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The Role of Ethnobotanical Skills and Agricultural Labor in Forest Clearance: Evidence from the Bolivian Amazon

Reyes-García, Victoria; Pascual, Unai; Vadez, Vincent; Huanca, Tomás;
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
Research on the benefits of local ecological knowledge for conservation lacks empirical data on the pathways through which local knowledge might affect natural resources management. We test whether ethnobotanical skills, a proxy for local ecological knowledge, are associated to the clearance of forest through their interaction with agricultural labor. We collected information from men in a society of gatherers–horticulturalist, the Tsimane’ (Bolivia). Data included a baseline survey, a survey of ethnobotanical skills (n = 190 men), and two surveys on agricultural labor inputs (n = 466 plots). We find a direct effect of ethnobotanical skills in lowering the extent of forest cleared in fallow but not in old-growth forest. We also find that the interaction between ethnobotanical skills and labor invested in shifting cultivation has opposite effects depending on whether the clearing is done in old-growth or fallow forest. We explain the finding in the context of Tsimane’ increasing integration to the market economy.

Essays on Labor Markets in Developing Countries

Anand, Supreet
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
This dissertation consists of three empirical essays on distortions in labor market outcomes in developing countries. Chapter 1 tests for downward nominal wage rigidity in markets for casual daily agricultural labor. It examines responses to rainfall shocks in 500 Indian districts from 1956-2008. First, nominal wages rise in response to positive shocks but do not fall during droughts. Second, after transitory positive shocks have dissipated, nominal wages do not fall back down. Third, inflation moderates these effects. Fourth, rigidities lower employment: landless laborers experience a 6% reduction in employment in the year after positive shocks. Fifth, consistent with separation failures, rationing leads to increased labor supply to small farms. New survey evidence suggests that agricultural workers and employers view nominal wage cuts as unfair and believe that they reduce effort. Chapter 2 (with Michael Kremer and Sendhil Mullainathan) describes the results of a field experiment that tests for self-control problems in labor supply. First, we find that workers will choose dominated contracts—which pay less for every output level but have a steeper slope—to motivate themselves. Second, effort increases significantly as workers’ (randomly assigned) payday gets closer. Third...

Reliability of Recall in Agricultural Data

Beegle, Kathleen; Carletto, Calogero; Himelein, Kristen
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
Despite the importance of agriculture to economic development, and a vast accompanying literature on the subject, little research has been done on the quality of the underlying data. Due to survey logistics, agricultural data are usually collected by asking respondents to recall the details of events occurring during past agricultural seasons that took place a number of months prior to the interview. This gap can lead to recall bias in reported data on agricultural activities. The problem is further complicated when interviews are conducted over the course of several months, thus leading to recall of variable length. To test for such recall bias, the length of time between harvest and interview is examined for three African countries with respect to several common agricultural input and harvest measures. The analysis shows little evidence of recall bias impacting data quality. There is some indication that more salient events are less subject to recall decay. Overall, the results allay some concerns about the quality of some types of agricultural data collected through recall over lengthy periods.

Poverty Decline, Agricultural Wages, and Non-Farm Employment in Rural India 1983–2004

Lanjouw, Peter; Murgai, Rinku
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.66%
The authors analyze five rounds of National Sample Survey data covering 1983, 1987/8, 1993/4, 1999/0, and 2004/5 to explore the relationship between rural diversification and poverty. Poverty in rural India declined at a modest rate during this period. The authors provide region-level estimates that illustrate considerable geographic heterogeneity in this progress. Poverty estimates correlate well with region-level data on changes in agricultural wage rates. Agricultural labor remains the preserve of the uneducated and also to a large extent of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Although agricultural labor grew as a share of total economic activity over the first four rounds, it had fallen back to the levels observed at the beginning of the survey period by 2004. This all-India trajectory masks widely varying trends across states. During this period, the rural non-farm sector grew modestly, mainly between the last two survey rounds. Regular non-farm employment remains largely associated with education levels and social status that are rare among the poor. However...

