Página 1 dos resultados de 352 itens digitais encontrados em 0.004 segundos

Production and properties of xylanases from Aspergillus terricola Marchal and Aspergillus ochraceus and their use in cellulose pulp bleaching

MICHELIN, M.; PEIXOTO-NOGUEIRA, S. C.; BETINI, J. H. A.; SILVA, T. M. da; JORGE, J. A.; TERENZI, H. F.; POLIZELI, M. L. T. M.
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.96%
Aspergillus terricola and Aspergillus ochraceus, isolated from Brazilian soil, were cultivated in Vogel and Adams media supplemented with 20 different carbon sources, at 30 A degrees C, under static conditions, for 120 and 144 h, respectively. High levels of cellulase-free xylanase were produced in birchwood or oat spelt xylan-media. Wheat bran was the most favorable agricultural residue for xylanase production. Maximum activity was obtained at 60 A degrees C and pH 6.5 for A. terricola, and 65 A degrees C and pH 5.0 for A. ochraceus. A. terricola xylanase was stable for 1 h at 60 A degrees C and retained 50% activity after 80 min, while A. ochraceus xylanase presented a t (50) of 10 min. The xylanases were stable in an alkali pH range. Biobleaching of 10 U/g dry cellulose pulp resulted in 14.3% delignification (A. terricola) and 36.4% (A. ochraceus). The brightness was 2.4-3.4% ISO higher than the control. Analysis in SEM showed defibrillation of the microfibrils. Arabinase traces and beta-xylosidase were detected which might act synergistically with xylanase.; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq)

Influência da palhada de milheto na ocorrência de ramulose (Colletotrichum gossypii var. cephalosporioides Costa) no algodoeiro.; Influence of the cover residue in the ramulosis occurence, disease caused by fungus colletotrichum gossypii var. cephalosporioides costa in the cotton plant.

Kubiak, Daniela Moreira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/01/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
Foi realizado um estudo na cultura do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. var latifolium Hutch), no ano agrícola 2002/2003, na Fazenda Areão, unidade experimental da Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, USP/ESALQ, localizada no município de Piracicaba, SP, com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento e evolução da Ramulose do algodoeiro, doença causada pelo fungo Colletotrichum gossypii var cephalosporioides Costa em sistema de semeadura com e sem palha de milheto (Pennisetum glaucum L.), nas cultivares IAC 23 (resistente à Ramulose) e Makina (suscetível à Ramulose). Foram avaliadas também as interações entre o sistema de semeadura com e sem palha na produção de algodão em caroço, produtividade da cultura, caracteres agronômicos de laboratório e características tecnológicas das fibras. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de parcelas subdivididas (split-plot), utilizando-se 4 blocos alternados entre semeadura convencional e semeadura sobre a palhada de milheto (parcelas), cada um com 8 subparcelas, totalizando 32 subparcelas. Aos 34 dias após a emergência (DAE) o patógeno foi inoculado artificialmente com a suspensão de inóculo pulverizada no terço superior das plantas através de equipamento de Co2. A doença foi avaliada através de escala de notas (1 a 5)...

Desempenho de uma enfardadora prismática no recolhimento de palhiço; Prismatic baling performance on sugar cane residue collect

Mello, Arthur Miola de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/09/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
Um dos fatores que ainda retarda o uso do palhiço remanescente da colheita mecanizada para cogeração de energia é a falta de conhecimento de processos ou sistemas que viabilizem a retirada e transporte desse material até as unidades de cogeração. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar os desempenhos técnico, econômico e energético de uma enfardadora, em diferentes condições de distribuição de palhiço na superfície, buscando viabilizar o recolhimento do palhiço remanescente da colheita mecanizada. O ensaio foi realizado na Usina Iracema, município de Iracemápolis-SP, em área de cana-de-açúcar, colhida mecanicamente. A área foi dividida em três subáreas., com cinco repetições de 15 fardos cada. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: T1- palhiço in natura, sem enleiramento; T2- palhiço com enleiramento simples; T3- palhiço com enleiramento duplo. As principais avaliações foram: força na barra de tração, potência, velocidade efetiva, consumo de combustível, capacidades de produção e de campo efetivas, custos efetivos para o enfardamento, eficiência energética do enfardamento e potencial energético do palhiço recolhido. Os resultados mostraram que a demanda de força na barra para tracionar a enfardadora não mostrou diferenças entre os tratamentos e variou de 344...

