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Barreiras comerciais sobre os produtos agroindustriais brasileiros na União Européia. ; European Union trade barriers on brazilian agricultural products.

Freitas, Rogerio Edivaldo de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/07/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.32%
Esta tese realizou-se com o intuito de melhor conhecer a proteção tarifária agrícola da União Européia (UE) e sua eventual associação com a Política Agrícola Comum (PAC). A hipótese implícita nesse trabalho é a de que há uma discriminação tarifária na pauta agrícola da UE; discriminação essa que estaria associada à estrutura da PAC. Nesses termos, o trabalho teve três objetivos complementares. Em primeiro lugar, buscou-se medir a magnitude das tarifas praticadas pela União Européia sobre os produtos agrícolas exportados pelo Brasil. Como segundo ponto, procurou-se identificar a existência de discriminação tarifária entre os grupos de produtos agrícolas presentes na pauta de tarifas do bloco europeu. E, por fim, avaliou-se a eventual existência de simultaneidade entre a proteção tarifária e as políticas domésticas de suporte à agricultura comunitária. A teoria visitada e os trabalhos já realizados com tal pano de fundo sugeriram que há grupos de produtos particularmente protegidos pelas tarifas agrícolas do bloco europeu. Esses mesmos trabalhos também apontaram para o caráter de permanência das políticas de apoio à agricultura da União Européia, mesmo após as reformas da PAC em 1992 e 2000. Tais políticas não são homogêneas; antes disso...

Indicadores de desempenho logístico: estudo de múltiplos casos no setor de bens de capital agrícolas; Logistics performance indicators: study of multiples cases in agricultural capital goods sector

Careta, Catarina Barbosa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/07/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
O setor de bens de capital agrícolas é um dos mais tradicionais da indústria brasileira e cumpre um papel de relevância na difusão de novas tecnologias e como dinamizador do desenvolvimento econômico, obtendo atualmente crescimentos acentuados de sua produção. Contudo as empresas deste setor enfrentam dificuldades para sustentar seus avanços produtivos e entre os principais problemas apontados está o custo da atividade logística. Sendo a atividade logística determinante para a obtenção de competitividade, a medição de desempenho passa a exercer um papel fundamental nas organizações, representando uma das mais importantes ferramentas a serem utilizadas na estratégia de gerenciamento de recursos e no alcance da melhor prática logística. Com base nestas considerações, o presente estudo objetivou identificar e analisar os indicadores de desempenho logístico e práticas associadas de empresas do setor de bens de capital agrícolas, por meio de revisão bibliográfica e estudo de múltiplos casos junto às empresas do setor. Os resultados apontaram os indicadores comuns às empresas e que práticas de gestão associadas a estes indicadores, possuem algumas diferenças significantes em relação ao recomendado pela literatura...

As implicações do processo de modernização conservadora na estrutura e nas atividades agropecuarias da Região Cetro-Sul de Goias; The implications of the conservative modernization process in the structure and agricultural activities in the Central-South Region of Goias

Murilo Jose de Souza Pires
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/07/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.42%
A finalidade desta investigação é compreender as implicações do processo de modernização conservadora na estrutura e nas atividades agropecuárias na região centro-sul do estado de Goiás. Para tanto, a tese defendida é que a região centro-sul de Goiás é um caso especifico, mas não único do processo de modernização conservadora e da assertiva de Ignácio Rangel de que não há necessidade de mudanças na estrutura fundiária para ampliação e diversificação da estrutura de produção e oferta de bens agropecuários. Para a realização do objetivo proposto no trabalho utilizaram-se os recursos técnicos da pesquisa bibliográfica e documental e adotou-se o método analítico descritivo. Os resultados encontrados demonstram que as implicações do processo de modernização conservadora na estrutura e nas atividades agropecuárias da região centro-sul de Goiás favoreceram para o incremento da produção e produtividade dos bens agropecuários. Este fato teve uma grande importância para a penetração das empresas tradings no mercado goiano para a comercialização das commodities agrícolas. Em conjunto com os programas de incentivo fiscal (PRODUZIR, FOMENTAR) e o FCO, a partir de meados dos anos 80 do século XX...

