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Can Risk Averse Competitive Input Providers Serve Farmers Efficiently in Developing Countries?

Makdissi, Paul; Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.56%
Under price ceilings and quality floors for agricultural inputs in cash crop sectors in developing countries where credit markets are weak, imperfect information on the ability of farmers to pay for their inputs at the end of the cropping season may lead the decentralized production of those inputs by risk averse private input providers to be inefficient. A coordinating agency and/or subsidies for new farmers could help to produce and distribute more agricultural inputs, thereby increasing the profits for input providers while also enabling more farmers to produce the crops that are key to their livelihood.

Finding Missing Markets (and a Disturbing Epilogue) : Evidence from an Export Crop Adoption and Marketing Intervention in Kenya

Ashraf, Nava; Giné, Xavier; Karlan, Dean
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
In much of the developing world, many farmers grow crops for local or personal consumption despite export options that appear to be more profitable. Thus many conjecture that one or several markets are missing. This paper reports on a randomized controlled trial conducted by DrumNet in Kenya that attempts to help farmers adopt and market export crops. DrumNet provides smallholder farmers with information about how to switch to export crops, makes in-kind loans for the purchase of the agricultural inputs, and provides marketing services by facilitating the transaction with exporters. The experimental evaluation design randomly assigns pre-existing farmer self-help groups to one of three groups: (1) a treatment group that receives all DrumNet services, (2) a treatment group that receives all DrumNet services except credit, or (3) a control group. After one year, DrumNet services led to an increase in production of export oriented crops and lower marketing costs; this translated into household income gains for new adopters. However...

Integrating Seasonal Forecasts and Insurance for Adaptation among Subsistence Farmers : The Case of Malawi

Osgood, Daniel E.; Suarez, Pablo; Hansen, James; Carriquiry, Miguel; Mishra, Ashok
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
Climate variability poses a severe threat to subsistence farmers in southern Africa. Two different approaches have emerged in recent years to address these threats: the use of seasonal precipitation forecasts for risk reduction (for example, choosing seed varieties that can perform well for expected rainfall conditions), and the use of innovative financial instruments for risk sharing (for example, index-based weather insurance bundled to microcredit for agricultural inputs). So far these two approaches have remained entirely separated. This paper explores the integration of seasonal forecasts into an ongoing pilot insurance scheme for smallholder farmers in Malawi. The authors propose a model that adjusts the amount of high-yield agricultural inputs given to farmers to favorable or unfavorable rainfall conditions expected for the season. Simulation results - combining climatic, agricultural, and financial models - indicate that this approach substantially increases production in La Niña years (when droughts are very unlikely for the study area)...

Cameroon - Agricultural Value Chain : Competitiveness Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
This study, competitiveness of the value chain of the agricultural sector in Cameroon, aims to help the Government achieve its objectives for the rural sector. The main objective of this study was to provide information on the potentials, investment and growth policies of commercial agriculture in Cameroon. It gives an overview of the constraints and analyzes the national, regional or international competitiveness of six value chains of the agricultural sector. This paper examines family and large agro-industrial farms from different regions of Cameroon. The six aspects studied are: cassava, cotton, maize, palm oil, plantain and poultry. The primary purpose of this study of competitiveness is to identify products and operating systems already competitive or having the ability to become competitive on the domestic, regional or global market. The Government has explicitly asked the Bank to support new projects of its agricultural program. This economic and sectoral work will serve as a basis for a new loan to the agricultural sector of Cameroon.

Deregulating the Transfer of Agricultural Technology : Lessons from Bangladesh, India, Turkey, and Zimbabwe

Gisselquist, David; Nash, John; Pray, Carl
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.6%
Many transition and developing economies have reduced direct public involvement in the production and trade of seed and other agricultural inputs. This trend creates opportunities for farmers to realize improved access to inputs, including technology from international private research. Unfortunately, input regulations often derail these opportunities by blocking private entry and the introduction of private technology. This study looks at the experience in Bangladesh, India, Turkey, and Zimbabwe to see whether regulations make a difference in agriculture and input industries in developing economies. In all countries, companies and farmers responded to regulatory reforms by introducing and adopting more new technology and by expanding the production, trade, and use of inputs. The increased use of private technology has brought higher yields and incomes, allowing farmers and consumers to reach higher levels of welfare. These results challenge governments to open their regulatory systems to allow market entry and the introduction of private technology through seeds and other inputs.