Forests, Biomass Use and Poverty in Malawi

Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit; Shyamsundar, Priya; Baccini, Alessandro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
In this paper, the authors seek to answer three questions about poverty and forests in Malawi: (1) What is the extent of biomass available for meeting the energy needs of the poor in Malawi and how is this distributed? (2) To what extent does fuelwood scarcity affect the welfare of the poor? (3) How do households cope with scarcity? In particular, do households spend more time in fuelwood collection and less time in agriculture in response to scarcity? The authors attempt to answer these questions using household and remote-sensing data. They find that 80 percent of rural poor households in Malawi are likely to benefit from an increase in biomass per hectare in their community. Rural women respond to biomass scarcity by increasing the time they spend on fuelwood collection. But the actual decrease in consumption expenditure and increase in time in fuelwood collection are small and biomass scarcity is not associated with a reduction in agricultural labor supply.

Participation in Agricultural Extension

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
Putting responsibility in the hands of farmers to determine agricultural extension programs can make services more responsive to local conditions, more accountable, more effective, and more sustainable. To realize these benefits, the role of the public sector has to be redefined to permit multiple approaches which account for user diversity, and to develop partnerships with farmer organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector for service delivery.

Self-Employment in the Developing World

Gindling, T. H.; Newhouse, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
This paper analyzes heterogeneity among the self-employed in 74 developing countries, representing two-thirds of the population of the developing world. After profiling how worker characteristics vary by employment status, it classifies self-employed workers outside agriculture as "successful" or "unsuccessful" entrepreneurs, based on two measures of success: whether the worker is an employer, and whether the worker resides in a non-poor household. Four main findings emerge. First, jobs exhibit a clear pecking order, with household welfare and worker education highest for employers, followed by wage and salaried employees, non-agricultural own-account workers, non-agricultural unpaid family workers, and finally agricultural workers. Second, a substantial minority of own-account workers reside in non-poor households, suggesting that their profits are often a secondary source of household income. Third, as per capita income increases, the structure of employment shifts rapidly, first out of agriculture into unsuccessful non-agricultural self-employment...

Sri Lanka : Promoting Agricultural and Rural Non-farm Sector Growth, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
Economic development has brought about, the decline in contribution of the agricultural sector to the economy of Sri Lanka, and, consistent with this economic transformation, the structure of employment also changed. Thus, as labor migrates away from agriculture, the productivity, for those who remain in the land, needs to increase significantly. This report examines the constraints to promoting more rapid agricultural, and rural non-farm sector growth, and, reviews the recent performance of the agricultural, and rural non-farm sectors, in particular the non-plantation agricultural sector; scrutinizes the major policy, and regulatory barriers, that hinder a sustained growth in rural areas; and, proposes options for improvement in the key areas. A critical step to achieve this sector growth, and meet the changing demands of the overall economy, is the need to formulate, and implement a renewed rural development strategy, that builds on synergies in the agricultural, and non-farm sectors. This integrated rural development framework becomes an instrument that can complement a sustained growth in the non-farm sector...

Soil Endowments, Female Labor Force Participation and the Demographic Deficit of Women in India

Carranza, Eliana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
Differences in relative female employment by soil texture are used to explain the heterogeneous deficit of female children across districts within India. Soil texture varies exogenously and determines the depth of land tillage. Deep tillage, possible in loamy but not in clayey soil textures, reduces the demand for labor in agricultural tasks traditionally performed by women. Girls have a lower economic value where female labor opportunities are fewer. Consistently, higher relative female employment in agriculture improves the ratio of female to male children in districts that have a smaller fraction of loamy relative to clayey soils.

