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Impactos das barreiras comerciais dos Estados Unidos e União Européia sobre a pauta de exportações agrícolas brasileiras.; Impacts of trade barriers imposed by United States and European Union on brazilian agricultural exports.

Viégas, Isabel Fernandes Pinto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/10/2003 PT
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56.57%
O Brasil possui um grande potencial agrícola e deve ampliar suas exportações para reduzir o déficit em transações correntes. No entanto, as exportações agrícolas brasileiras estão sujeitas a restrições tarifárias e não-tarifárias nos Estados Unidos e na União Européia, mercados importantes para o Brasil. Este trabalho visou a avaliar a incidência de picos tarifários, quotas tarifárias, barreiras técnicas e barreiras sanitárias e fitossanitárias sobre o valor das exportações agrícolas brasileiras nos Estados Unidos e na União Européia, definir as medidas de proteção mais usadas por cada um desses parceiros comerciais e verificar os principais produtos e complexos agrícolas sujeitos a essas medidas no ano 2000, através da utilização dos índices de cobertura e freqüência.; Brazil has a large agricultural potential and must increase its exports to reduce the deficit in current transactions. However, Brazilian agricultural exports are subject to tariff and non-tariff trade restrictions in the United States and European Union, which are important markets for Brazil. The purpose of this theses was to evaluate the importance of tariff peaks, tariff rate quotas, technical barriers, sanitary and phytosanitary measures over Brazilian agricultural export value in the United States and European Union...

Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries

Aksoy, M. Ataman; Beghin, John C.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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46.73%
This book explores the outstanding issues in global agricultural trade policy and evolving world production and trade patterns. Its coverage of agricultural trade issues ranges from the details of cross-cutting policy issues to the highly distorted agricultural trade regimes of industrial countries and detailed studies of agricultural commodities of economic importance to many developing countries. The book brings together the background issues and findings to guide researchers and policymakers in their global negotiations and domestic policies on agriculture. The book also explores the key questions for global agricultural policies, both the impacts of current trade regimes and the implications of reform. It complements the recent agricultural trade handbook that focuses primarily on the agricultural issues within the context of the World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations (Ingco and Nash 2004).

Global Trade and Food Safety : Winners and Losers in a Fragmented System

Wilson, John S.; Otsuki, Tsunehiro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.75%
Food safety standards, and the tradeoff between these standards, and agricultural export growth, are at the forefront of the trade policy debate. How food safety is addressed in the world trade system, is critical for developing countries that continue to rely on agricultural exports. In a fragmented system of conflicting national food safety standards, and no globally accepted standards, export prospects for the least developed countries, can be severely limited. The authors examine the impact that adopting international food safety standards, and harmonizing standards would have on global food trade patterns. They estimate the effect of aflatoxin standards in fifteen importing countries (including four developing countries) on exports from thirty one countries (twenty one of them developing). Aflatoxin is a natural substance that can contaminate certain nuts, and grains when storage, and drying facilities are inadequate. The analysis shows that adopting a worldwide standard for aflatoxin B1 (potentially the most toxic of aflatoxins) based on current international guidelines...

Market Access for Developing Countries Exports

International Monetary Fund; World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.82%
Integration into the world economy has proven a powerful instrument for countries to promote economic growth, development, and poverty reduction. Trade has been an engine of growth for the past fifty years, owing in part to eight successive rounds of multilateral trade liberalization, as well as unilateral and regional trade liberalization. The growing integration of the world economy has raised living standards and brought increased opportunity to many parts of the globe. Many developing countries have shared in this prosperity. As a group, developing countries have become much more important in world trade, and their trade relationships have changed markedly from the traditional north-south pattern. Developing countries now account for one-third of world trade, up from about a quarter in the early 1970s, and many have substantially increased their exports of manufactures and services relative to traditional commodity exports. The share of manufactures in developing country exports has risen to 80 percent; moreover...