New Goods and the Transition to a New Economy

Greenwood, Jeremy (1953 - ); Uysal, Gokce
Fonte: Universidade de Rochester Publicador: Universidade de Rochester
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
Research report plus computer program; The U.S. went through a remarkable structural transformation between 1800 and 2000. A precipitous decline in the importance of agricultural goods in the economy was matched by the rapid ascent of a plethora of new non-agricultural goods and services. A competitive model is presented here where consumption evolves along the extensive margin. This lessens the need to rely on satiation points, subsistence levels of consumption, and the like to explain agriculture’s demise. The analysis suggests that between 1800 and 2000 economic welfare grew by at least 1.5 percent a year, and maybe as much as 10 percent annually, the exact number depending upon the metric preferred.

Inflation Dynamics and Food Prices in an Agricultural Economy : The Case of Ethiopia

Loening, Josef L.; Durevall, Dick; Birru, Yohannes A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
Ethiopia has experienced a historically unprecedented increase in inflation, mainly driven by cereal price inflation, which is among the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using monthly data from the past decade, the authors estimate error correction models to identify the relative importance of several factors contributing to overall inflation and its three major components, cereal prices, food prices, and non-food prices. The main finding is that, in a longer perspective, over three to four years, the main factors that determine domestic food and non-food prices are the exchange rate and international food and goods prices. In the short run, agricultural supply shocks and inflation inertia strongly affect domestic inflation, causing large deviations from long-run price trends. Money supply growth does affect food price inflation in the short run, although the money stock itself does not seem to drive inflation. The results suggest the need for a multi-pronged approach to fight inflation. Forecast scenarios suggest monetary and exchange rate policies need to take into account cereal production...

Cameroon - Agricultural Value Chain : Competitiveness Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
This study, competitiveness of the value chain of the agricultural sector in Cameroon, aims to help the Government achieve its objectives for the rural sector. The main objective of this study was to provide information on the potentials, investment and growth policies of commercial agriculture in Cameroon. It gives an overview of the constraints and analyzes the national, regional or international competitiveness of six value chains of the agricultural sector. This paper examines family and large agro-industrial farms from different regions of Cameroon. The six aspects studied are: cassava, cotton, maize, palm oil, plantain and poultry. The primary purpose of this study of competitiveness is to identify products and operating systems already competitive or having the ability to become competitive on the domestic, regional or global market. The Government has explicitly asked the Bank to support new projects of its agricultural program. This economic and sectoral work will serve as a basis for a new loan to the agricultural sector of Cameroon.

The Nexus between Gender, Collective Action for Public Goods, and Agriculture : Evidence from Malawi

McCarthy, Nancy; Kilic, Talip
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.56%
Across the developing world, public goods exert significant impacts on the local rural economy in general and agricultural productivity and welfare outcomes in particular. Economic and social-cultural heterogeneity have, however, long been documented as detrimental to collective capacity to provide public goods. In particular, women are often under-represented in local leadership and decision-making processes, as are young adults and minority ethnic groups. While democratic principles dictate that broad civic engagement by women and other groups could improve the efficiency and effectiveness of local governance and increase public goods provision, the empirical evidence on these hypotheses is scant. This paper develops a theoretical model highlighting the complexity of constructing a "fair" schedule of individual contributions, given heterogeneity in costs and benefits that accrue to people depending, for instance, on their gender, age, ethnicity, and education. The model demonstrates that representative leadership and broad participation in community organizations can mitigate the negative impacts of heterogeneity on collective capacity to provide public goods. Nationally-representative household survey data from Malawi...

