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Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the southern Amazon

GALFORD, Gillian L.; MELILLO, Jerry M.; KICKLIGHTER, David W.; CRONIN, Timothy W.; CERRI, Carlos E. P.; MUSTARD, John F.; CERRI, Carlos C.
Fonte: NATL ACAD SCIENCES Publicador: NATL ACAD SCIENCES
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
The Brazilian Amazon is one of the most rapidly developing agricultural areas in the world and represents a potentially large future source of greenhouse gases from land clearing and subsequent agricultural management. In an integrated approach, we estimate the greenhouse gas dynamics of natural ecosystems and agricultural ecosystems after clearing in the context of a future climate. We examine scenarios of deforestation and postclearing land use to estimate the future (2006-2050) impacts on carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from the agricultural frontier state of Mato Grosso, using a process-based biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model (TEM). We estimate a net emission of greenhouse gases from Mato Grosso, ranging from 2.8 to 15.9 Pg CO(2)-equivalents (CO(2)-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions over this period, but land uses following clearing account for a substantial portion (24-49%) of the net greenhouse gas budget. Due to land-cover and land-use change, there is a small foregone carbon sequestration of 0.2-0.4 Pg CO(2)-e by natural forests and cerrado between 2006 and 2050. Both deforestation and future land-use management play important roles in the net greenhouse gas emissions of this frontier...

Changes in soil organic carbon storage under different agricultural management systems in the Southwest Amazon Region of Brazil

MAIA, Stoecio M. F.; OGLE, Stephen M.; CERRI, Carlos C.; CERRI, Carlos E. P.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.14%
The Cerrado and Amazon regions of Brazil are probably the largest agricultural frontier of the world, and Could be a sink or source for C depending on the net effect of land use change and subsequent management on soil organic C pools. We evaluated the effects of agricultural management systems on soil organic C (SOC) stocks in the Brazilian states of Rondonia and Mato Grosso, and derived regional specific factors for soil C stock change associated with different management systems. We used 50 observations (data points) in this study, including 42 dealing with annual cropping practices and 8 dealing with perennial cropping, and analyzed the data in linear mixed-effect models. No tillage (NT) systems in Cerrado areas increased SOC Storage by 1.08 +/- 0.06 relative to SOC stocks under native conditions, while SOC storage increased by a modest factor of 1.01 +/- 0.17 in Cerradao and Amazon Forest conditions. Full tillage (FT) had negative effect on SOC storage relative to NT, decreasing SOC stocks by a factor of 0.94 +/- 0.04. but did not significantly reduce SOC stocks relative to native levels when adopted in the Cerrado region. Perennial cropping had a minimal impact on SOC stocks, estimated at a factor Value of 0.98 +/- 0.14, suggesting these systems maintain about 98% of the SOC stock found under native vegetation. The results Suggest that NT adoption may be increasing SOC with land use change from native vegetation to cropland management in the Cerrado region of Brazil. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo[FAPESP-05/59012-1]; Petroleo Brasileiro (PETROBRAS)

PROPOSAL OF A PERFORMANCE MEASURING SYSTEM APPLIED TO AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION

PELOIA, Paulo R.; MILAN, Marcos
Fonte: SOC BRASIL ENGENHARIA AGRICOLA Publicador: SOC BRASIL ENGENHARIA AGRICOLA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
The leaders` organizations of several different sectors have as characteristic to measure their own performance in a systematic way. However, this concept is still unusual in agricultural enterprises, including the mechanization sector. Mechanization has an important role on the production costs and to know its performance is a key factor for the agricultural enterprise success. This work was generated by the importance that measurement of performance has for the management and the mechanization impact on the production costs. Its aim is to propose an integrated performance measurement system to give support to agricultural management. The methodology was divided in two steps: adjustment of a conceptual model based on Balanced Score Card - BSC; application of the model in a study case at sugar cane mill. The adjustment and the application of the conceptual model allowed to obtain the performance index in a systematic way, that are associated to: costs and deadline ( traditionally used); control and improvement on the quality of operations and support process; environmental preservation; safety; health; employees satisfaction; development of information systems. The adjusted model helped the development of the performance measurement system for the mechanized management systems and the index allows an integrated view of the enterprise...