Investigating the Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity

Ali, Daniel; Bowen, Derick; Deininger, Klaus; Duponchel, Marguerite
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.52%
Women comprise 50 percent of the agricultural labor force in Sub-Saharan Africa, but manage plots that are reportedly on average 20 to 30 percent less productive. As a source of income inequality and aggregate productivity loss, the country-specific magnitude and drivers of this gender gap are of great interest. Using national data from the Uganda National Panel Survey for 2009/10 and 2010/11, the gap before controlling for endowments was estimated to be 17.5 percent. Panel data methods were combined with an Oaxaca decomposition to investigate the gender differences in resource endowment and return to endowment driving this gap. Although men have greater access to inputs, input use is so low and inverse returns to plot size so strong in Uganda that smaller female-managed plots have a net endowment advantage of 12 percent, revealing a larger unexplained gap of 29.5 percent. Two-fifths of this unexplained gap is attributed to differential returns to the child dependency ratio and one-fifth to differential returns to transport access...

How Much of the Labor in African Agriculture Is Provided by Women?

Palacios-Lopez, Amparo; Christiaensen, Luc; Kilic, Talip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.63%
The contribution of women to labor in African agriculture is regularly quoted in the range of 60 to 80 percent. Using individual-disaggregated, plot-level labor input data from nationally representative household surveys across six Sub-Saharan African countries, this study estimates the average female labor share in crop production at 40 percent. It is slightly above 50 percent in Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda, and substantially lower in Nigeria (37 percent), Ethiopia (29 percent), and Niger (24 percent). There are no systematic differences across crops and activities, but female labor shares tend to be higher in households where women own a larger share of the land and when they are more educated. Controlling for the gender and knowledge profile of the respondents does not meaningfully change the predicted female labor shares. The findings question prevailing assertions regarding substantial gains in aggregate crop output as a result of increasing female agricultural productivity.

The Cost of the Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity in Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda

UN Women; UNDP; UNEP; World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
Women comprise a large proportion of the agricultural labor force in Sub-Saharan Africa, ranging from 30 to 80 percent (FAO 2011). Yet women farmers are consistently found to be less productive than male farmers. The gender gap in agricultural productivity—measured by the value of agricultural produce per unit of cultivated land—ranges from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the country and the crop (World Bank and ONE 2014). This gap exists because women frequently have unequal access to key agricultural inputs such as land, labor, knowledge, fertilizer, and improved seeds. This report estimates the monetary value of the gender gap in agricultural productivity in Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda.

Arab Republic of Egypt - Toward Agricultural Competitiveness in the 21st Century : An Agricultural Export-Oriented Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
The report proposes key elements for an agricultural export-oriented strategy in Egypt, that would build on the achievements of the agricultural strategy during the 1990s. Substantial improvements in the country's macroeconomic environment, following policy reforms - though necessary - have not been sufficient to improve agricultural export performance. Overall, while Egyptian agricultural production increased during the 90s, agricultural exports remained low, and, the fact that both Egyptian production, and world market trends are substantially less volatile, is a first indicator of the potential to increase agricultural exports. The proposed agricultural export strategy starts with an analysis of the agricultural export potential in the country, which includes a review on the overall agricultural export performance; an analysis of the incentive framework in agriculture, including estimates of the current nominal, and effective protection rates of key imports, and exports, and, the estimated effects of alternative agricultural...

An Ecological and Historical Perspective on Agricultural Development in Southeast Asia

Hayami, Yujiro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
According to Myint's "vent-for-surplus" theory, development of the economies of Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand from the nineteenth century on depended on the natural advantage of large tracts of unused "empty land" with low population density and abundant natural resources of the type typically found in Southeast Asia and Africa at the outset of Western colonization. When these economies were integrated into international trade, hitherto unused natural resources (primary commodities the indigenous people had not valued) became the source of economic development, commanding market value because of high import demand in Western economies. The major delta of Chao Phraya River was the resource base of vent-for-surplus development with rice in Thailand; tropical rain forests filled that role in Indonesia and the Philippines with respect to the production of tropical cash crops. This basic difference underlay differences in the distribution of farm size: the unimodal distribution of peasants or family farms in Thailand and the coexistence of peasants and large estate farms or plantations specializing in tropical export crops in Indonesia and the Philippines. Differences in agrarian development were also shaped by different policies toward the elites preemption of unused land. Under Spanish colonialism...