Republic of Senegal Basic Agricultural Public Expenditure Diagnostic Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
This basic Agricultural Public Expenditure Diagnostic Review (AgPER) analyzes the effectiveness and efficiency of public expenditure in agriculture, livestock production, fishery, rural waterworks, and natural-resource management in Senegal. Agriculture has benefited from major transfers of public resources in the second half of this decade. Presidential initiatives demonstrate the priority it enjoys on the political agenda in Senegal. This review is a complement to the efforts of the Senegalese government to offer the sector inclusive, strong, and sustainable guidelines, strategies, and policies. It covers the work done by the ministries and other public institutions and by the private sector, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and associated agencies.

Global Distortions to Agricultural Markets : New Indicators of Trade and Welfare Impacts, 1955 to 2007

Lloyd, Peter J.; Croser, Johanna L.; Anderson, Kym
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.49%
Despite recent reforms, world agricultural markets remain highly distorted by government policies. Traditional indicators of those price distortions can be poor guides to the policies' economic effects. Recent theoretical literature provides indicators of trade and welfare-reducing effects of price and trade policies which this paper builds on to develop more-satisfactory indexes. The authors exploit a new Agricultural Distortion database to generate estimates of them for developing and high-income countries over the past half century. These better approximations of the trade and welfare effects of sector policies are generated without a formal model of global markets or even price elasticity estimates.

Reducing Agricultural Tariffs versus Domestic Support : What's More Important for Developing Countries?

Hoekman, Bernard M.; Ng, Francis; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
High levels of protection and domestic support for farmers in industrial countries significantly affect many developing countries, both directly and through the price-depressing effect of agricultural support policies. High tariffs--in both rich and poor countries--and domestic support may also lower the world price of agricultural products, benefiting net importers. The authors assess the impact of reducing tariffs and domestic support in a sample of 119 countries. Least developed countries (LDCs) are disproportionately affected by agricultural support policies. More than 18 percent of LDC exports are subject to domestic support in at least one World Trade Organization (WTO) member, as compared to only 9 percent of their imports. For other developing countries the figures are around 4 percent for both their exports and imports. So, the prevailing pattern of trade suggests the world price-reducing effect of agricultural domestic support policies may induce a welfare loss in LDCs. The authors develop a simple partial equilibrium model of global trade in commodities that benefit from domestic support in at least one WTO member. The simulation results suggest there will be large differences between LDCs and other developing economies in terms of the impact of a 50 percent cut in tariffs as compared to a 50 percent cut in domestic support. Developing countries as a group would suffer a welfare loss from a cut in support...

Republic of India : Accelerating Agricultural Productivity Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
In the past 50 years, Indian agriculture has undergone a major transformation, from dependence on food aid to becoming a consistent net food exporter. The gradual reforms in the agricultural sector (following the broader macro-reforms of the early 1990s) spurred some unprecedented innovations and changes in the food sector driven by private investment. These impressive achievements must now be viewed in light of the policy and investment imperatives that lie ahead. Agricultural growth has improved in recent years (averaging about 3.5 percent since 2004-05), but at a long-term trend rate of growth of 3 percent, agriculture has underperformed relative to its potential. The pockets of post-reform dynamism that have emerged evidently have not reached a sufficiently large scale to influence the sector's performance. For the vast population that still derives a living directly or indirectly from agriculture, achieving "faster, more inclusive, and sustainable growth', the objectives at the heart of the Twelfth five year plan...

Agricultural Trade Reform and the Doha Development Agenda

Anderson, Kym; Martin, Will
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.33%
Anderson and Martin examine the extent to which various regions, and the world as a whole, could gain from multilateral trade reform over the next decade. They use the World Bank's linkage model of the global economy to examine the impact first of current trade barriers and agricultural subsidies, and then of possible outcomes from the World Trade Organization's Doha round. The results suggest moving to free global merchandise trade would boost real incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia (and in Cairns Group countries) proportionately more than in other developing countries or high-income countries. Real returns to farm land and unskilled labor and real net farm incomes would rise substantially in those developing country regions, thereby alleviating poverty. A Doha partial liberalization could take the world some way toward those desirable outcomes, but more so the more agricultural subsidies are disciplined and applied tariffs are cut.

Agricultural Trade : What Matters in the Doha Round?