Trade agreements and multilateral negotiations: implications for Australian agricultural exports

Rizza, Stefanie
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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There are often debates about trade liberalisation and the best ways of approaching it. On one end of the scale are multilateral agreements and on the other end are regional and bilateral agreements (known broadly as Regional Trade Agreements or RTAs) . With agriculture being one of the most protected and distorted sectors in the global economy, it has become a primary focus of trade liberalisation efforts. It is a difficult area to negotiate as many countries including some of the biggest economies such as the EU maintain high levels of support and are reluctant to reform. Australia is an efficient producer who maintains fairly free and open markets and can gain significantly from liberalisation. Consequently it is a driving force in the efforts towards the reduction of agricultural protection. There is a common frustration that the WTO negotiations are too lengthy and often fail to achieve much at all especially lately in regards to agriculture. The counter argument is that the WTO has already achieved the easy progress, such as its success in the reduction of manufacturing protection and that what is left is difficult and naturally more time consuming. Many believe that there are some issues that can only be solved through the WTO. RTAs on the other hand are growing at a fast pace...

Agricultural Trade Liberalization in a New Trade Round : Perspectives of Developing Countries and Transition Economies

Ingco, Merlinda; Winters, L. Alan
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This discussion paper contains seven studies, designed to a) review, and assess the impact of the implementation of the Uruguay Round (UR) Agreement on Agriculture, and, b) to analyze the key issues, interests, and options for developing countries in the new World Trade Organization's (WTO) round of multilateral trade negotiations in agriculture. Six regional case studies are presented: Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Latin America, Eastern Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, and industrial countries. A quantitative analysis of the dynamics of multilateral liberalization in food, and agricultural trade is also presented. Among some of the key conclusions, it is suggested that much preparatory work was achieved in bringing agriculture fully into the multilateral trading system during the UR, and, a significant achievement was the development of a broad framework for reductions in trade-distorting policies. The UR was also successful in negotiating reduced volumes of subsidized exports, and in providing at least...

Islamic Republic of Iran : An Agricultural Policy Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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56.67%
This report addresses key structural, institutional, and sectoral policy impediments to achieving a higher, and sustained economic growth in the sector, and poverty reduction in rural areas of Iran. It focuses mainly on an assessment of agricultural development outcomes, a discussion of the agricultural policy agenda, and provides recommendations for future policy dialogue between the Bank, and the Government of Iran. On examining development outcomes, the report assesses the agricultural sector's contribution, which - though in decline - has displayed rapid growth (4.9 percent) during the course of the 1990's; identifies the strong rural content of poverty in Iran, where the proportion of the rural population living in households with income below the poverty line, is the highest; and, examines the increasing pressures on the natural resources, with deforestation and erosion reaching alarming proportions. Policy in the sector has been driven largely by the need to rely on domestic production, to meet the needs of a rapidly increasing demand. However...

Reducing Agricultural Tariffs versus Domestic Support : What's More Important for Developing Countries?

Hoekman, Bernard M.; Ng, Francis; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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High levels of protection and domestic support for farmers in industrial countries significantly affect many developing countries, both directly and through the price-depressing effect of agricultural support policies. High tariffs--in both rich and poor countries--and domestic support may also lower the world price of agricultural products, benefiting net importers. The authors assess the impact of reducing tariffs and domestic support in a sample of 119 countries. Least developed countries (LDCs) are disproportionately affected by agricultural support policies. More than 18 percent of LDC exports are subject to domestic support in at least one World Trade Organization (WTO) member, as compared to only 9 percent of their imports. For other developing countries the figures are around 4 percent for both their exports and imports. So, the prevailing pattern of trade suggests the world price-reducing effect of agricultural domestic support policies may induce a welfare loss in LDCs. The authors develop a simple partial equilibrium model of global trade in commodities that benefit from domestic support in at least one WTO member. The simulation results suggest there will be large differences between LDCs and other developing economies in terms of the impact of a 50 percent cut in tariffs as compared to a 50 percent cut in domestic support. Developing countries as a group would suffer a welfare loss from a cut in support...