Diversidade e composição de comunidades microbianas de solos construídos e de solos sob diferentes manejos agrícolas; Diversity and composition of soil microbial communities of constructed soils, and soils under different agricultural management

Quadros, Patrícia Dörr de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
Este estudo avaliou as comunidades microbianas do solo de dois ecossistemas para tentar encontrar particularidades e relações entre os microrganismos e as características do solo. Para isto, foram estudadas a diversidade, a abundância relativa e a composição microbiana do solo, utilizando-se sequenciamento Illumina do gene de rRNA 16S. Foram avaliadas 5 áreas de solo construído após a mineração de carvão, uma área de floresta e uma de campo-nativo em Candiota/RS, assim como uma área experimental agrícola sob diferentes sistemas de manejo e rotação de culturas, na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS, em Eldorado do Sul/RS. Foi observada uma redução drástica na diversidade microbiana nos solos construídos comparando-se com solos de mata ou pastagem nativa. Os gêneros mais abundantes nos solos construídos foram Thiobacillus, Sphingomonas, Novosphingobium, Acinetobacter, e Variovorax. Bradyrhizobium foi o gênero mais abundante na área de floresta (6,4% do total de sequencias) e Bacillus no site pastagens (4,8% do total de sequencias). A diversidade microbiana nos solos construídos aumentou com o tempo, porem mesmo 20 anos após o processo de construção do solo, a diversidade, composição e abundância de microrganismos não retornou aos níveis originais...

Sistemas de manejo agricola, qualidade do solo e o controle da erosão em parcelas experimentais; Agricultural management systems, soil quality, and erosion control in experimental plots

Sebastião Rovilson Marques
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
O crescimento populacional e o desenvolvimento sustentam a demanda por alimentos e fibras e elevam a pressão sobre o uso da terra. O uso intensivo das terras comumente traz como conseqüência a degradação dos recursos naturais. A erosão, um importante processo de degradação, leva ao empobrecimento do solo, à diminuição da capacidade de produzir boas safras e ao aumento dos custos de produção. Esses fatores em conjunto condicionam menores rendimentos para o produtor rural. O objetivo geral do trabalho foi o de avaliar comparativamente dois sistemas de manejo agrícola, plantio direto e plantio convencional com grade aradora, em termos dos efeitos sobre o controle da erosão, a qualidade do solo e indicadores biométricos e de produtividade da cultura do milho. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no Campo Experimental da Faculdade de Engenharia Agrícola da Universidade Estadual de Campinas-SP, em parcelas experimentais dotadas com sistemas coletores de enxurrada, sendo o solo,o Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico típico (Typic Latosol), pertencente à Unidade Barão Geraldo, e a cultura o milho. Foram determinados os atributos edáficos granulometria, estabilidade de agregados, densidade do solo, porosidade (total, macro e microporosidade)...

Conserving the Cabrera vole, Microtus cabrerae, in intensively used Mediterranean landscapes

Pita, Ricardo; Mira, António; Beja, Pedro
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 103435 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
In this study, the habitat use by the threatened Cabrera vole, Microtus cabrerae, was assessed in an agricultural landscape of SW Portugal,in order to evaluate agricultural management practices that might favour its populations. Despite the patchy distribution and the sensitivity in relation to human management, average colony size was 1928 m2, and mean nearest neighbour distance was 363 m. Within the selected habitats, the Cabrera vole’s activity was concentrated in sites with dense and tall herbs, though appearing to avoid areas where southern water voles, Arvicola sapidus, were present. Activity of Cabrera voles was higher during the winter, confirming the adverse effect of the dry periods for this species. Conservation of the Cabrera vole in agricultural landscapes would require the maintenance of a network of tall and dense herbaceous patches, which could possibly be established along field margins, road verges, and ditches, and supported by agri-environment subsidy schemes.