Estudo preliminar sobre a utilização da cana-de-açúcar e seus derivados para a produção de painéis Hardboards; Preliminary study on the use of sugarcane and its derivates for the production of hardboard panels

Freitas, Jonathan Francisco de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/04/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.96%
As usinas sucroalcooleiras aproveitam apenas a fração colmo da planta para a produção de açúcar e etanol restando o bagaço da cana-de-açúcar, composto das frações fibra e medula, é em grande parte usado para geração de energia elétrica. O resíduo agrícola da cana RAC, constituído pelas folhas, palha, e a ponteira da cana de açúcar são cortados durante a colheita e devolvidos ao campo para adubar o solo contribuindo para a lavoura da cana-de-açúcar. Os painéis hardboards são produzidos a partir da aplicação de calor e pressão a um colchão de fibras ou serragem de madeira, sendo aplicados como pisos na construção civil e como pranchetas e fundo de gavetas na indústria moveleira. Assim, a proposta desse trabalho foi o estudo da utilização dos materiais provenientes da cultura de cana-de-açúcar, em particular a fração medula do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e do RAC para produção de hardboard (sem a utilização de adesivos) e particleboards (com a adição de resina fenol-formaldeído). Adicionalmente, estudou-se a adição da humina resultante de processos de hidrólise ácida do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar como coadjuvante na produção de painéis de medula de cana-de-açúcar. A utilização da resina fenol-formaldeído foi estudada no intervalo de 10% a 33%...

Alkali activated materials based on fluid catalytic cracking catalyst residue (FCC): Influence of SiO2/Na2O and H 2O/FCC ratio on mechanical strength and microstructure

Tashima, M. M.; Akasaki, J. L.; Melges, J. L P; Soriano, L.; Monzó, J.; Payá, J.; Borrachero, M. V.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 833-839
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
Reuse of industrial and agricultural wastes as supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) in concrete and mortar productions contribute to sustainable development. In this context, fluid catalytic cracking catalyst residue (spent FCC), a byproduct from the petroleum industry and petrol refineries, have been studied as SCM in blended Portland cement in the last years. Nevertheless, another environmental friendly alternative has been conducted in order to produce alternative binders with low CO2 emissions. The use of aluminosilicate materials in the production of alkali-activated materials (AAMs) is an ongoing research topic which can present low CO2 emissions associated. Hence, this paper studies some variables that can influence the production of AAM based on spent FCC. Specifically, the influence of SiO 2/Na2O molar ratio and the H2O/spent FCC mass ratio on the mechanical strength and microstructure are assessed. Some instrumental techniques, such as SEM, XRD, pH and electrical conductivity measurements, and MIP are performed in order to assess the microstructure of formed alkali-activated binder. Alkali activated mortars with compressive strength up to 80 MPa can be formed after curing for 3 days at 65°C. The research demonstrates the potential of spent FCC to produce alkali-activated cements and the importance of SiO2/Na2O molar ratio and the H2O/spent FCC mass ratio in optimising properties and microstructure. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

THE POTENTIAL OF NO-TILL AND RESIDUE MANAGEMENT TO SEQUESTER

Basch, G.; Barros, José; Calado, José; Brandão, Manuel
Fonte: Slovak Association for Sustainable Agriculture, c/o Slovak Agricultural Publicador: Slovak Association for Sustainable Agriculture, c/o Slovak Agricultural
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.96%
Soil organic matter contents under Mediterranean climatic conditions frequently are low to very low, especially where extensive land use and thus low biomass production is predominant. Reducing tillage intensity and maintaining crop residues in the field are considered to be promising agricultural practices to counteract the decline in soil organic carbon. The objectives of this work were to study the combination of no-till and the use of different crops and amounts of residues and their management on the evolution of soil organic matter. In two trials, crops were established under no-till over 3 years using different levels of wheat straw and their management and one treatment with residues of chickpea. Initial and final soil organic matter contents were analysed. The results indicate that the higher the amount of residues returned to the field the higher the increase of soil organic matter. Maintenance of straw compared to in situ feeding enhances the build-up of soil organic matter. Chickpea as a low biomass producing crop with a low C/N ratio of its residues showed no positive effect in terms of soil organic matter improvement. The results suggest that the return of cereal residues instead of its removal or grazing in combination with no-till for crop establishment can contribute considerably to improve the low soil organic matter levels found in Mediterranean environments.