Cafta : Challenges and Opportunities in the Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Sectors; Cafta : desafios y oportunidades en los en los sectores agricola y agro-industrial

Monge-González, Ricardo; Loría-Sagot, Miguel; González-Vega, Claudio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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A Central America Free Trade Area (CAFTA) has been under negotiation since January 2003. A World Bank report, Opportunities and Challenges for the Agricultural and Agroindustrial Sectors of Central America from a Free Trade Agreement with the United States of America, examines how a FTA between the US and CA countries might affect the agricultural and agroindustrial sectors of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. Two main questions are addressed: (i) how to guarantee better US market access for CA's agricultural and agro-industrial exports, and (ii) how to promote greater openness to imports from the US of food products that are "sensitive" in each CAdomestic market. The authors analyze the structure of agricultural and agro-industrial exports and patterns of revealed comparative advantages in Central America (CA), and tariff and non-tariff barriers (NTBs) these exports face in the US. The report suggests that the CAFTA negotiations consider (i) lessons from Mexico's entry into NAFTA...

Arab Republic of Egypt - Toward Agricultural Competitiveness in the 21st Century : An Agricultural Export-Oriented Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The report proposes key elements for an agricultural export-oriented strategy in Egypt, that would build on the achievements of the agricultural strategy during the 1990s. Substantial improvements in the country's macroeconomic environment, following policy reforms - though necessary - have not been sufficient to improve agricultural export performance. Overall, while Egyptian agricultural production increased during the 90s, agricultural exports remained low, and, the fact that both Egyptian production, and world market trends are substantially less volatile, is a first indicator of the potential to increase agricultural exports. The proposed agricultural export strategy starts with an analysis of the agricultural export potential in the country, which includes a review on the overall agricultural export performance; an analysis of the incentive framework in agriculture, including estimates of the current nominal, and effective protection rates of key imports, and exports, and, the estimated effects of alternative agricultural...

Agricultural Trade Reform and the Doha Development Agenda

Anderson, Kym; Martin, Will
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
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46.68%
Anderson and Martin examine the extent to which various regions, and the world as a whole, could gain from multilateral trade reform over the next decade. They use the World Bank's linkage model of the global economy to examine the impact first of current trade barriers and agricultural subsidies, and then of possible outcomes from the World Trade Organization's Doha round. The results suggest moving to free global merchandise trade would boost real incomes in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia (and in Cairns Group countries) proportionately more than in other developing countries or high-income countries. Real returns to farm land and unskilled labor and real net farm incomes would rise substantially in those developing country regions, thereby alleviating poverty. A Doha partial liberalization could take the world some way toward those desirable outcomes, but more so the more agricultural subsidies are disciplined and applied tariffs are cut.

Revealed Comparative Advantage of Pakistan's Agricultural Exports

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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56.63%
Pakistan is widely believed to be underperforming as far as its agricultural export potential is concerned. However, analyses to support this allegation are very few, in part due to the lack of easily accessible data. In this paper provide the first necessary step in the analysis of Pakistan's comparative advantage in agricultural export markets. However, little or no analysis has been done that sheds some more light on this issue, in the sense of better specifying in which commodities and which markets Pakistan's comparative advantage is strongest. This paper attempts to start filling that void by quantifying the degree of comparative advantage of Pakistan agricultural export products in major overseas markets. This quantification is a necessary first step in getting a better handle on the factors that may limit the extent to which Pakistan is able to enter markets where it has a comparative advantage. Expansion of Pakistan's share in overseas export markets is crucial for further development of the country's agricultural sector. The main objective of the paper is to identify products where Pakistan has demonstrated comparative advantage...