The Kyrgyz Republic : Farm Mechanization and Agricultural Productivity

Guadagni, Maurizio; Fileccia, Turi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC and FAO, Rome Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC and FAO, Rome
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
This policy note reviewed the status of farm machinery in the Kyrgyz Republic. Agricultural productivity, particularly in terms of grain yields, is low because of underinvestment. This note finds that a significant deficit in agricultural machinery is hindering sector productivity. The Kyrgyz Republic has fewer tractors per hectare than any comparable country, with a deficit estimated at 40 percent. The deficit of combine harvesters, estimated at 45 percent, is even more critical. When the age of agricultural machinery is taken into account, the underinvestment becomes even more acute. The reduced domestic production of wheat exacerbates food security concerns. Inadequate access to credit and small farm size are the main factors that constrain farm mechanization. The policy note presents three sets of short- to medium-term policy options to: i) promote the demand for farm machinery, by developing credit lines for agricultural productive assets, leasing, facilitating access to secondhand equipment, and testing/demonstrating the efficiency of farm machinery for small-scale farming; ii) increase the supply of farm machinery...

Promoting Agricultural Growth in Rwanda : Recent Performance, Challenges and Opportunities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
Rwanda is experiencing its best growth performance since independence. With average annual GDP growth rate of 8 percent and 5.2 percent for agricultural GDP from 1999-2012, Rwanda s recent growth is a historical record. The poverty headcount fell from 59 percent in 2001 to 45 percent in 2011, and agriculture continues to be one of the main drivers of growth and poverty reduction in Rwanda, significantly lifting rural households out of poverty. Yet, challenges in the agriculture sector remain. Specifically, to: (i) sustain the productivity gains in the short and medium-term, which have contributed to strong agriculture growth and raised rural incomes; ii) increase and improve nutrition security for the rural population; iii) strengthen and deepen value chain development including increasing agro-processing to create non-farm employment; iv) secure and strengthen linkages to domestic and international markets for agriculture production; and v) enhance the enabling environment to attract the private sector to invest in the sector and add value to the productivity increases.

Agricultural Production, Dietary Diversity, and Climate Variability

Dillon, Andrew; McGee, Kevin; Oseni, Gbemisola
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
Nonseparable household models outline the links between agricultural production and household consumption, yet empirical extensions to investigate the effect of production on dietary diversity and diet composition are limited. Although a significant literature has investigated the calorie-income elasticity abstracting from production, this paper provides an empirical application of the nonseparable household model linking the effect of exogenous variation in planting season production decisions via climate variability on household dietary diversity. Using exogenous variation in degree days, rainfall, and agricultural capital stocks as instruments, the effect of production on household dietary diversity at harvest is estimated. The empirical specifications estimate production effects on dietary diversity using both agricultural revenue and crop production diversity. Significant effects of agricultural revenue and crop production diversity on dietary diversity are estimated. The dietary diversity-production elasticities imply that a 10 percent increase in agricultural revenue or crop diversity results in a 1.8 percent or 2.4 percent increase in dietary diversity...

Investigating the Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity

Ali, Daniel; Bowen, Derick; Deininger, Klaus; Duponchel, Marguerite
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
Women comprise 50 percent of the agricultural labor force in Sub-Saharan Africa, but manage plots that are reportedly on average 20 to 30 percent less productive. As a source of income inequality and aggregate productivity loss, the country-specific magnitude and drivers of this gender gap are of great interest. Using national data from the Uganda National Panel Survey for 2009/10 and 2010/11, the gap before controlling for endowments was estimated to be 17.5 percent. Panel data methods were combined with an Oaxaca decomposition to investigate the gender differences in resource endowment and return to endowment driving this gap. Although men have greater access to inputs, input use is so low and inverse returns to plot size so strong in Uganda that smaller female-managed plots have a net endowment advantage of 12 percent, revealing a larger unexplained gap of 29.5 percent. Two-fifths of this unexplained gap is attributed to differential returns to the child dependency ratio and one-fifth to differential returns to transport access...

Ghana Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment; Risk Prioritization

Choudhary, Vikas; D'Alessandro, Stephen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
Improved agricultural risk management is one of the core enabling actions of the Group of Eight’s (G-8’s) New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition. The Agricultural Risk Management Team (ARMT) of the Agriculture and Environment Services Department of the World Bank conducted an agricultural sector risk assessment to better understand the dynamics of agricultural risks and identify appropriate responses, incorporate agricultural risk perspective into decision-making, and build capacity of local stakeholders in risk assessment and management.

Arab Republic of Egypt - Toward Agricultural Competitiveness in the 21st Century : An Agricultural Export-Oriented Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
The report proposes key elements for an agricultural export-oriented strategy in Egypt, that would build on the achievements of the agricultural strategy during the 1990s. Substantial improvements in the country's macroeconomic environment, following policy reforms - though necessary - have not been sufficient to improve agricultural export performance. Overall, while Egyptian agricultural production increased during the 90s, agricultural exports remained low, and, the fact that both Egyptian production, and world market trends are substantially less volatile, is a first indicator of the potential to increase agricultural exports. The proposed agricultural export strategy starts with an analysis of the agricultural export potential in the country, which includes a review on the overall agricultural export performance; an analysis of the incentive framework in agriculture, including estimates of the current nominal, and effective protection rates of key imports, and exports, and, the estimated effects of alternative agricultural...

