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Poverty Decline, Agricultural Wages, and Non-Farm Employment in Rural India 1983–2004

Lanjouw, Peter; Murgai, Rinku
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.62%
The authors analyze five rounds of National Sample Survey data covering 1983, 1987/8, 1993/4, 1999/0, and 2004/5 to explore the relationship between rural diversification and poverty. Poverty in rural India declined at a modest rate during this period. The authors provide region-level estimates that illustrate considerable geographic heterogeneity in this progress. Poverty estimates correlate well with region-level data on changes in agricultural wage rates. Agricultural labor remains the preserve of the uneducated and also to a large extent of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Although agricultural labor grew as a share of total economic activity over the first four rounds, it had fallen back to the levels observed at the beginning of the survey period by 2004. This all-India trajectory masks widely varying trends across states. During this period, the rural non-farm sector grew modestly, mainly between the last two survey rounds. Regular non-farm employment remains largely associated with education levels and social status that are rare among the poor. However...

Do Overlapping Property Rights Reduce Agricultural Investment? Evidence from Uganda

Deininger, Klaus; Ali, Daniel Ayalew
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.53%
The need for land-related investment to ensure sustainable land management and increase productivity of land use is widely recognized. However, there is little rigorous evidence on the effects of property rights for increasing agricultural productivity and contributing toward poverty reduction in Africa. Whether and by how much overlapping property rights reduce investment incentives, and the scope for policies to counter such disincentives, are thus important policy issues. Using information on parcels under ownership and usufruct by the same household from a nationally representative survey in Uganda, the authors find significant disincentives associated with overlapping property rights on short and long-term investments. The paper combines this result with information on crop productivity to obtain a rough estimate of the magnitudes involved. The authors make suggestions on ways to eliminate such inefficiencies.

Finance and Hunger : Empirical Evidence of the Agricultural Productivity Channel

Claessens, Stijn; Feijen, Erik
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.61%
Using cross-country and panel regressions, the authors show that financial sector development significantly reduces undernourishment (hunger), largely through gaining farmers and others access to productivity-enhancing equipment, translating into beneficial income and general effects. They show specifically that a deeper financial sector leads to higher agricultural productivity, including higher cereal yields, through increased fertilizer and tractor use. Higher productivity in turn leads to lower undernourishment. The results are robust to various specifications and econometric tests and imply that a 1 percentage point increase in private credit to GDP reduces undernourishment by 0.22-2.45 percentage points, or about one-quarter the impact of GDP per capita.

How Endowments, Accumulations, and Choice Determine the Geography of Agricultural Productivity in Ecuador

Larson, Donald F.; Leon, Mauricio
Fonte: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.61%
Spatial disparity in incomes and productivity is apparent across and within countries. Most studies of the determinants of such differences focus on cross-country comparisons or location choice among firms. Less studied are the large differences in agricultural productivity within countries related to concentrations of rural poverty. For policy, understanding the determinants of this geography of agricultural productivity is important, because strategies to reduce poverty often feature components designed to boost regional agricultural incomes. Census and endowment data for Ecuador are used to estimate a model of endogenous technology choice to explain large regional differences in agricultural output and factor productivity. A composite-error estimation technique is used to separate systemic determinants from idiosyncratic differences. Simulations are employed to explore policy avenues. The findings suggest a differentiation between the types of policies that promote growth in agriculture generally and those that are more likely to assist the rural poor.

Decomposition of Gender Differentials in Agricultural Productivity in Ethiopia

Aguilar, Arturo; Carranza, Eliana; Goldstein, Markus; Kilic, Talip; Oseni, Gbemisola
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.6%
This paper employs decomposition methods to analyze differences in agricultural productivity between male and female land managers in Ethiopia. It employs data from the 2011-2012 Ethiopian Rural Socioeconomic Survey. An overall 23.4 percent gender differential in agricultural productivity is estimated at the mean in favor of male land managers, of which 10.1 percentage points are explained by differences in land manager characteristics, land attributes, and unequal access to resources (the endowment effect). The remaining 13.4 percentage points are explained by unequal returns to productive components, but cannot be easily tied to specific covariates. These results are mainly driven by non-married female managers (mainly single and divorced). Married female managers do not display such disadvantages. Further analysis along the productivity distribution reveals that gender differentials are more pronounced at mid-levels of productivity and that the share of the gender gap explained by the endowment effect declines as productivity increases. Detailed decomposition of estimates at selected points of the agricultural productivity distribution provides valuable information for policy intervention purposes.

