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Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries

Aksoy, M. Ataman; Beghin, John C.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
This book explores the outstanding issues in global agricultural trade policy and evolving world production and trade patterns. Its coverage of agricultural trade issues ranges from the details of cross-cutting policy issues to the highly distorted agricultural trade regimes of industrial countries and detailed studies of agricultural commodities of economic importance to many developing countries. The book brings together the background issues and findings to guide researchers and policymakers in their global negotiations and domestic policies on agriculture. The book also explores the key questions for global agricultural policies, both the impacts of current trade regimes and the implications of reform. It complements the recent agricultural trade handbook that focuses primarily on the agricultural issues within the context of the World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations (Ingco and Nash 2004).

Aligning Climate Change Mitigation and Agricultural Policies in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Larson, Donald F.; Dinar, Ariel; Blankespoor, Brian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.49%
Greenhouse gas emissions are largely determined by how energy is created and used, and policies designed to encourage mitigation efforts reflect this reality. However, an unintended consequence of an energy-focused strategy is that the set of policy instruments needed to tap mitigation opportunities in agriculture is incomplete. In particular, market-linked incentives to achieve mitigation targets are disconnected from efforts to better manage carbon sequestered in agricultural land. This is especially important for many countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia where once-productive land has been degraded through poor agricultural practices. Often good agricultural policies and prudent natural resource management can compensate for missing links to mitigation incentives, but only partially. At the same time, two international project-based programs, Joint Implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism, have been used to finance other types of agricultural mitigation efforts worldwide. Even so, a review of projects suggests that few countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia take full advantage of these financing paths. This paper discusses mitigation opportunities in the region, the reach of current mitigation incentives...

How Much Do Agricultural Policies Restrict Trade? Comparing Trade Restrictiveness Indexes

Anderson, Kym; Croser, Johanna
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.35%
Recently the Bank has provided new indicators for monitoring the extent to which agricultural policies restrict international trade in farm goods. They come from two studies with differing methodologies and data sources, and each provides less-than-perfect estimates. This note shows how and explains why the two indexes differ for some countries.

Sri Lanka : Promoting Agricultural and Rural Non-farm Sector Growth, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
Economic development has brought about, the decline in contribution of the agricultural sector to the economy of Sri Lanka, and, consistent with this economic transformation, the structure of employment also changed. Thus, as labor migrates away from agriculture, the productivity, for those who remain in the land, needs to increase significantly. This report examines the constraints to promoting more rapid agricultural, and rural non-farm sector growth, and, reviews the recent performance of the agricultural, and rural non-farm sectors, in particular the non-plantation agricultural sector; scrutinizes the major policy, and regulatory barriers, that hinder a sustained growth in rural areas; and, proposes options for improvement in the key areas. A critical step to achieve this sector growth, and meet the changing demands of the overall economy, is the need to formulate, and implement a renewed rural development strategy, that builds on synergies in the agricultural, and non-farm sectors. This integrated rural development framework becomes an instrument that can complement a sustained growth in the non-farm sector...

Political Economy of Public Policies : Insights from Distortions to Agricultural and Food Markets

Anderson, Kym; Rausser, Gordon; Swinnen, Johan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.53%
The agricultural and food sector is an ideal case for investigating the political economy of public policies. Many of the policy developments in this sector since the 1950s have been sudden and transformational, while others have been gradual but persistent. This paper reviews and synthesizes the literature on trends and fluctuations in market distortions and the political-economy explanations that have been advanced. Based on a rich global data set covering a half-century of evidence on commodities, countries, and policy instruments, the paper identifies hypotheses that have been explored in the literature on the extent of market distortions and the conditions under which reform may be feasible.

Uzbekistan : Strengthening the Horticulture Value Chain

Larson, Donald F.; Khidirov, Dilshod; Ramniceanu, Irina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
Why produce a policy note on horticulture in Uzbekistan? There are several answers to this existential question, although they are not necessarily obvious ones. Agriculture, taken as a whole, constitutes a small and declining share of Uzbekistan s national income, and horticulture is a small share of agricultural income. Even so, it is an important source of income for the 4.7 million households that operate dehkan farms in rural and disproportionally poor communities. Horticultural products are grown on an additional 21 thousand larger private farms as well. Evidence in this note suggests that growing fruit and vegetables is among the most profitable activities on both dehkan and private farms and, over the last ten years, the incomes those activities generate comprised a growing share of national GDP. Horticultural export earnings have also surged in recent years, growing from USD 373 million in 2006 to USD 1.16 billion in 2010. Uzbekistan has special agro-ecological conditions that set it apart from most countries and provides the basis for its horticulture subsector. Like agriculture as a whole...