Enhanced bioproduction of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate from wheat straw lignocellulosic hydrolysates

Cesário, M. Teresa; Raposo, Rodrigo S.; Almeida, M. Catarina M. D. de; Keulen, Frederik van; Ferreira, Bruno S.; Fonseca, M. Manuela R. da
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
Project: EC/FP7/246449 - New tailor-made PNB-based nanocomposites for high performance applications produced from environmentally friendly production routes; "Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bioplastics that can replace conventional petroleum derived products in various applications. One of the major barriers for their widespread introduction in the market is the higher production costs when compared with their petrochemical counterparts. In this work, a process was successfully implemented with high productivity based on wheat straw, a cheap and readily available agricultural residue, as raw material. The strain Burkholderia sacchari DSM 17165 which is able to metabolize glucose, xylose and arabinose, the main sugars present in wheat straw hydrolysates (WSH), was used. Results in shake flask showed that B. sacchari cells accumulated ca 70 % g P(3HB)/g cell-dry-weight with a yield of polymer on sugars (YP/S) of 0.18 g/g when grown on a mixture of commercial C6 and C5 sugars (control), while these values reached ca 60 % g P(3HB)/g cell-dry-weight and 0.19 g/g, respectively, when WSHs were used as carbon source. In fed-batch cultures carried out in 2L stirred tank reactors on WSH, a maximum polymer concentration of 105 g/L was reached after 61 h of cultivation corresponding to an accumulation of 72% of CDW. Polymer yield and productivity were 0.22 g P(3HB)/g total sugar consumed and 1.6 g/L. h...

Potential use of a chemical leaching reject from a kaolin industry as agricultural fertilizer

Ribeiro,Fabiana Rodrigues; Egreja Filho,Fernando Barboza; Fabris,José Domingos; Mussel,Wagner da Nova; Novais,Roberto Ferreira
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
The industrial refining of kaolin involves the removal of iron oxides and hydroxides along with other impurities that cause discoloration of the final product and depreciate its commercial value, particularly undesirable if destined to the paper industry. The chemical leaching in the industrial processing requires treatments with sodium hyposulfite, metallic zinc, or sulfuric and phosphoric acids, in order to reduce, dissolve and remove ferruginous compounds. To mitigate the environmental impact, the acidic effluent from the leaching process must be neutralized, usually with calcium oxide. The resulting solid residue contains phosphorous, zinc, and calcium, among other essential nutrients for plant growth, suggesting its use as a macro and micronutrient source. Samples of such a solid industrial residue were used here to evaluate their potential as soil fertilizer in an incubation greenhouse experiment with two soil samples (clayey and medium-textured). The small pH shift generated by applying the residue to the soil was not a limiting factor for its use in agriculture. The evolution of the concentrations of exchangeable calcium, and phosphorous and zinc extractability by Mehlich-1 extractant during the incubation period confirms the potential use of this industrial residue as agricultural fertilizer.

Characterization and treatment of sisal fiber residues for cement-based composite application

Lima,Paulo R. L.; Santos,Rogério J.; Ferreira,Saulo R.; Toledo Filho,Romildo D.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
Sisal fiber is an important agricultural product used in the manufacture of ropes, rugs and also as a reinforcement of polymeric or cement-based composites. However, during the fiber production process a large amount of residues is generated which currently have a low potential for commercial use. The aim of this study is to characterize the agricultural residues by the production and improvement of sisal fiber, called field bush and refugo and verify the potentiality of their use in the reinforcement of cement-based composites. The residues were treated with wet-dry cycles and evaluated using tensile testing of fibers, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Compatibility with the cement-based matrix was evaluated through the fiber pull-out test and flexural test in composites reinforced with 2 % of sisal residues. The results indicate that the use of treated residue allows the production of composites with good mechanical properties that are superior to the traditional composites reinforced with natural sisal fibers.