Laborde, David; Martin, Will
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
This survey concludes that including agriculture in the Doha Agenda negotiations was important both economically and politically, although the political resistance to reform is particularly strong in this sector. While agriculture accounts for less than 10 percent of merchandise trade, high and variable agricultural distortions appear to cause the majority of the cost of distortions to global merchandise trade. Within agriculture, most of the costs appear to arise from trade barriers levied on imports since these barriers tend to be high, variable across time and over products, and are levied by a wide range of countries. The negotiations faced a need for balance between discipline in reducing tariffs and hence creating the market access gains that are central to the negotiations, and flexibility in managing political pressures. While the approach of providing flexibility on a certain percentage of tariff lines is seriously flawed, the proposed Modalities still appear to provide worthwhile market access. Better ways appear to be needed to deal with developing countries' concerns about food price volatility while reducing the collective-action problems resulting from price insulation.

Nicaragua : Promoting Competitiveness and Stimulating Broad-based Growth in Agriculture; Nicaragua - Promoviendo la competitividad y estimulando el crecimiento agricola de base amplia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
The report argues that Nicaragua's best hope for sustained growth, and poverty reduction, probably lies with agricultural exports, which have the potential to gain from opportunities in world markets. Despite the small share of farmland devoted to the production of exports (25 percent of harvested area), the total trade of agricultural goods (including the value of both imports, and exports) accounted for almost eighty five percent of agricultural GDP in 1998. This is high relative to several countries in the area. But most likely, the most promising is the export performance of non-traditional agricultural products. The report accords greatest emphasis to improving competitiveness, and recommends giving this goal highest priority. To this end, four areas for action to improve competitiveness have bee identified: modernizing agribusiness; promoting agricultural exports; improving the effectiveness of public spending; and, strengthening public-private partnerships. These measures will also have to be complemented by sustained...

Reducing Distortions to Agricultural Incentives: Progress, Pitfalls and Prospects

Anderson, Kym
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
Most of the world's poorest people depend on farming for their livelihood. Earnings from farming in low-income countries are depressed partly due to a pro-urban bias in own-country policies, and partly because richer countries (including some developing countries) favor their farmers with import barriers and subsidies. Both sets of policies reduce national and global economic growth and add to inequality and poverty in developing countries. Acknowledgement of that since the 1980s has given rise to greater pressures for reform, both internal and external. Over the past two decades numerous developing country governments have reduced their sectoral and trade policy distortions, while many high-income countries continue with protectionist policies that harm developing country exports of farm products. Recent research suggests that the agricultural protectionist policies of high-income countries reduce welfare in many developing countries. Most of those studies also suggest that full global liberalization of merchandise trade would raise value added in agriculture in developing country regions, and that much of the benefit from global reform would come not just from reform in high-income countries but also from liberalization among developing countries...

Awakening Africa's Sleeping Giant : Prospects for Commercial Agriculture in the Guinea Savannah Zone and Beyond; Le reveil du geant assoupi : perspectives de l'agriculture commerciale dans les savanes africaines

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
This report summarizes the findings of the study on Competitive Commercial Agriculture for Africa (CCAA). The objective of the CCAA study was to explore the feasibility of restoring international competitiveness and growth in African agriculture through the identification of products and production systems that can underpin rapid development of a competitive commercial agriculture. The CCAA study focused on the agricultural potential of Africa's Guinea Savannah zone, which covers about 600 million hectares in Africa, of which about 400 million hectares can be used for agriculture, and of which less than 10 percent are cropped. The African Guinea Savannah is one of the largest underused agricultural land reserves in the world. In terms of its agro climatic features, the land is similar to that found in the Cerrado region of Brazil and in the Northeast Region of Thailand, with medium-to-high agricultural potential but also significant constraints in the form of infertile soils and variable rainfall. Based on a careful examination of the factors that contributed to the successes achieved in Brazil and Thailand...