MORPHOLOGICAL AND MICROMORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE OF A RHODIC HAPLUDOX AS A RESULT OF AGRICULTURAL MANAGEMENT

Silva,Laura Fernanda Simões da; Marinho,Mara de Andrade; Matsura,Edson Eiji; Cooper,Miguel; Ralisch,Ricardo
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
In evaluation of soil quality for agricultural use, soil structure is one of the most important properties, which is influenced not only by climate, biological activity, and management practices but also by mechanical and physico-chemical forces acting in the soil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of conventional agricultural management on the structure and microstructure of a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico (Rhodic Hapludox) in an experimental area planted to maize. Soil morphology was described using the crop profile method by identifying the distinct structural volumes called Morphologically Homogeneous Units (MHUs). For comparison, we also described a profile in an adjacent area without agricultural use and under natural regrowth referred to as Memory. We took undisturbed samples from the main MHUs so as to form thin sections and blocks of soil for micromorphological and micromorphometrical analyses. Results from the application of the crop profile method showed the occurrence of the following structural types: loose (L), fragmented (F) and continuous (C) in both profiles analyzed. In the Memory soil profile, the fragmented structures were classified as Fptμ∆+tf and Fmt∆μ...

Effect of Agricultural Management on Nematode Communities in a Mediterranean Agroecosystem

Liang, W.; Lavian, I.; Steinberger, Y.
Fonte: Society of Nematologists Publicador: Society of Nematologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
The effects of agricultural management on the soil nematode community were investigated in a field study at depths of 0 to 10 cm and 10 to 20 cm during a peanut (Arachis hypogaea) growing season in Israel. Nineteen nematode families and 23 genera were observed. Rhabditidae, Cephalobus, Eucephalobus, Aphelenchus, Aphelenchoides, Tetylenchus, Tylenchus, Dorylaimus, and Discolaimus were the dominant family and genera. Ecological measures of soil nematode community structure, diversity, and maturity indices were assessed and compared between the managed (by fertilization, irrigation, and pesticide application) and unmanaged fields. The total number of nematodes at a 10-cm depth during peanut-sowing, mid-season, and harvest periods was higher in the treated (managed) plot than in the control (unmanaged) plot. Bacterivores and fungivores were the most abundant trophic groups in both plots and both depths. The relative abundance of each group averaged 60.8 to 67.3% and 11.5 to 19.6% of the nematode community, respectively. Plant parasites and omnivores-predators at the 0 to 10-cm depth were much less abundant than any other two groups in our experimental plots. During the growing season, except the harvest period, populations of plant parasites and omnivores-predators at the 10 to 20-cm depth were lower in the treated plot than in the control plot. Maturity index (MI)...

Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative futures of deforestation and agricultural management in the southern Amazon

Galford, Gillian L.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Kicklighter, David W.; Cronin, Timothy W.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Mustard, John F.; Cerri, Carlos C.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
The Brazilian Amazon is one of the most rapidly developing agricultural areas in the world and represents a potentially large future source of greenhouse gases from land clearing and subsequent agricultural management. In an integrated approach, we estimate the greenhouse gas dynamics of natural ecosystems and agricultural ecosystems after clearing in the context of a future climate. We examine scenarios of deforestation and postclearing land use to estimate the future (2006–2050) impacts on carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from the agricultural frontier state of Mato Grosso, using a process-based biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model (TEM). We estimate a net emission of greenhouse gases from Mato Grosso, ranging from 2.8 to 15.9 Pg CO2-equivalents (CO2-e) from 2006 to 2050. Deforestation is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions over this period, but land uses following clearing account for a substantial portion (24–49%) of the net greenhouse gas budget. Due to land-cover and land-use change, there is a small foregone carbon sequestration of 0.2–0.4 Pg CO2-e by natural forests and cerrado between 2006 and 2050. Both deforestation and future land-use management play important roles in the net greenhouse gas emissions of this frontier...