PREPARING AGRICULTURAL RESIDUE BASED ADSORBENTS FOR REMOVAL OF DYES FROM EFFLUENTS - A REVIEW

Kharat,D. S.
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering Publicador: Brazilian Society of Chemical Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
Abstract Industries engaged in dyeing operation generate coloured effluent due to the presence of spent dyes. Adsorption is among the various treatment processes employed for removal of dyes from effluents. Activated carbon is mostly used as an adsorbent in the treatment process. Attempts have been made by researchers to use non-conventional, low-cost, naturally-occurring biomass as adsorbents, including fruit peals, seeds, leaves, bark, sawdust, straw, ash, sludge and others that are abundantly available. The literature indicates that the dye adsorption capacities of these non-conventional biomasses largely depend on the methods of processing and the types of dyes. This review highlights methods used to prepare the adsorbents, along with their adsorption capacity for removal of different dyes from effluents.

Valorization of rice straw waste: an alternative ceramic raw material

Guzmán A,Á.; Delvasto A,S.; Sánchez V,E.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Cerâmica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Cerâmica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.95%
In the production of rice a large amount of solid residue is produced, for which alternative utilizations are scarce or are not commonly applied in industry. Rice straw (RS) is a waste product of rice harvest that is generated in equal or greater quantities than the rice itself. RS is frequently burned in open air, which makes it a significant source of pollution. In the search for possible uses of RS, it should be noted that its ash (RSA) is particularly rich in silica, alkaline and alkaline earth metals and may be used as a source of alkalis and silica for the production of triaxial ceramics. The present research work proposes the production of a ceramic raw material from RS for its use in the fabrication of ceramic materials for the construction industry. Based on the chemical and mineralogical composition of RSA created under different thermal conditions, the most suitable RSA for this purpose was that obtained from treating RS at a temperature of 800 ºC for a time of 2 h. The resulting RSA presented high contents of SiO2 (79.62%), alkaline oxides (K2O) (10.53%) and alkaline earth oxides (CaO) (2.80%). It is concluded that RSA is a new alternative ceramic raw material that can be used as a replacement for the fluxing (mainly feldspar) and inert (quartz) materials that are used in the production of triaxial ceramics.

Agricultural recycling of biodigested vinasse for lettuce production

Ueno,Camila Roberta Javorski; Costa,Antonio Carlos Saraiva da; Gimenes,Marcelino Luiz; Zanin,Gisella Maria
Fonte: Instituto de Pesquisas Ambientais em Bacias Hidrográficas Publicador: Instituto de Pesquisas Ambientais em Bacias Hidrográficas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
The agricultural use of waste products represents an interesting alternative for nutrient cycling. Biodigested vinasse, the final waste product of vinasse biodigestion and biogas production, can be reused for agricultural purposes. The present work sought to quantify the shoot dry mass production of lettuce plants, as well as foliar nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content following the application of biodigested vinasse on soil. Biodigested vinasse was produced from anaerobic vinasse digestion, using anaerobic sludge as a source of microorganisms. The treatments, with four replications in entirely randomized design, consisted of anaerobic sludge from a gelatin factory, vinasse in natura, biodigested vinasse and a control treatment. The experiment was conducted over 45 days using 5 L vases and applying a dose equivalent to 150 m³ ha-1. Lettuce treated with biodigested vinasse showed higher shoot dry mass production and higher accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in its leaves than that treated with vinasse in natura.

Weed population under different amounts of sugarcane straw in São Paulo State, Brazil.

RAMOS, N. P.; PACKER, A. P. C.; VIEIRA, H. B.; MORICONI, W.; ASSIS, M. C. de; ROSSETTO, R.
Fonte: In: INTERNATIONAL SUGAR CONFERENCE, 4., 2011. Nova Delhi. Balancing sugar and energy production in developing countries: sustainable technologies and marketing strategies. Proceedings... Nova Delhi: IAPSIT, 2011. p. 127-129. Publicador: In: INTERNATIONAL SUGAR CONFERENCE, 4., 2011. Nova Delhi. Balancing sugar and energy production in developing countries: sustainable technologies and marketing strategies. Proceedings... Nova Delhi: IAPSIT, 2011. p. 127-129.
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE)
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.95%
Abstract: Maintenance of the straws on the soil surface has been proved essential for environrnental quality of the sugarcane productive system in Brazil. However, this practice requires changes in the current management systems used around the country. This requires the use of tolerant varieties to the presence of straw residue on the soil surface, improvement in fertilization process, and also pest, disease and weeds control. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the incidence of weed populations in the sugarcane cultivation under different levels of straw, in order to support possible changes in the management of these plants. Treatments were based on five levels of straw left on the soil surface at harvest, as follows: 0% - 25% - 50% - 75% - 100%, arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. The weeds evaluation was performed using the square method randomly thrown on the floor throughout the experiment area, reaching a total of ten samples per plot. This method was used to determine the density (plants/m2) and absolute frequency (%) of the predominant species individuais in three assessments (34, 106 and 177 days after harvesting). It was observed the predominance of the species Cyperus rotundus L. and Cynodon dactylon L. Pers. independently of treatments applied. At 34 days after harvest Cyperus rotundus was the more frequent weed in the treatments with low and no straw respectively...