Promoting Pro-Poor Agricultural Growth in Rwanda : Challenges and Opportunities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
This report summarizes the findings of a study undertaken by the World Bank at the request of the Government of Rwanda. The study had three main objectives: (i) Validate the argument that agriculture has potential to become a leading engine of pro-poor growth in Rwanda and identify potential sources of rapid and sustainable growth within the agricultural sector; (ii) identify key actions that will be needed to unlock these sources of agricultural growth, and describe actions in other sectors that will be needed to support the successful implementation of the government's agricultural policy agenda; and (iii) confirm the congruence between the priority actions needed to stimulate increased agricultural growth and the policy reforms, institutional changes, and supporting investments envisioned under the Plan Strategique de Transformation Agricole (PSTA). This report consists of five sections, of which the introduction is the first. Section 2 describes the importance of agriculture in the economy of Rwanda and analyzes recent trends in the performance of the agricultural sector. Section 3 discusses possible future drivers of growth...

Agricultural Sector Policy Note for Bosnia and Herzegovina : Trade and Integration Policy Notes; Studija o politici poljoprivrednog sektora u Bosni i Hercegovini : studija o politikama trgovine i integracije

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
The agricultural season in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) begins earlier than in most European countries, shipping costs are relatively low, and land and labor prices are more favorable than in other southern European countries. As a result, the country's agriculture sector should be well positioned to compete on the export markets. With 20.6 percent of all employed in BH, agriculture remains an important sector for employment, despite a decline in the working-age population in rural areas. Additionally, it will be important for BH to develop well-functioning land institutions, so that the land market can operate more efficiently and thus enable business development. Finally, BH should integrate climate change adaptation and environmental sustainability into agricultural policies, programs, and investments. To succeed in agriculture, producers and governments will have to adapt, and the way to start is to focus on reducing agriculture's vulnerability to current climate variability.

Understanding the Agricultural Input Landscape in Sub-Saharan Africa : Recent Plot, Household, and Community-Level Evidence

Sheahan, Megan; Barrett, Christopher B.
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.55%
Conventional wisdom holds that Sub-Saharan African farmers use few modern inputs despite the fact that most growth-inducing and poverty-reducing agricultural growth in the region is expected to come largely from expanded use of inputs that embody improved technologies, particularly improved seed, fertilizers and other agro-chemicals, machinery, and irrigation. Yet following several years of high food prices, concerted policy efforts to intensify fertilizer and hybrid seed use, and increased public and private investment in agriculture, how low is modern input use in Africa really? This paper revisits Africa's agricultural input landscape, exploiting the unique, recently collected, nationally representative, agriculturally intensive, and cross-country comparable Living Standard Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture covering six countries in the region (Ethiopia, Malawi, Niger, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda). The study uses data from more than 22,000 households and 62,000 plots to investigate a range of commonly held conceptions about modern input use in Africa...

Agricultural Extension Services in Indonesia : New Approaches and Emerging Issues

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
Indonesian agriculture is at a crossroads. Supporting the livelihood of millions of Indonesians, it needs to underpin renewed and robust growth of the economy; and be a key component of the Government's poverty alleviation strategy. The challenge for the future is to reinvigorate productivity gains among rural producers, and provide the foundation for long run sustainability of these productivity gains. Productivity gains are key to farmer income growth, and for this rebuilding the research and extension systems that have seen a marked deterioration in recent years will be critical. The experience of the Indonesian decentralization of its extension system has been mixed, with adverse impact on extension through sharp reductions in funding, and removal of central-level guidance. At the same time, a series of positive debates and experimentation in management have taken place from a shift on top-down to participatory approaches, input and technology dissemination to dissemination of market and upstream information and technology...

Reducing the Vulnerability of Moldova's Agricultural Systems to Climate Change : Impact Assessment and Adaptation Options

Sutton, William R.; Srivastava, Jitendra P.; Neumann, James E.; Iglesias, Ana; Boehlert, Brent B.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
Changes in climate and their impact on agricultural systems and rural economies are already evident throughout Europe and Central Asia (ECA). Adaptation measures now in use in Moldova, largely piecemeal efforts, will be insufficient to prevent impacts on agricultural production over the coming decades. There is growing interest at country and development partner levels to have a better understanding of the exposure, sensitivities, and impacts of climate change at farm level, and to develop and prioritize adaptation measures to mitigate the adverse consequences. The approach of this volume is predicated on strong country ownership and participation, and is defined by its emphasis on 'win-win' or 'no regrets' solutions to the multiple challenges posed by climate change for the farmers of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The solutions are measures that increase resilience to future climate change, boost current productivity despite the greater climate variability already occurring, and limit greenhouse gas emissions-also known as 'climate-smart agriculture.' Specifically, this report provides a menu of climate change adaptation options for the agriculture and water resources sectors, along with specific recommendations that are tailored to three distinct Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZs) within Moldova. This menu reflects the results of three inter-related activities...