Bacterial Indicator of Agricultural Management for Soil under No-Till Crop Production

Figuerola, Eva L. M.; Guerrero, Leandro D.; Rosa, Silvina M.; Simonetti, Leandro; Duval, Matías E.; Galantini, Juan A.; Bedano, José C.; Wall, Luis G.; Erijman, Leonardo
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/11/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.23%
The rise in the world demand for food poses a challenge to our ability to sustain soil fertility and sustainability. The increasing use of no-till agriculture, adopted in many areas of the world as an alternative to conventional farming, may contribute to reduce the erosion of soils and the increase in the soil carbon pool. However, the advantages of no-till agriculture are jeopardized when its use is linked to the expansion of crop monoculture. The aim of this study was to survey bacterial communities to find indicators of soil quality related to contrasting agriculture management in soils under no-till farming. Four sites in production agriculture, with different soil properties, situated across a west-east transect in the most productive region in the Argentinean pampas, were taken as the basis for replication. Working definitions of Good no-till Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Poor no-till Agricultural Practices (PAP) were adopted for two distinct scenarios in terms of crop rotation, fertilization, agrochemicals use and pest control. Non-cultivated soils nearby the agricultural sites were taken as additional control treatments. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing was used to deeply sample the 16S rRNA gene from bacteria residing in soils corresponding to the three treatments at the four locations. Although bacterial communities as a whole appeared to be structured chiefly by a marked biogeographic provincialism...

Changes in Soil Microbial Community Structure Influenced by Agricultural Management Practices in a Mediterranean Agro-Ecosystem

García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; Zornoza, Raul; Scow, Kate
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/11/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
Agricultural practices have proven to be unsuitable in many cases, causing considerable reductions in soil quality. Land management practices can provide solutions to this problem and contribute to get a sustainable agriculture model. The main objective of this work was to assess the effect of different agricultural management practices on soil microbial community structure (evaluated as abundance of phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA). Five different treatments were selected, based on the most common practices used by farmers in the study area (eastern Spain): residual herbicides, tillage, tillage with oats and oats straw mulching; these agricultural practices were evaluated against an abandoned land after farming and an adjacent long term wild forest coverage. The results showed a substantial level of differentiation in the microbial community structure, in terms of management practices, which was highly associated with soil organic matter content. Addition of oats straw led to a microbial community structure closer to wild forest coverage soil, associated with increases in organic carbon, microbial biomass and fungal abundances. The microbial community composition of the abandoned agricultural soil was characterised by increases in both fungal abundances and the metabolic quotient (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass)...

Impacts of Agricultural Management and Climate Change on Future Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics in North China Plain

Wang, Guocheng; Li, Tingting; Zhang, Wen; Yu, Yongqiang
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/04/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
Dynamics of cropland soil organic carbon (SOC) in response to different management practices and environmental conditions across North China Plain (NCP) were studied using a modeling approach. We identified the key variables driving SOC changes at a high spatial resolution (10 km×10 km) and long time scale (90 years). The model used future climatic data from the FGOALS model based on four future greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration scenarios. Agricultural practices included different rates of nitrogen (N) fertilization, manure application, and stubble retention. We found that SOC change was significantly influenced by the management practices of stubble retention (linearly positive), manure application (linearly positive) and nitrogen fertilization (nonlinearly positive) – and the edaphic variable of initial SOC content (linearly negative). Temperature had weakly positive effects, while precipitation had negligible impacts on SOC dynamics under current irrigation management. The effects of increased N fertilization on SOC changes were most significant between the rates of 0 and 300 kg ha−1 yr−1. With a moderate rate of manure application (i.e., 2000 kg ha−1 yr−1), stubble retention (i.e., 50%), and an optimal rate of nitrogen fertilization (i.e....

