faced by the world's farmers since the 1950s. Modeling results provide an indication of how far those reforms proceeded between the early 1980s and 2004 and of how much scope remains for removing continuing inefficiencies in global agricultural resource use.

The Alberta Dilemma: Optimal Sharing of a Water Resource by an Agricultural and an Oil Sector

GAUDET, Gérard; MOREAUX, Michel; WITHAGEN, Cees
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 315517 bytes; application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.46%
The purpose of this paper is to characterize the optimal time paths of production and water usage by an agricultural and an oil sector that have to share a limited water resource. We show that for any given water stock, if the oil stock is sufficiently large, it will become optimal to have a phase during which the agricultural sector is inactive. This may mean having an initial phase during which the two sectors are active, then a phase during which the water is reserved for the oil sector and the agricultural sector is inactive, followed by a phase during which both sectors are active again. The agricultural sector will always be active in the end as the oil stock is depleted and the demand for water from the oil sector decreases. In the case where agriculture is not constrained by the given natural inflow of water once there is no more oil, we show that oil extraction will always end with a phase during which oil production follows a pure Hotelling path, with the implicit price of oil net of extraction cost growing at the rate of interest. If the natural inflow of water does constitute a constraint for agriculture, then oil production never follows a pure Hotelling path, because its full marginal cost must always reflect not only the imputed rent on the finite oil stock...

Scale variability of water, land, and energy resource interactions and their influence on the food system in Uganda

Mukuve, Feriha Mugisha; Fenner, Richard A.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
This is the accepted manuscript. The final version is available at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352550915000226.; Despite efforts to achieve food security in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) since the 1970's, food insufficiency continues to plague the region. As of 2014 more than a fifth of Sub-Saharan Africa's population - remain food insecure according to the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO). The food security challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa are linked to economic, agro-ecological, technological/agronomic, institutional and related factors. These causes however overlay complex interactions and constraints within the key physical resources of Water Land and Energy (WLE), which are necessary for food production, processing, distribution and consumption. The relationship between the WLE interactions and the performance of SSA's food systems, and the impacts of interventions at different scales are not yet fully understood, particularly in light of the need to maintain essential ecosystem services. This study employs an integrated multi-scale Food System resource analysis approach to examine Uganda's WLE resource constraints vis-?-vis 2012 and 2050 agricultural resource demand at national, district and local scales...

Supplying Preservation: Landowner Behavior and the Delaware Agricultural Lands Preservation Program

Duke, Joshua M.; Ilvento, Thomas W.
Fonte: Department of Food and Resource Economics Publicador: Department of Food and Resource Economics
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
This report presents the results of a survey of Delaware agricultural landowners about their characteristics, opinions, and behavior regarding participation in the Delaware Agricultural Lands Preservation Program, specifically the PACE and Ag Dist programs. The results demonstrate that participants tend to: ??? Own larger farms ??? Be more likely to raise corn, soybeans, and vegetables ??? Have more decision makers ??? Be much more likely to be full-time operators ??? Be more likely to value working outdoors ??? Be more likely to value ownership to pass land onto children. The results also show that word of mouth is the most common way Delaware landowners learn about the DALP program. Owners??? views about the DALP program were investigated. Key findings include: ??? Participants and nonparticipants identified preserving land for family as the most attractive aspect of the Ag Dist program ??? Both groups valued the Ag Dist program for its protection against agricultural nuisance suits and taxes ??? A majority of PACE participants found that program attractive to relieve pressure from debt, to provide retirement security, and to reinvest in their operations ??? A minority of Ag Dist participants and nonparticipants were interested in PACE to relieve pressure from debt. Participants had positive experiences with the DALP process. ??? Large majorities were satisfied with the DALP staff ??? Large majorities of PACE participants were satisfied with the DALP procedures and outcomes ??? A large majority of Ag Dist participants were satisfied with DALP procedures ??? A majority of Ag Dist participants were satisfied with the outcome ??? A large majority of participants would participate in Ag Dist if they had the chance to do it again ??? Most PACE participants are using PACE money for investments ??? Some PACE participants are using PACE money to pay debts.; USDA???s NRICGP award number 00-35401-9350

Reciprocal Educational Exchange Between The University of Delaware and Slovak Agricultural University

Ilvento, Thomas W.; Duke, Joshua M.
Fonte: Department of Food and Resource Economics Publicador: Department of Food and Resource Economics
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 268708 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
During 1994-1997, the University of Delaware (UD) and the Slovak Agricultural University (SAU) cooperated in a USIA-funded program to establish a market economy-based business management training program at SAU. The program consisted of five components ??? classroom teaching, faculty development, curriculum development, outreach program development, and administrative structural development ??? and was largely a one-sided effort from UD to SAU.; USIA

Kenya; Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment

D’Alessandro, Stephen P.; Caballero, Jorge; Lichte, John; Simpkin, Simon
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agriculture Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
Despite myriad challenges, Kenya has emerged in recent years as one of Africa’s frontier economies, with headline growth in the most recent decade propelling the country toward middle-income status. Less well understood is how risk dynamics associated with production, markets, and policy adversely impact sector performance, in terms of both influencing ex ante decision making among farmers, traders, and other sector stakeholders and causing ex post losses to crops, livestock, and incomes - destabilizing livelihoods and jeopardizing the country’s food security. The present study was commissioned in part to bridge this knowledge gap. It is the first step in a multiphase process designed to integrate a stronger risk focus into sector planning and development programs. It seeks to learn from and build on a range of broad initiatives by the Government of Kenya (GoK) and its development partners purposed to enhance Kenya’s resilience and response to natural disasters. The ultimate objective is implementation of a holistic and systematic risk management system that will reduce the vulnerability and strengthen the resiliency of Kenya’s agricultural supply chains...

Modelling effective and simultaneous promotion of food security and biodiversity conservation through agricultural extension activities

Abdu-Raheem,K. A
Fonte: South African Journal of Agricultural Extension Publicador: South African Journal of Agricultural Extension
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
There is no doubt that public agricultural extension has contributed to the success of South Africa's current large-scale farmers, the fruit of which the nation still enjoys. Nonetheless, the ineffectiveness of the extension service to meet the current challenges - particularly among resource-challenged, small-holder farmers - is widely acknowledged. This ineffectiveness extends to promoting household food security within the context of encouraging biodiversity conservation on farm lands. To examine this, this paper draws on recently conducted research to sketch the current model within which extension pursues these seemingly dichotomous objectives and identifies some gaps which, if addressed, can enable extension to simultaneously meet these two objectives. The paper presents a refurbished extension model which builds on the current South African model by introducing three elements: collaboration among all the stakeholders involved in promoting food security, biodiversity conservation and agricultural extension objectives; adopting a capacity-building approach (replacing the current top-down, technology transfer approach) to support farmers who are significant actors in food security and biodiversity agendas; and re-invigorating extension institutions through introducing specific presently lacking capacities. The refurbished model postulates that extension...