Republic of India : Accelerating Agricultural Productivity Growth

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.52%
In the past 50 years, Indian agriculture has undergone a major transformation, from dependence on food aid to becoming a consistent net food exporter. The gradual reforms in the agricultural sector (following the broader macro-reforms of the early 1990s) spurred some unprecedented innovations and changes in the food sector driven by private investment. These impressive achievements must now be viewed in light of the policy and investment imperatives that lie ahead. Agricultural growth has improved in recent years (averaging about 3.5 percent since 2004-05), but at a long-term trend rate of growth of 3 percent, agriculture has underperformed relative to its potential. The pockets of post-reform dynamism that have emerged evidently have not reached a sufficiently large scale to influence the sector's performance. For the vast population that still derives a living directly or indirectly from agriculture, achieving "faster, more inclusive, and sustainable growth', the objectives at the heart of the Twelfth five year plan...

Agricultural Trade Reform and the Doha Development Agenda

Martin, Will; Anderson, Kym
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
Agriculture is yet again causing contention in international trade negotiations. It caused long delays to the Uruguay round in the late 1980s and 1990s, and it is again proving to be the major stumbling block in the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha round of multilateral trade negotiations (formally known as the Doha Development Agenda, or DDA). This study builds on numerous recent analyses of the Doha Development Agenda and agricultural trade, including five very helpful books that appeared in 2004. One, edited by Aksoy and Beghin (2004), provides details of trends in global agricultural markets and policies, especially as they affect nine commodities of interest to developing countries. Another, edited by Ingco and Winters (2004), includes a wide range of analyses based on papers revised following a conference held just before the aborted WTO trade ministerial meeting in Seattle in 1999. The third, edited by Ingco and Nash (2004), provides a follow-up to the broad global perspective of the Ingco and winters volume: it explores a wide range of key issues and options in agricultural trade reform from a developing-country perspective. The fourth...

Measuring Distortions to Agricultural Incentives, Revisited

Anderson, Kym; Kurzweil, Marianne; Martin, Will; Sandri, Damiano; Valenzuela, Ernesto
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.34%
Notwithstanding the tariffication component of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture, import tariffs on farm products continue to provide an incomplete indication of the extent to which agricultural producer and consumer incentives are distorted in national markets. Especially in developing countries, non-agricultural policies indirectly impact agricultural and food markets. Empirical analysis aimed at monitoring distortions to agricultural incentives thus need to examine both agricultural and non-agricultural policy measures including import or export taxes, subsidies and quantitative restrictions, plus domestic taxes or subsidies on farm outputs or inputs and consumer subsidies for food staples. This paper addresses the practical methodological issues that need to be faced when attempting to undertake such a measurement task in developing countries. The approach is illustrated in two ways: by presenting estimates of nominal and relative rates of assistance to farmers in China for the period 1981 to 2005; and by summarizing estimates from an economy-wide computable general equilibrium model of the effects on agricultural versus non-agricultural markets of the project's measured distortions globally as of 2004.

O Brasil na OMC : comércio de bens agrícolas e serviços

Tebaldi, Raquel
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.38%
Este trabalho analisa a atuação da diplomacia brasileira na Organização Mundial do Comércio (OMC), especialmente no que diz respeito aos interesses do país no setor de comércio de bens agrícolas e de serviços, identificando como ocorreu a sua evolução através dos diferentes governos brasileiros. Primeiramente, é feita uma análise teórica sobre a Organização e sua constituição, bem como da opção brasileira pelo multilateralismo, para então, num segundo momento, analisar especificamente a evolução das negociações nos temas específicos do comércio de bens agrícolas e serviços. É identificada uma notável evolução na posição negociadora do Brasil dentro da Organização, reflexo de diversos fatores advindos tanto de mudanças na estrutura do sistema internacional, bem como de mudanças na política externa brasileira.; This paper analyzes the performance of Brazilian diplomacy in the World Trade Organization (WTO), especially with regard to the interests of the country in the field of trade in agricultural goods and services, identifying how its evolution occurred throughout different Brazilian governments. First, a theoretical analysis is made on the Organization and its constitution as well as on the Brazilian option for multilateralism...