Proposta de um sistema de medição de desempenho aplicado à mecanização agrícola; Proposal of a performance measuring system applied to agricultural mechanization

PELOIA, Paulo R.; MILAN, Marcos
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
As organizações líderes dos mais diferentes setores têm como característica medir o próprio desempenho de modo sistêmico, porém nas empresas agrícolas ainda não é comum o emprego desse conceito, incluindo o setor de mecanização. A mecanização tem um forte impacto na composição dos custos de produção, e conhecer o seu desempenho é primordial para o sucesso de empresa agrícola. A importância que as medidas de desempenho têm no auxílio à gestão e o que a mecanização representa para os custos de produção justificaram o desenvolvimento deste trabalho, que tem como objetivo propor um sistema de medição de desempenho integrado para dar suporte à gestão da mecanização agrícola. A metodologia foi dividida em duas etapas: adaptação de um modelo conceitual sistêmico, com base no Balanced Scorecard - BSC; aplicação do modelo a um estudo de caso na agroindústria canavieira. A adaptação e a aplicação do modelo conceitual permitiu obter indicadores de desempenho de modo sistêmico e associados a: custo e prazo (tradicionalmente utilizados); controle e melhoria na qualidade de operações e processos de apoio; preservação ambiental; segurança, saúde, satisfação, motivação e capacitação de colaboradores; desenvolvimento de sistemas de informação. Conclui-se que o modelo auxiliou na elaboração do sistema de medição de desempenho para a gestão de sistemas mecanizados e que os indicadores permitem uma visão integrada da empresa e associada aos objetivos estratégicos.; The leaders' organizations of several different sectors have as characteristic to measure their own performance in a systematic way. However...

The Future of Scattered Trees in Agricultural Landscapes

Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David; Fischer, Joern; Manning, Adrian; Weinberg, A.; Seddon, J; Ryan, P.; Barrett, G.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Mature trees scattered throughout agricultural landscapes are critical habitat for some biota and provide a range of ecosystem services. These trees are declining in intensively managed agricultural landscapes globally. We developed a simulation model to

Incentives to improve farm management: EMS,supply-chains and civil society

Gunningham, Neil
Fonte: Academic Press Publicador: Academic Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
This paper focuses on impediments to environmentally sound management practices and how these might be overcome, with an emphasis on the role of environmental management systems, supply chains and civil society. It argues that:•Farmers are under increas

Relationship between the Agricultural Management of a Semi-arid Soil and Microbiological Quality

Moreno, J. L.; Bastida, F.; García Izquierdo, Carlos; Hernández Fernández Muñoz, María Teresa
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 579917 bytes; image/jpeg
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.24%
The establishment of the incidence of different agricultural management practices on soil microbiological quality has become an issue of wide concern. This study was aimed to (i) determine the effect of different agricultural management practices (ecological, integrated, conventional, and conventional with the addition of pig slurry) on the microbial activity of a semi-arid soil at two different stages (cropped and fallow) and (ii) adapt an existing quantitative method to assess the microbiological soil quality in the different management systems. Several microbial and biochemical parameters, as well as two water-soluble carbon (C) fractions, were measured in the soil samples. Significant differences (P<0.05) were found between the different agricultural management systems for most of the microbiological parameters during the cropped period. Factorial analysis indicated that adenosine triphosphate (ATP), microbial biomass C, diphenol oxidase activity, urease activity, and water-soluble carbohydrates had a high weight in factor 1. These parameters were selected to form part of the equation for calculating a microbiological quality index. During the cropped period, the ecological management yielded the highest score of the microbial quality index...

Diversity, occurrence, and life characteristics of natural entomopathogenic nematode populations from La Rioja (Northern Spain) under different agricultural management and their relationships with soil factors

Campos-Herrera, R.; Gómez Ros, J. M.; Escuer, M.; Cuadra, Luis Manuel; Barrios, Laura; Gutiérrez, Carmen
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 378512 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.21%
11 pages; figures and tables; Natural entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) populations were surveyed in La Rioja (Northern Spain) during two consecutive years (2003–2005) to study their diversity, occurrence, and life characteristics under different agricultural management representing natural areas and perennial and annual crops from organic and conventional systems. Native EPN species and strains were identified using morphological and molecular characteristics. Virulence, infection cycle length and reproductive potential were assessed using Galleria mellonella larvae. The EPN occurrence was evaluated through abundance, recovery frequency, larval mortality percentage and EPN population density. EPNs were also related to selected soil physical and chemical variables as well as to some soil pollutants such as heavy metals and organochlorine pesticide residues. Only two steinernematids species were identified: Steinernema feltiae was observed throughout all seasons from natural and agricultural areas and Steinernema carpocapsae in summer and autumn of 2004 from perennial crops only. The virulence of native strains was lower than other previously isolated Spanish strain from natural areas or crop field edges. EPN abundance and recovery frequency indicated that habitat type might influence EPNs occurrence stronger than seasonality with the intensity of agricultural management inversely affecting their distribution. Moreover...