Extração e caracterização de nanocristais de celulose a partir de folhas de abacaxi

Santos, Roni Marcos dos
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia Publicador: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
A folha do abacaxi (PL) é um resíduo agrícola com produção anual e disponível em abundância, visto que em 2011 foram produzidas aproximadamente três milhões de toneladas, sendo utilizado muito raramente, tem atualmente um baixo valor comercial. Portanto, este resíduo agrícola merece ser melhor e/ou usado corretamente. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de explorar a PL, como fonte de matéria prima para a produção de nanocristais de celulose (CN). Os CN foram extraídos por meio de hidrólise ácida, a 45 °C durante 5, 30 e 60 minutos, utilizando-se 20 mL de H2SO4 (9,17 M) para cada grama de fibra de celulose purificada obtida da PL. Os CN resultantes foram caracterizados por índice de cristalinidade, morfologia (forma e tamanho), e estabilidade térmica. Entre as condições de hidrólise realizadas, o melhor tempo de extração foi de 30 minutos, com rendimento de 65%. Neste tempo de extração, os CN apresentaram-se em forma de agulha, estabilidade térmica elevada (225 °C) quando comparada a temperatura de processamento dos termoplásticos (cerca de 200 °C), elevada cristalinidade (87,3%) em relação à NC de outras fontes celulósicas oriunda de resíduos agrícolas (por exemplo, a casca de soja 73,5%), um comprimento médio (L) de 249...

New agricultural practices in the Loess Plateau of China do not reduce colonisation by arbuscular mycorrhizal or root invading fungi and do not carry a yield penalty

Duan, T.; Shen, Y.; Facelli, E.; Smith, S.; Nan, Z.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
Agricultural practices aimed to reduce soil erosion and improve crop yield have been suggested to influence the activity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and root pathogenic fungi. We conducted a two-year field survey to investigate the effect of recently introduced agricultural practices on crop yield, AM colonisation and percentage isolation of root-invading fungi on the heavily eroded Loess Plateau of China. A rotation of maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) replaced monoculture of winter wheat. No-tillage (NT), and return of previous crop residues to the field in tilled (CTR) and non-tilled (NTR) systems replaced conventional tillage (CT). Yield, biomass and phosphorus content of the crops showed similar trends. Residue application increased yields of maize and soybean independent of tillage treatment in 2004, but only under CT in 2005. CT slightly increased maize yield. Neither residue application nor tillage treatment affected yield of wheat. None of the treatments influenced total percent isolation of root-invading fungi from wheat roots. The increase of some individual pathogenic fungi in NT did not translate into reduction of yield by disease. Importantly, the recommended practices did not have a penalty on yield while maintaining high levels of AM colonisation.; Tingyu Duan...

Carbon Sequestration in Agricultural Soils

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
The purpose of this report is to improve the knowledge base for facilitating investments in land management technologies that sequester soil organic carbon. While there are many studies on soil carbon sequestration, there is no single unifying volume that synthesizes knowledge on the impact of different land management practices on soil carbon sequestration rates across the world. A meta-analysis was carried out to provide soil carbon sequestration rates in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This is one important element in decision-making for sustainable agricultural intensification, agro-ecosystems resilience, and comprehensive assessments of greenhouse mitigation potentials of Sustainable Land Management (SLM) practices. Furthermore, the ecosystem simulation modeling technique was used to predict future carbon storage in global cropland soils. Last, marginal abatement cost curves and trade-off graphs were used to assess the cost-effectiveness of the technologies in carbon sequestration. The remainder of the report is organized as follows. Chapter two provides a brief review of soil organic carbon dynamics and the methods for soil carbon assessment. The chapter concludes with brief information on carbon assessment in The World Bank's sustainable land management projects portfolio. Chapter three reports the increase in soil carbon for selected sustainable land management practices in Africa...