The Kyrgyz Republic : Farm Mechanization and Agricultural Productivity

Guadagni, Maurizio; Fileccia, Turi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC and FAO, Rome Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC and FAO, Rome
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.57%
This policy note reviewed the status of farm machinery in the Kyrgyz Republic. Agricultural productivity, particularly in terms of grain yields, is low because of underinvestment. This note finds that a significant deficit in agricultural machinery is hindering sector productivity. The Kyrgyz Republic has fewer tractors per hectare than any comparable country, with a deficit estimated at 40 percent. The deficit of combine harvesters, estimated at 45 percent, is even more critical. When the age of agricultural machinery is taken into account, the underinvestment becomes even more acute. The reduced domestic production of wheat exacerbates food security concerns. Inadequate access to credit and small farm size are the main factors that constrain farm mechanization. The policy note presents three sets of short- to medium-term policy options to: i) promote the demand for farm machinery, by developing credit lines for agricultural productive assets, leasing, facilitating access to secondhand equipment, and testing/demonstrating the efficiency of farm machinery for small-scale farming; ii) increase the supply of farm machinery...

How to Assess Agricultural Water Productivity? Looking for Water in the Agricultural Productivity and Efficiency Literature

Scheierling, Susanne M.; Treguer, David O.; Booker, James F.; Decker, Elisabeth
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.63%
Given population and income growth, it is widely expected that the agricultural sector will have to expand the use of water for irrigation to meet rising food demand; at the same time, the competition for water resources is growing in many regions. As a response, it is increasingly recommended that efforts should focus on improving water productivity in agriculture, and significant public and private investments are being made with this goal in mind. Yet most public communications are vague on the meaning of agricultural water productivity, and on what should be done to improve it. They also tend to emphasize water as if it were the only input that mattered. This paper presents findings from a first attempt to survey the agricultural productivity and efficiency literature with regard to the explicit inclusion of water aspects in productivity and efficiency measurements, with the aim of contributing to the discussion on how to assess and possibly improve agricultural water productivity. The focus is on studies applying single-factor productivity measures...

Can Agricultural Households Farm Their Way Out of Poverty?

Oseni, Gbemisola; McGee, Kevin; Dabalen, Andrew
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.66%
This paper examines the determinants of agricultural productivity and its link to poverty using nationally representative data from the Nigeria General Household Survey Panel, 2010/11. The findings indicate an elasticity of poverty reduction with respect to agricultural productivity of between 0.25 to 0.3 percent, implying that a 10 percent increase in agricultural productivity will decrease the likelihood of being poor by between 2.5 and 3 percent. To increase agricultural productivity, land, labor, fertilizer, agricultural advice, and diversification within agriculture are the most important factors. As commonly found in the literature, the results indicate the inverse-land size productivity relationship. More specifically, a 10 percent increase in harvested land size will decrease productivity by 6.6 percent, all else being equal. In a simulation exercise where land quality is assumed to be constant across small and large holdings, the results show that if farms in the top land quintile had half the median yield per hectare of farms in the lowest quintile...

Investigating the Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity

Ali, Daniel; Bowen, Derick; Deininger, Klaus; Duponchel, Marguerite
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.57%
Women comprise 50 percent of the agricultural labor force in Sub-Saharan Africa, but manage plots that are reportedly on average 20 to 30 percent less productive. As a source of income inequality and aggregate productivity loss, the country-specific magnitude and drivers of this gender gap are of great interest. Using national data from the Uganda National Panel Survey for 2009/10 and 2010/11, the gap before controlling for endowments was estimated to be 17.5 percent. Panel data methods were combined with an Oaxaca decomposition to investigate the gender differences in resource endowment and return to endowment driving this gap. Although men have greater access to inputs, input use is so low and inverse returns to plot size so strong in Uganda that smaller female-managed plots have a net endowment advantage of 12 percent, revealing a larger unexplained gap of 29.5 percent. Two-fifths of this unexplained gap is attributed to differential returns to the child dependency ratio and one-fifth to differential returns to transport access...

Helping Africa Feed Itself Increasing Agricultural Productivity for Poverty Reduction

Silvers, Brooke
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.57%
This report seeks to identify the role Australian aid can play in promoting agricultural productivity in Africa. Agriculture is central to Africa's development, stability and prosperity. However for many years, it has been neglected by African Governments and the international community alike. As the rest of the world experienced immense agricultural growth, Africa has lagged behind, stunted by the lack of technological advancements, infrastructure, and inadequate irrigation and fertilizer availability. Negative annual crop growth rates and increasing population have contributed to Africa's embedded poverty and severe food insecurity. Furthermore if predictions are correct, not only will Africa fail to meet the Millennium Development Goals by 2015, its the incidence of poverty and food scarcity will also increase. The myriad of literature on Africa's development unanimously draws correlations between increased agricultural productivity and decreased poverty, particularly in rural areas where poverty and deprivation are most severe. Agriculture has the potential to increase employment opportunities for rural and non-rural industries, connect smallholder farmers to market value chains, increase smallholder profitability and sustainability and lower the price of food for those who produce and consume it. Focusing on enhancing agricultural production for Africa's development presents unique opportunities for Australia's aid program. Even though Australia is a relatively small donor in Africa...