Agricultural Exports from Latin America and the Caribbean : Harnessing Trade to Feed the World and Promote Development

Chaherli, Nabil; Nash, John
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Commodities Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.79%
The United Nations estimates that global food demand will double by 2050, with much of that growth in developing countries. The world will have 2.3 billion more people, and given the deep transformation of growth trajectories in low-income countries, they will be increasingly affluent, with demands for more, different, and better food. While countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are quite heterogeneous in their production potential, overall they are well equipped to contribute to meeting this challenge. LAC has always maintained a strong comparative advantage in agricultural production, as indicated not only by its position as a net food exporter but also by its high comparative advantage. LAC is also well endowed in renewable water resources, with about a third of the 42,000 cubic kilometers worldwide. Per capita, LAC has the highest endowment of renewable water among developing regions, though some sub regions in LAC face higher than average scarcity. This report's in-depth look at Argentina and Brazil identifies looming logistics and policy issues that threaten to derail these locomotives of agricultural growth and some policy choices that have contributed to their success and that might be worth emulating. While LAC countries have substantially reduced the anti-export and anti-agricultural biases in their trade regimes...

Reducing Distortions to Agricultural Incentives: Progress, Pitfalls and Prospects

Anderson, Kym
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
Most of the world's poorest people depend on farming for their livelihood. Earnings from farming in low-income countries are depressed partly due to a pro-urban bias in own-country policies, and partly because richer countries (including some developing countries) favor their farmers with import barriers and subsidies. Both sets of policies reduce national and global economic growth and add to inequality and poverty in developing countries. Acknowledgement of that since the 1980s has given rise to greater pressures for reform, both internal and external. Over the past two decades numerous developing country governments have reduced their sectoral and trade policy distortions, while many high-income countries continue with protectionist policies that harm developing country exports of farm products. Recent research suggests that the agricultural protectionist policies of high-income countries reduce welfare in many developing countries. Most of those studies also suggest that full global liberalization of merchandise trade would raise value added in agriculture in developing country regions, and that much of the benefit from global reform would come not just from reform in high-income countries but also from liberalization among developing countries...

Timor Leste - Expanding Near-Term Agricultural Exports - Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study
ENGLISH
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56.6%
The Government of Timor-Leste (GOTL) is committed to the development of the non-oil economy by enabling the diversification of domestic production and trade integration. The objective of the Timor-Leste Diagnostic Trade Integration Study (DTIS) is to agree on priority actions to help overcome constraints to expanding agricultural exports in the near-term. It supports the government's efforts to develop a broader international trade strategy, which may include strategic sectors such as tourism and fisheries. The focus of the DTIS is on short-term results in areas with immediate export potential. It therefore looks only at the agriculture sector. Achieving export growth and diversification are essential for supporting overall economic growth and employment generation. Non-oil export growth is critical in light of the external sustainability risks of depending on exhaustible petroleum exports. Expanding output for domestic consumption is also a priority and may help reduce dependence on imports. Policy actions to expand exports will impact positively on domestic trade as well. Timor-Leste faces the challenge of having to mostly create a non-oil export sector...

Timor Leste - Expanding Near-Term Agricultural Exports : Report Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.49%
The Government of Timor-Leste (GOTL) is committed to the development of the non-oil economy by enabling the diversification of domestic production and trade integration. The objective of the Timor-Leste Diagnostic Trade Integration Study (DTIS) is to agree on priority actions to help overcome constraints to expanding agricultural exports in the near-term. It supports the government's efforts to develop a broader international trade strategy, which may include strategic sectors such as tourism and fisheries. The focus of the DTIS is on short-term results in areas with immediate export potential. It therefore looks only at the agriculture sector. Achieving export growth and diversification are essential for supporting overall economic growth and employment generation. Non-oil export growth is critical in light of the external sustainability risks of depending on exhaustible petroleum exports. Expanding output for domestic consumption is also a priority and may help reduce dependence on imports. Policy actions to expand exports will impact positively on domestic trade as well. Timor-Leste faces the challenge of having to mostly create a non-oil export sector...

Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Africa

Anderson, Kym; Masters, William A.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
One of every two people in Sub-Saharan Africa survives on less than $1.25 a day. That proportion has changed little over the past three decades, unlike in Asia and elsewhere, so the region's share of global poverty has risen from one-tenth to almost one-third since 1980. About 70 percent of today's 400 million poor Africans live in rural areas and depend directly or indirectly on farming for their livelihoods. While that rural share was even higher in the past, it means policies affecting the incentives for farmers to produce and sell farm products remain a major influence on the extent of Africa's poverty. The case studies help address questions such as the following: where is there still a policy bias against agricultural production? To what extent are some farmers now being protected from import competition? What are the political economic forces behind the more-successful reformers, and how do they compare with those in less-successful countries where major distortions in agricultural incentives remain? How important have domestic political forces been in bringing about reform...

Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Latin America

Anderson, Kym; Valdés, Alberto
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
This book provides an overview of the evolution of distortions to agricultural incentives caused by price and trade policies in the World Bank-defined region of Latin America and the Caribbean. Following the introduction and summary, it includes commissioned country studies of one Caribbean, one Central American, and six South American economies. The chapters are followed by two appendixes. The first describes the methodology used to measure the nominal and relative rates of assistance to farmers and the taxes and subsidies involved in food consumption; the second provides country and regional summaries, in tables, of annual estimates of these rates of assistance. This study on Latin America is based on a sample of eight countries, comprising the big four economies of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; Colombia and Ecuador, two of the poorest South American tropical countries; the Dominican Republic, the largest Caribbean economy; and Nicaragua, the poorest country in Central America. Together, in 2000-04...

Agro-Logistics for Nutmeg and Cocoa Exports from Grenada : A Logistics Chain Approach

Fries, Gwyneth; Weiss, Eli; White, Kendra
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.73%
This study is designed to build a link between the study and improvement of agriculture and that of logistics for agricultural exports, and complements the Grenada Small Farmer Vulnerability Reduction project. The objective of logistics chain analysis (LCA) is to understand product movement for two of Grenada's primary agricultural exports and identify opportunities to enhance competitiveness for these and other products by improving logistics. Logistics refers to the infrastructure, machinery, related services, and information systems that allow products to move from the original point of production to the final point of consumption. The analysis identifies where logistics inefficiencies, from the farm gate to the port of exit, increase logistics expenses, travel times, and uncertainty. A strategic plan to increase agricultural exports must involve coordinated public and private investments in the infrastructure, equipment and services necessary for exporters to load and unload products at their own warehouses. Further diagnostic work will be needed to identify the proper technical projects and investments...

An analysis of the performance of chilean agricultural exports (1994-2004)

Lacayo,Ramón; Morales,Cristian
Fonte: ASOCIACIÓN INTERCIENCIA Publicador: ASOCIACIÓN INTERCIENCIA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2007 EN
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The relative success of the Chilean economy is due in a large measure to the application by the government of exchange rate and market liberalization policies oriented towards the promotion of exports in both traditional and non-traditional sectors, in order to turn them into an engine of growth. Farming in general has become a key component of the country’s economy. In this paper, the performance of the agricultural sector exports for the period 1994-2004 is analyzed on the basis of indicators that account for specialization, commerce structure and competitiveness of exports. Altogether, seven tariff categories of the Harmonized System (2002) were covered. In the analysis of export specialization three indices were employed, namely, the revealed comparative advantage, the contribution to trade balance, and the intraindustry commerce. The commerce structure was analyzed on the basis of the share of exports of the selected items to the total of exports. Competitiveness was analyzed with the use of indices of sector participation and market share. The results show a high level of specialization of agricultural exports and an increase in comparative advantage for products such as avocados, grapes and wine. Concerning competitiveness...