Agricultural Policies and Trade Paths in Turkey

Larson, Donald F.; Martin, Will; Sahin, Sebnem; Tsigas, Marino
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
In 1959, shortly after the European Economic Community was founded under the 1957 Treaty of Rome, Turkey applied for Associate Membership in the then six-member common market. By 1963, a path for integrating the economies of Turkey and the eventual European Union had been mapped. As with many trade agreements, agriculture posed difficult political hurdles, which were never fully cleared, even as trade barriers to other sectors were eventually removed and a Customs Union formed. This essay traces the influences the Turkey-European Union economic institutions have had on agricultural policies and the agriculture sector. An applied general equilibrium framework is used to provide estimates of what including agriculture under the Customs Union would mean for the sector and the economy. The paper also discusses the implications of fully aligning Turkey's agricultural policies with the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy, as would be required under full membership.

Belarus Agricultural Productivity and Competitiveness : Impact of State Support and Market Intervention

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
Productivity in Belarus' agricultural sector has improved considerably, but large parts of crop and livestock production are not internationally competitive. The state's regulatory and fiscal support system for agriculture has been instrumental in improving the sector's performance. But the massive distortions to agricultural incentives it creates to prevent the sector from reaching its full potential. And the high costs it causes to state budget may be difficult to sustain in view if shrinking fiscal space. Agricultural sector efficiency and competitiveness in Belarus can be increased by re-orienting the sectoral policy framework towards less distortive measures and reallocating associated budget expenditures to support sustainable agricultural growth. Assistance program could be provided to buffer against structural adjustment shocks. The government will thus achieve its sectoral goals to a higher degree, without compromising on other important policy areas such as food security and rural livelihoods...

Determinação dos salários na agropecuária brasileira - período de 1971 a 1996.; Determination of the brazilian agricultural wages – from 1971 to 1996.

Staduto, Jefferson Andronio Ramundo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/04/2002 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
Este trabalho analisa o comportamento dos salários agrícolas e estima modelos de determinação de salário de equilíbrio para os trabalhadores temporários e permanentes no Brasil e nas regiões com o setor agropecuário menos e mais tecnificado. Para efeito de análise, tomou-se em consideração o período de 1971 a 1996. O mercado de trabalho agrícola foi segmentado em duas categorias de trabalhadores: temporários e permanentes. Para tanto, considerou-se que nesse mercado de trabalho há duas estruturas salariais distintas (para trabalhadores temporários e permanentes) e que os processos históricos de formação dessas duas categorias de trabalhadores têm características particulares. Para analisar a determinação dos salários agrícolas em termos de regiões, as unidades da Federação foram agrupadas segundo o grau de tecnificação: região menos tecnificada (Acre e os estados da região Nordeste, exceto Piauí) e a região mais tecnificada (estados das regiões Centro-Oeste, Sudeste e Sul). Nos modelos econométricos desenvolvidos foram considerados aspectos inerentes ao mercado de trabalho agrícola e aspecto institucional, no caso o salário mínimo. As equações foram estimadas com os dados em pooling. As análises estatísticas indicaram que os termos de erro das equações estimadas têm estruturas de "componentes" (two way). Para tanto...