Republic of India : Accelerating Agricultural Productivity Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.66%
In the past 50 years, Indian agriculture has undergone a major transformation, from dependence on food aid to becoming a consistent net food exporter. The gradual reforms in the agricultural sector (following the broader macro-reforms of the early 1990s) spurred some unprecedented innovations and changes in the food sector driven by private investment. These impressive achievements must now be viewed in light of the policy and investment imperatives that lie ahead. Agricultural growth has improved in recent years (averaging about 3.5 percent since 2004-05), but at a long-term trend rate of growth of 3 percent, agriculture has underperformed relative to its potential. The pockets of post-reform dynamism that have emerged evidently have not reached a sufficiently large scale to influence the sector's performance. For the vast population that still derives a living directly or indirectly from agriculture, achieving "faster, more inclusive, and sustainable growth', the objectives at the heart of the Twelfth five year plan...

Poverty Impacts of Improved Agricultural Productivity: Opportunities for Genetically Modified Crops; AgBioForum

Ivanic, Maros; Martin, Will
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.56%
Constraints on land and water resources, growth in population, and an apparent slowdown in agricultural productivity raise concerns that food prices may rise substantially in the coming decades. A key question is whether policies aimed at increasing agricultural productivity may be effective in reversing the long-run trend and bringing about significant reductions in food prices. This article uses a global general equilibrium model and a set of microeconomic household models for a sample of 26 developing countries to assess potential implications of higher agricultural productivity--such as through the adoption of genetically modified plants--for household incomes, farmer profits, and poverty. Higher agricultural productivity resulting from increased investments in research and development is found capable of significantly lowering poverty by lowering the cost of consumption of the poorest households without significantly hurting farmers' returns. We also found that raising agricultural productivity among the developing countries only is sufficient to achieve most poverty reduction in the global scenario.

Improving Agricultural Productivity and Market Efficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean : How ICTs Can Make a Difference?

Goyal, Aparajita; González-Velosa, Carolina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.57%
Agricultural growth rates in the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region have been much slower than the rest of the developing world. In the regions of East Asia, South Asia and Middle East and North Africa, the annual growth of agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 1980-2004 exceeded 3 percent, while growth in Sub- Saharan Africa averaged almost 3 percent. This paper attempts to present an overview of the agricultural sector in LAC, discuss its distinctive features, and the potential role of Information and Communication Technology's (ICTs) in improving agricultural productivity and market efficiency in this region. The discussion in this paper will refer to the evidence provided by studies that evaluate the impact of ICTs interventions. While the emphasis will be put on the studies that evaluate interventions in the LAC region, there will also be references to studies in other developing economies whenever these are pertinent to the LAC context. The commercialization of agricultural products has suffered important transformations in recent decades...

Republic of India : Accelerating Agricultural Productivity Growth

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.66%
In the past 50 years, Indian agriculture has undergone a major transformation, from dependence on food aid to becoming a consistent net food exporter. The gradual reforms in the agricultural sector (following the broader macro-reforms of the early 1990s) spurred some unprecedented innovations and changes in the food sector driven by private investment. These impressive achievements must now be viewed in light of the policy and investment imperatives that lie ahead. Agricultural growth has improved in recent years (averaging about 3.5 percent since 2004-05), but at a long-term trend rate of growth of 3 percent, agriculture has underperformed relative to its potential. The pockets of post-reform dynamism that have emerged evidently have not reached a sufficiently large scale to influence the sector's performance. For the vast population that still derives a living directly or indirectly from agriculture, achieving "faster, more inclusive, and sustainable growth', the objectives at the heart of the Twelfth five year plan...

Moving off the Farm : Land Institutions to Facilitate Structural Transformation and Agricultural Productivity Growth in China

Deininger, Klaus; Jin, Songqing; Xia, Fang
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.65%
Agriculture has made major contributions to China's economic growth and poverty reduction, but the literature has rarely focused on the institutional factors that might underpin such structural transformation and productivity. This paper aims to fill that gap. Drawing on an 8-year panel of 1,200 households in six key provinces, it explores the impact of government land reallocations and formal land-use certificates on agricultural productivity growth, as well as the likelihood of households to exit from agriculture or send family members to the non-farm sector. It finds that land tenure insecurity, measured by the history of past land reallocations, discourages households from quitting agriculture. The recognition of land rights through formal certificates encourages the temporary migration of rural labor. Both factors have a large impact on productivity (at about 30 percent each), mainly by encouraging market-based land transfers. A sustained increase in non-agricultural opportunities will likely reinforce the importance of secure land tenure...