Linking agricultural policies with obesity and noncommunicable diseases: a new perspective for a globalising world

Hawkes, Corrina; Friel, Sharon; Lobstein, Tim; Lang, Tim
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 11 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.31%
In light of the shift in policy paradigm in agriculture from state intervention to market liberalisation and globalisation, this paper develops a series of hypotheses on the relationship between agricultural policies and consumer diets. The first hypothesis is that the paradigm shift has led to greater specialisation of production, so changing the ability and incentive for producers to supply certain foods relative to others. Second, the shift has affected farmgate prices (both up and down), so creating opportunities for the industries which purchase farm commodities (the food consuming industries – FCIs) to substitute lower priced ingredients, thereby influencing the nutritional quality and content of foods available in the marketplace. Third, it has increased the ability of the FCIs to “add value” through product innovation and marketing, creating a market characterised by highly differentiated products targeted to individualised preferences, thus increasing the acceptability of a wider variety and quantity of food products. The changing agricultural policy paradigm has therefore altered the environment in which consumers make their food choices, in the form of food availability, affordability and acceptability. Nevertheless...

An empirical analysis of global agricultural price distorting policies: 1960 to 2007.

Croser, Johanna Louise
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.52%
Economists have long been interested in measuring the extent, effects and causes of agricultural price and trade policies. The topic has drawn attention because agricultural trade between countries has almost never been free, and yet it is widely accepted that trade policy distortions affect the incentives of producers and consumers and cause a redistribution of resource use in the economy. Traditional aggregations of agricultural price and trade distortions can be poor guides to the economic effects of agricultural price and trade policies. Measures without theoretical foundation — such as simple- or trade-weighted average price distortions — may introduce biases in analysis. Recent decades have seen improvements in aggregation theory in the form of scalar index numbers of the trade- and welfare-reducing effects of price and trade policies. Despite the new theory, however, analysts have continued to use less satisfactory measures in practice. This thesis calculates partial-equilibrium versions of trade restrictiveness indices from the Anderson-Neary family of indices for agricultural policy distortions in 75 developed and developing countries over a period 1960 to 2007. The data for the empirical work are from the recently released World Bank Distortions to Agricultural Incentives database. The thesis calculates indices at the country level for the sample countries. Two partial-equilibrium indices are calculated — a Trade Reduction Index (TRI) and a Welfare Reduction Index (WRI).¹ The TRI (WRI) is the uniform trade tax that yields the same loss in trade volume (welfare) as the structure of disaggregated distortions. The results of the country-level estimates show that standard weighted averages of price distortions understate the extent of global distortion from agricultural policies. One manuscript of the thesis focuses in particular on the trade restrictiveness of agricultural policy in Sub-Sahara Africa...

Review of Malaysian agricultural policies with regards to sustainability

Murad, Wahid; Mustapha, Nik Hashim Nik; Siwar, Chamhuri
Fonte: Science Publications Publicador: Science Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.41%
The new scientific knowledge coupled with concerns for the environmental, economic and social aspects of agriculture brought Malaysian agriculture into a state of transition. The need for reviewing Malaysian agricultural policies has arisen due to that fact that current agricultural practices in the country are found to be related to environmental, economic and social problems. This study is an effort to review the current Malaysian agricultural policies with regards to sustainability. The Third National Agricultural Policy (3NAP), which is the latest one and relevant secondary materials have primarily been reviewed to substantiate our arguments in this paper. The study, however, argues that the latest Malaysian agricultural policies are compatible with the standards of sustainable agriculture, but the current agricultural practices in the country differ, to some extent, from sustainability principles. The study ends up with some concluding remarks.; Md. Wahid Murad, Nik Hashim Nik Mustapha and Chamhuri Siwar

Agricultural Trade Liberalization in a New Trade Round : Perspectives of Developing Countries and Transition Economies

Ingco, Merlinda; Winters, L. Alan
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
This discussion paper contains seven studies, designed to a) review, and assess the impact of the implementation of the Uruguay Round (UR) Agreement on Agriculture, and, b) to analyze the key issues, interests, and options for developing countries in the new World Trade Organization's (WTO) round of multilateral trade negotiations in agriculture. Six regional case studies are presented: Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Latin America, Eastern Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, and industrial countries. A quantitative analysis of the dynamics of multilateral liberalization in food, and agricultural trade is also presented. Among some of the key conclusions, it is suggested that much preparatory work was achieved in bringing agriculture fully into the multilateral trading system during the UR, and, a significant achievement was the development of a broad framework for reductions in trade-distorting policies. The UR was also successful in negotiating reduced volumes of subsidized exports, and in providing at least...