O mercado de trabalho assalariado na agricultura brasileira no periodo 1992-2004 e suas diferenciações regionais; Salaried labor market in brazilian agriculture over 1992-2004 and its regional differences

Otavio Valentin
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/01/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
A presente Tese analisou, por um lado, a evolução das principais características e da qualidade do emprego no mercado de trabalho assalariado agrícola e, por outro, das condições de vida das famílias dos empregados na agricultura brasileira no período 1992-2004, com base nos dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (Pnad). Para a análise, foram construídos dois índices sintéticos, calculados para os empregados permanentes e temporários, e respectivas famílias, residentes nas áreas rurais e urbanas das Grandes Regiões do Brasil. O Índice de Qualidade do Emprego (IQE), que também foi calculado para seis culturas, foi elaborado a partir de um conjunto de 14 indicadores, agregados em quatro dimensões: nível educacional dos empregados; grau de formalidade do emprego; rendimento obtido no trabalho principal; e auxílios recebidos pelos empregados. O Índice de Condições de Vida (ICV) foi elaborado a partir de 17 indicadores selecionados, de forma a mensurar quatro dimensões de grande relevância no cotidiano das famílias: as características do domicílio; o acesso aos serviços públicos; o acesso aos bens duráveis; e a renda média familiar. Os resultados evidenciaram um quadro de importantes melhorias que...

Rural Production Arquitecture: the Agricultural Park as an enhancement possibility based on heritage resources of the “irrigated perimeters” on Northeastern Brazil; ; ; ; Arquitetura da Produção Rural: o Parque Agrário como uma possibilidade de valorização dos recursos patrimoniais para os Perímetros Irrigados do Nordeste do Brasil

Braga, Luci Merhy Martins; Argollo Ferrão, André Munhoz de
Fonte: Labor & Engenho; Labor & Engenho Publicador: Labor & Engenho; Labor & Engenho
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares; análise de projetos Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/03/2010 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
This study presents the case that the socioeconomic development of a certain region changes its landscape and is supported by sustainable processes that are based on appropriate management plan for water resources and advanced technology in irrigation and agricultural production. This is tosee the Brazilians “irrigated perimeters” as resulting agent while inducing processes and technicalscientific advances in engineering and architecture, creating wealth and important assets associated agribusiness. This paper presents an approach of cultural processes and production processes within the “irrigated perimeters”, and propose a comparison with the European Agricultural Parks, used as tool of regional planning.; ; ; ; Este estudo apresenta o caso em que o desenvolvimento socioeconômico de uma região modifica a paisagem sendo respaldado por processos sustentáveis que se assentam sobre adequado plano de gestão de recursos hídricos e avançada tecnologia de irrigação e produção agrícola. Trata-se de enxergar os Perímetros Irrigados brasileiros como agente resultante e ao mesmo tempo indutor dos processos e dos avanços técnico-científicos da engenharia e da arquitetura, gerando riqueza e importante patrimônio agroindustrial associados. Este trabalho faz uma abordagem dos processos culturais e dos processos produtivos dentro dos perímetros e...

Modernization and transformation of the agricultural landscape in the metropolitan area of the city of Cordoba [Argentina]: the case of Colonia Caroya; Procesos de modernización y transformación del paisaje agrícola en el área metropolitana de la ciudad de Córdoba [Argentina]: el caso de Colonia Caroya; ; ;

Cohen, Diana; Peralta, Joaquín Emiliano; Romanutti, Alejandro
Fonte: Labor & Engenho; Labor & Engenho Publicador: Labor & Engenho; Labor & Engenho
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/12/2011 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
In the second half of the nineteenth century, in Argentina begins a process of economic and cultural transformation generically called “modernization", which is accelerated by the Liberal governments of the '80 ́s generation, who took part in the replacement of the colonial lifestyle to the bourgeois model of European roots. In the period 1870-1910, and as a result of the confluence of the policy of encouraging immigration, agricultural settlements, the development of the railway network and the construction of provincial water system, a transformation of the territory around the city of Cordoba is produced, what applies for the physical matrix of our current metropolitan landscape. Many of these physical transformations are still in use. While some lost their economic importance that originated them, and in some cases are nowadays disabled, they provide a valuable legacy as a cultural landscape. In recent years, it has been being promoted its revival as a support for a new strategy for regional and local development. This presentation refers to the case of Colonia Caroya which was built as a consequence of the immigration law and whose urban and rural landscapes are now under the process of conversion and requires interventions that promote local development without compromising its heritage. As regards heritage...