Agricultural Productivity, Hired Labor, Wages and Poverty : Evidence from Bangladesh

Emran, Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.67%
This paper provides evidence on the effects of agricultural productivity on wage rates, labor supply to market oriented activities, and labor allocation between own farming and wage labor in agriculture. To guide the empirical work, this paper develops a general equilibrium model that underscores the role of reallocation of family labor engaged in the production of non-marketed services at home (`home production'). The model predicts positive effects of a favorable agricultural productivity shock on wages and income, but the effect on hired labor is ambiguous; it depends on the strength of reallocation of labor from home to market production by labor surplus and deficit households. Taking rainfall variations as a measure of shock to agricultural productivity, and using subdistrict level panel data from Bangladesh, this paper finds significant positive effects of a favorable rainfall shock on agricultural wages, labor supply to market work, and per capita household expenditure. The share of hired labor in contrast declines substantially in response to a favorable productivity shock...

Belarus Agricultural Productivity and Competitiveness : Impact of State Support and Market Intervention

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.63%
Productivity in Belarus' agricultural sector has improved considerably, but large parts of crop and livestock production are not internationally competitive. The state's regulatory and fiscal support system for agriculture has been instrumental in improving the sector's performance. But the massive distortions to agricultural incentives it creates to prevent the sector from reaching its full potential. And the high costs it causes to state budget may be difficult to sustain in view if shrinking fiscal space. Agricultural sector efficiency and competitiveness in Belarus can be increased by re-orienting the sectoral policy framework towards less distortive measures and reallocating associated budget expenditures to support sustainable agricultural growth. Assistance program could be provided to buffer against structural adjustment shocks. The government will thus achieve its sectoral goals to a higher degree, without compromising on other important policy areas such as food security and rural livelihoods...

Mongolia Agricultural Productivity and Marketing

Rasmussen, Debra; Annor-Frempong, Charles
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agriculture Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.57%
Mongolia’s ongoing economic transition generates levels of uncertainty that often inhibit investments in productivity and marketing improvements on the part of producers and processors. This study was undertaken to identify gaps in policies, laws, regulations, and practices from production to the consumer end point, and to stimulate discussions about how to leverage the agriculture sector’s potential contributions to national development objectives.

VARIABILIDADE DA PRECIPITAÇÃO E PRODUTIVIDADE AGRÍCOLA NA REGIÃO DO MEDIO PARANAPANEMA, SP; RAINFALL VARIABILITY AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY, IN THE (MÉDIO PARANAPANEMA), SP

Fernanda da Silva, Daniela; Unesp; Prela-Pantano, Angélica; Instituto Agronômico de Campinas; Lima Sant’ Anna Neto, João; Unesp
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/05/2011 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.39%
The climatic elements mainly rainfall in tropical countries, is show how essentialinputs for agricultural productivity, and the social importance, political andeconomic. The region of study (Medio Paranapanema), is located in thesouthwest of state, is a range of climates transitional zone, characterized bygreater inter irregularity of rain. In this regard, this research aims to show the role of climatic variables, notably the phenomenon rainwater, as part of theregulatory agricultural productivity. The universe of analysis chosen covers 12cities in the Medio Paranapanema. The analysis was based data from agriculturalproduction, referring to the years from 1983 to 2000 (IEA). Information onrainfall are concerning the same period and were collected along the network ofDAEE / SP and IAC. It was observed that the cultures practised for agribusinessin the region (sugar cane) proved to be less subject to variations pluviometricsthan the traditional crops produced by small and medium producers, as cornand soybeans, showing that the degree of modernisation of agriculture, toincorporate the income gap as climatic influences of the earth, gives greaterprotection and greater chance of success in the seasons, even though theinvestment for such actions (adapted cultivars...

Determinants of labour productivity convergence in the european agricultural sector

Cuerva,María Carmen
Fonte: Colegio de Postgraduados Publicador: Colegio de Postgraduados
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.58%
The EU agriculture, in spite of the market integration process, shows important differences in terms of productivity and efficiency. It is thus important to determine whether there is a convergence process in agricultural productivity and what factors would explain the observed disparities. To respond to these two questions, the dynamic of the agricultural labour productivity of 125 EU regions was analysed. The methodology was an estimation of the convergence equation with cross-section data for the period 1985-2004. The results showed that there is a very slow process of absolute convergence in productivity among the EU agricultures. Besides, productivity growth is related to agricultural out-migration and higher levels of physical capital. On the contrary, Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) support to the agricultural sector does not seem to have contributed to the productivity growth.