The role of agri-environment schemes in conservation and environmental management

Dicks, L.V.
Fonte: Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge Publicador: Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.17%
This is the final published version. It first appeared at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cobi.12536/abstract.; Over half of the European landscape is under agricultural management and has been for millennia. Many species and habitats of conservation concern in Europe depend upon agricultural management and are showing ongoing declines. Agri-environment schemes (AES) are designed partly to address this. They are a major source of nature conservation funding within the European Union (EU) and the highest conservation expenditure in Europe. We review the structure of current AES across Europe. Since a 2003 review questioned the overall effectiveness of AES for biodiversity, there has been a plethora of case studies and meta-analyses examining their effectiveness. Most syntheses demonstrate general increases in farmland biodiversity in response to AES, with the size of the effect depending on the structure and management of the surrounding landscape. This is important in the light of successive EU enlargement and ongoing reforms of AES. We examined the change in effect size over time by merging the datasets of three recent meta-analyses, and found that schemes implemented after revision of the EU?s agri-environmental programs in 2007...

Effective linkages and participatory governance in the management of veld fires

Bornman,M.E.; Nealer,E.J.; Stevens,J.B.
Fonte: South African Journal of Agricultural Extension Publicador: South African Journal of Agricultural Extension
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
Integrated public governance is one of the challenges of Government. The importance of governmental departments, NGOs and stakeholders working together in a coordinated and well-managed manner in times of natural and man-initiated disasters, cannot be emphasised enough. To determine the nature and extent of this, the management of the most severe veld fires during 2008 in the Waterberg District of the Limpopo Province was researched with reference to the nature and extent of the integrated public governance achieved. The agricultural extension officers ' ability to establish interest groups in the respective communities and to build linkages between themselves and other organisations and government institutions has proved invaluable in the quest of the Limpopo Province Department of Agriculture (LDA) to bring about more effective public service delivery in the Province. In the article, notice has been taken of the most prominent legislation in the field of agricultural public service rendering, and the way in which public management per se and governmental relations as 'vehicles ' determined the level of effectiveness, efficiency and economy of the management of three major veld fires in the Alma, Rust de Winter and Dwaalboom areas. The response time by departmental officials of the various spheres of government and the ultimate time when governmental assistance was received...

Farmer support and extension to land reform farms in the Central Karoo - part 1: a baseline survey of farm potential, farmer profiles and farm management knowledge and practices

Jordaan,J. W.; Grobler,H. J. F.
Fonte: South African Journal of Agricultural Extension Publicador: South African Journal of Agricultural Extension
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.19%
Land reform farms in the Central Karoo district of the Western Cape province of South Africa were surveyed in 2008 to gather baseline data on the infrastructure, production practices and economic viability in order to align extension and farmer development programmes of the Department of Agriculture in the Central Karoo to farmer needs. On-farm personal interviews with the managing members/decision makers of 15 farms were conducted. This paper reports on the farm structure, farm potential, farmer profiles and farm management knowledge and practices of land reform farms. Farms are held in the form of community land trusts with fairly large numbers of beneficiaries who do not reside on the farm. Large group numbers and a lack of co-operation or complete non-involvement in trust matters made it difficult to manage conflicts and power relations within the trust and to reach consensus on farming matters. Farms in general seem to be too small to provide a sustainable livelihood, given the number of trust beneficiaries and the resource potential of the land. Smaller farms tend to have lower carrying capacities which limit the income potential of smaller farms further. Agricultural managers were found to be mostly middle-aged to elderly men...