Global Distortions to Agricultural Markets : New Indicators of Trade and Welfare Impacts, 1955 to 2007

Lloyd, Peter J.; Croser, Johanna L.; Anderson, Kym
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
Despite recent reforms, world agricultural markets remain highly distorted by government policies. Traditional indicators of those price distortions can be poor guides to the policies' economic effects. Recent theoretical literature provides indicators of trade and welfare-reducing effects of price and trade policies which this paper builds on to develop more-satisfactory indexes. The authors exploit a new Agricultural Distortion database to generate estimates of them for developing and high-income countries over the past half century. These better approximations of the trade and welfare effects of sector policies are generated without a formal model of global markets or even price elasticity estimates.

Agricultural Support Policies and Programs in Jamaica 2006-2011

Arias, Diego; Gurria, Martin; Pena, Hector; Brown-Knowlton, Mildred; Boyce, Rachel; Smikle, Conrad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
An analysis of Jamaica's agriculture support policies and programs shows that Jamaican consumers are financing the bulk of supports to the agriculture sector. This report estimates the agriculture public support policies and programs of Jamaica between 2006 and 2011. This analysis of the agriculture programs and policies provides an understanding of the level and composition by type of support for different crops and livestock producers during 2010-2011. The estimate of total agriculture supports (measured as the total support estimate, TSE) in Jamaica in 2011 was approximately United States (U.S.) 675 million dollars (J$58.071 million), representing 4.7 percent of total gross domestic product (GDP) and 22.7 percent of agriculture GDP. Jamaica has been facing significant development challenges over the last three decades. It is in this context of fiscal restrictions and potential further economic and social stagnation, that the Government of Jamaica and the World Bank have been prompted to take action to better understand the degree and type of support Jamaican farmers are receiving. Once the level of support is understood within Jamaica's economic context...

Reducing Agricultural Tariffs versus Domestic Support : What's More Important for Developing Countries?

Hoekman, Bernard M.; Ng, Francis; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
High levels of protection and domestic support for farmers in industrial countries significantly affect many developing countries, both directly and through the price-depressing effect of agricultural support policies. High tariffs--in both rich and poor countries--and domestic support may also lower the world price of agricultural products, benefiting net importers. The authors assess the impact of reducing tariffs and domestic support in a sample of 119 countries. Least developed countries (LDCs) are disproportionately affected by agricultural support policies. More than 18 percent of LDC exports are subject to domestic support in at least one World Trade Organization (WTO) member, as compared to only 9 percent of their imports. For other developing countries the figures are around 4 percent for both their exports and imports. So, the prevailing pattern of trade suggests the world price-reducing effect of agricultural domestic support policies may induce a welfare loss in LDCs. The authors develop a simple partial equilibrium model of global trade in commodities that benefit from domestic support in at least one WTO member. The simulation results suggest there will be large differences between LDCs and other developing economies in terms of the impact of a 50 percent cut in tariffs as compared to a 50 percent cut in domestic support. Developing countries as a group would suffer a welfare loss from a cut in support...

Agricultural Sector Policy Note for Bosnia and Herzegovina : Trade and Integration Policy Notes; Studija o politici poljoprivrednog sektora u Bosni i Hercegovini : studija o politikama trgovine i integracije

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.45%
The agricultural season in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) begins earlier than in most European countries, shipping costs are relatively low, and land and labor prices are more favorable than in other southern European countries. As a result, the country's agriculture sector should be well positioned to compete on the export markets. With 20.6 percent of all employed in BH, agriculture remains an important sector for employment, despite a decline in the working-age population in rural areas. Additionally, it will be important for BH to develop well-functioning land institutions, so that the land market can operate more efficiently and thus enable business development. Finally, BH should integrate climate change adaptation and environmental sustainability into agricultural policies, programs, and investments. To succeed in agriculture, producers and governments will have to adapt, and the way to start is to focus on reducing agriculture's vulnerability to current climate variability.

Sri Lanka - Agricultural Commercialization : Improving Farmers’ Incomes in the Poorest Regions

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.46%
The issue of regional differences in development has moved to the center of the development debate in Sri Lanka, partly after the release of regional poverty data. For the past many years, there have been significant and increasing differences between the Western province and the rest of the country in terms of per capita income levels, growth rates of per capita income, poverty rates, and the structure of provincial economies. The structure of the report is as follows: chapter two looks at the poverty/growth/agriculture nexus in the poorest regions of Sri Lanka. It presents data on poverty and growth in the poorest provinces, especially Uva and Sabaragamuwa, and provides an analysis of factors associated with the rural poor. Chapter three provides an overview and brief discussion of the Government's agricultural policies and programs. Chapter four identifies constraints that restrict farmers' incomes in the four poorest provinces. It presents results from extensive stakeholder consultations carried out in these provinces. These results are complemented with findings from the 2005 rural investment climate assessment to identify some of the general constraints in the agriculture sector in Sri Lanka. Chapter five presents the findings of an agricultural resource audit of small-scale farmers in the poorest regions that analyzed production...