Ukraine Agricultural Competitiveness

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.31%
The agri-food sector is an important part of the Ukrainian economy. Agriculture could make an even larger contribution to economic growth and the vitality of rural areas in Ukraine than is currently the case. Ukraine has the agro-climatic potential to be a major player on world agricultural markets. Agricultural competitiveness in Ukraine also suffers from inadequate systems to test and document food product quality and food safety. Ukraine's food safety control system is complicated and characterized by fragmented and often overlapping jurisdictions. Many standards applied in Ukraine are inconsistent with World Trade Organization (WTO) provisions, with standards established by the responsible international bodies and with accepted practices in international trade. Without improvements towards an efficient and internationally recognized food quality and safety control system, Ukrainian agriculture will find it increasingly difficult to sell into international markets and its products will not be able to command top prices. The ban on Ukrainian meat...

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Agricultural Sector Review; Revitalizing Agriculture for Economic Growth, Job Creation and Food Security

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
Economic growth, job creation, and development are central to the decade of transformation (2015-25) and long-term security for the people of Afghanistan. The Bank and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (GoIRA) recognize that agriculture and rural development are a key to inclusive growth, and hence need renewed vigor and strategic long-term investments. Further, the Bank and the GoIRA acknowledge that increases in agricultural productivity and market access for smallholders are critical for rural development, job creation, and food security in Afghanistan. Sections two and three of this report describe the agricultural sector and its current and potential roles in the Afghan economy, and present the rationale for choosing certain areas and subsectors for a selective 'first mover' strategy to achieve early gains. Section four outlines the constraints and potential in each of the three value chains proposed for the selective strategy, irrigated wheat, intensive livestock production, and horticulture. Section five describes cross-cutting constraints and how best to address them...

Achieving Ukraine's Agricultural Potential : Stimulating Agricultural Growth and Improving Rural Life, Part 2. Evaluation of Support to Ukrainian Agriculture - Methodology and Detailed Tables

World Bank; OECD
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
This study provides a review of the food and agricultural sector in Ukraine. It assesses the current status of the food and agricultural sector with special reference to the agricultural policy regime and the form and level of government support to the sector. The paper reviews the sector's readiness to compete on open global markets for food and agricultural products. Given the importance and sensitivity of the food and agriculture sector in the country, the report highlights a number of critical issues for the Ukrainian government to address. The report goes beyond the narrower focus of the agricultural policies and reviews the status of current rural physical and social infrastructure and issues of rural poverty. The Executive Summary highlights policy recommendations for Ukrainian policymakers, while the individual chapters provide technical analysis on key policy issues.

Systemic behavior of a Brazilian municipality whose economy is based on agricultural commodities.

BULLER, L. S.; ORTEGA, E.; ZANETTI, M. R.; LIMA, I.
Fonte: In: BIENNIAL INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ADVANCES IN ENERGY STUDIES, 9., 2015, Stockholm. Energy and urban systems. [Graz]: Verlag der Technischen Universität Graz, 2015. BIWAES 2015. Publicador: In: BIENNIAL INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ADVANCES IN ENERGY STUDIES, 9., 2015, Stockholm. Energy and urban systems. [Graz]: Verlag der Technischen Universität Graz, 2015. BIWAES 2015.
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Formato: 8 p.
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
The municipality evaluated is São Gabriel do Oeste, located in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In the 1960's the region was occupied by migrants from southern Brazil who have converted native vegetation (savanna) into extensive cattle and monocrops (coffee, cotton, soybeans and corn, successively), and more recently intensive swine was introduced. The following emergy indicators were calculated for the current municipal situation: Renewability (%R): 8%; Emergy yield ratio (EYR): 14; Emergy investment ratio (EIR): 0.08; Environmental loading ratio (ELR): 11; Emergy exchange ratio (EER): 13 and Transformity of the commodities: 8x105seJ.J-1. The very low %R and high environmental pressure (ELR) signalize that the municipality's economy is highly dependent on external inputs. Above all, there is a high loss of system internal stocks (soil) and the high EYR obtained is directly related to this predatory land use. The emergy value of the soil loss is 83% of the total emergy, which is an environmental imbalanced situation. The main land use in São Gabriel do Oeste, accounting for 39% of the territory, is extensive cattle farming that demands few agricultural inputs, what explains the very low EIR. The EER shows that the rural area is subsidizing urban economies that import products from the study area. The real value of the agricultural products should be 13 times the market value of such commodities to be considered as a fair trade. The inclusion of soil loss as a negative externality shows that (in economic terms) the amount of soil lost by erosion and leaching (4...