Restoring Balance : Bangladesh's Rural Energy Realities

Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.19%
Bangladesh is one of the world's poorest countries. Nearly 80 percent of the nation's 140 million people reside in rural areas; of these, 20 percent live in extreme poverty. Geographically, many low-lying areas are vulnerable to severe flooding, while other regions are prone to drought, erosion, and soil salinity. Such an unfavorable agricultural landscape, combined with mismanagement of natural resources and increasing population pressure, is pushing many of the rural poor to the brink. Because Bangladesh is such a poor country, it also is one of the world's lowest energy producers. Total annual energy supply is only about 150 liters of oil equivalent per capita (International Energy Agency, or IEA 2003); in rural areas, conditions are even worse. Compared to other developing countries, Bangladesh uses little modern energy. Despite its successful rural electrification program, close to two-thirds of households remain without electricity and, with the exception of kerosene, commercial fuels are beyond reach for many. Moreover...

The Effect of Product Standards on Agricultural Exports from Developing Countries

Ferro, Esteban; Wilson, John S.; Otsuki, Tsunehiro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
The authors create a standards restrictiveness index using newly available data on maximum residue levels of pesticides for 61 importing countries. The paper analyzes the impact that food safety standards have on international trade of agricultural products. The findings suggest that more restrictive standards are associated, on average, with a lower probability of observing trade. However, after controlling for sample selection and the proportion of exporting firms in a gravity model, the analysis finds that the effect of standards on trade intensity is indistinguishable from zero. This is consistent with the assumption that meeting stringent standards increases primarily the fixed costs of exporting. Once firms enter the market, however, standards do not impact the level of exports. The analysis also finds a greater marginal effect of BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) standards on the probability of trade, relative to other countries' standards, keeping in mind however that on average BRICS standards are less restrictive. The analysis also suggests that exporters in low-income countries are more adversely affected by stricter standards.

Bioenergy Development : Issues and Impacts for Poverty and Natural Resource Management

Cushion, Elizabeth; Whiteman, Adrian; Dieterle, Gerhard
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
These report overviews recent developments in the consumption and production of bioenergy. It examines the main issues and possible economic implications of these developments and assesses their potential impact on land use and the environment, especially with respect to forests. The report examines both solid biomass and liquid biofuels, identifying opportunities and challenges at the regional and country levels. The development of bioenergy presents both opportunities and challenges for economic development and the environment. It is likely to have significant impacts on the forest sector, directly, through the use of wood for energy production, and indirectly, as a result of changes in land use. The impact of bioenergy on poverty alleviation in developing countries will depend on the opportunities for agricultural development, including income and employment generation, the potential to increase poor peoples' access to improved types of bioenergy; and the effects on energy and food prices. Five main messages emerge from this report: solid biomass will continue to be a principal source of energy; developments in bioenergy will have major implications for land use; tradeoffs...

Global bioenergy potential from high-lignin agricultural residue

Mendu, Venugopal; Shearin, Tom; Campbell, J. Elliott; Stork, Jozsef; Jae, Jungho; Crocker, Mark; Huber, George; DeBolt, Seth
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.96%
Almost one-quarter of the world's population has basic energy needs that are not being met. Efforts to increase renewable energy resources in developing countries where per capita energy availability is low are needed. Herein, we examine integrated dual use farming for sustained food security and agro-bioenergy development. Many nonedible crop residues are used for animal feed or reincorporated into the soil to maintain fertility. By contrast, drupe endocarp biomass represents a high-lignin feedstock that is a waste stream from food crops, such as coconut (Cocos nucifera) shell, which is nonedible, not of use for livestock feed, and not reintegrated into soil in an agricultural setting. Because of high-lignin content, endocarp biomass has optimal energy-to-weight returns, applicable to small-scale gasification for bioelectricity. Using spatial datasets for 12 principal drupe commodity groups that have notable endocarp byproduct, we examine both their potential energy contribution by decentralized gasification and relationship to regions of energy poverty. Globally, between 24 million and 31 million tons of drupe endocarp biomass is available per year, primarily driven by coconut production. Endocarp biomass used in small-scale decentralized gasification systems (15–40% efficiency) could contribute to the total energy requirement of several countries...