How Do Agricultural Policy Restrictions to Global Trade and Welfare Differ across Commodities?

Lloyd, Peter J.; Croser, Johanna L.; Anderson, Kym
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.54%
For decades the world's agricultural markets have been highly distorted by national government policies, but very differently for different commodities. Hence a weighted average across countries of nominal rates of assistance or consumer tax equivalents for a product can be misleading as an indicator of the trade or welfare effects of policies affecting that product's global market. This is especially the case when some countries tax and others subsidize its production or consumption. This article develops a new set of more-satisfactory indicators for that purpose, drawing on the recent literature on trade restrictiveness indexes. It then exploits a global agricultural distortions database recently compiled by the World Bank to generate the first set of estimates of those two indicators for each of 28 key agricultural commodities from 1960 to 2004, based on a sample of 75 countries that together account for more than three-quarters of the world's production of those agricultural commodities. These reveal the considerable extent of reforms in agricultural policies of developing as well as high-income countries over the past two decades.

Reducing Distortions to Agricultural Incentives: Progress, Pitfalls and Prospects

Anderson, Kym
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58%
Most of the world's poorest people depend on farming for their livelihood. Earnings from farming in low-income countries are depressed partly due to a pro-urban bias in own-country policies, and partly because richer countries (including some developing countries) favor their farmers with import barriers and subsidies. Both sets of policies reduce national and global economic growth and add to inequality and poverty in developing countries. Acknowledgement of that since the 1980s has given rise to greater pressures for reform, both internal and external. Over the past two decades numerous developing country governments have reduced their sectoral and trade policy distortions, while many high-income countries continue with protectionist policies that harm developing country exports of farm products. Recent research suggests that the agricultural protectionist policies of high-income countries reduce welfare in many developing countries. Most of those studies also suggest that full global liberalization of merchandise trade would raise value added in agriculture in developing country regions, and that much of the benefit from global reform would come not just from reform in high-income countries but also from liberalization among developing countries...

Mass Media and Public Policy : Global Evidence from Agricultural Policies

Olper, Alessandro; Swinnen, Johan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.3%
Mass media play a crucial role in information distribution and in the political market and public policy making. Theory predicts that information provided by the mass media reflects the media's incentives to provide news to different groups in society and affects these groups' influence in policy making. The paper use data on agricultural policy from 69 countries spanning a wide range of development stages and media markets to test these predictions. The empirical results are consistent with theoretical hypotheses that public support for agriculture is affected by the mass media. In particular, an increase in media (television) diffusion is associated with policies that benefit the majority to a greater extent and is correlated with a reduction in agriculture taxation in poor countries and a reduction in the subsidization of agriculture in rich countries, ceteris paribus. The empirical results are consistent with the hypothesis that increased competition in commercial media reduces transfers to special interest groups and contributes to more efficient public policies.

Agricultural Policies and Trade Paths in Turkey

Larson, Donald F.; Martin, Will; Sahin, Sebnem; Tsigas, Marino
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.48%
In 1959, shortly after the European Economic Community was founded under the 1957 Treaty of Rome, Turkey applied for Associate Membership in the then six-member common market. By 1963, a path for integrating the economies of Turkey and the eventual European Union had been mapped. As with many trade agreements, agriculture posed difficult political hurdles, which were never fully cleared, even as trade barriers to other sectors were eventually removed and a Customs Union formed. This essay traces the influences the Turkey-European Union economic institutions have had on agricultural policies and the agriculture sector. An applied general equilibrium framework is used to provide estimates of what including agriculture under the Customs Union would mean for the sector and the economy. The paper also discusses the implications of fully aligning Turkey's agricultural policies with the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy, as would be required under full membership.

Measuring Distortions to Agricultural Incentives, Revisited

Anderson, Kym; Kurzweil, Marianne; Martin, Will; Sandri, Damiano; Valenzuela, Ernesto
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.5%
Notwithstanding the tariffication component of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture, import tariffs on farm products continue to provide an incomplete indication of the extent to which agricultural producer and consumer incentives are distorted in national markets. Especially in developing countries, non-agricultural policies indirectly impact agricultural and food markets. Empirical analysis aimed at monitoring distortions to agricultural incentives thus need to examine both agricultural and non-agricultural policy measures including import or export taxes, subsidies and quantitative restrictions, plus domestic taxes or subsidies on farm outputs or inputs and consumer subsidies for food staples. This paper addresses the practical methodological issues that need to be faced when attempting to undertake such a measurement task in developing countries. The approach is illustrated in two ways: by presenting estimates of nominal and relative rates of assistance to farmers in China for the period 1981 to 2005; and by summarizing estimates from an economy-wide computable general equilibrium model of the effects on agricultural versus non-agricultural markets of the project's measured distortions globally as of 2004.