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Climate Change and its effect on agricultural employment in Ghana : the role of trade unions = Mudança climática e seus efeitos sobre o trabalho agrícola em Gana: o papel dos sindicatos; Mudança climática e seus efeitos sobre o trabalho agrícola em Gana : o papel dos sindicatos

Hans Awude
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/06/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.3%
Sindicatos poderiam desempenhar um papel chave na minimização dos efeitos de mudanças climáticas para os pequenos proprietários de terra no setor informal, cuja maioria é analfabeta e carece de proteção legal, segurança trabalhista e acesso ao sistema de saúde, caso fosse dada a essas instituições a chance e se elas aceitassem tal papel. Mudanças climáticas tornam o emprego agrícola cada vez mais precário e, portanto, acrescentam uma nova dimensão às atividades e riscos contra os quais os sindicatos devem buscar proteger seus membros. Isso se torna mais evidente no contexto dos países em desenvolvimento que contribuíram menos para o problema das crescentes alterações nos padrões climáticos e sofrerão seus maiores impactos. A agricultura em particular será afetada, com implicações potencialmente sérias para a segurança alimentar, pobreza e emprego. Isso provavelmente abrirá espaço e relevância para a atuação dos sindicatos, mas o modo como irão enfrentar os novos desafios e oportunidades ainda não está claro. Mudanças climáticas sazonais afetarão os sistemas produtivos e recursos e ferramentas necessários para uma colheita bem sucedida. Mudanças no clima podem afetar também as necessidades por água e energia...

Emprego permanente e temporário na agricultura paulista no período 2004-07; Permanent and temporary agricultural employment in the state of Sao Paulo over 2004-07

Balsadi, Otavio Valentim; Silva, Alan Ricardo da
Fonte: Instituto de Economia Agrícola Publicador: Instituto de Economia Agrícola
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Com base nos microdados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD), do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE), o texto analisou a evolução das categorias dos empregados permanentes e temporários na agricultura paulista no período 2004-07. Especificamente, foram selecionados e construídos indicadores socioeconômicos para abordagem dos seguintes temas: principais características pessoais e do trabalho dos empregados; distribuição dos empregados nas atividades de agricultura, pecuária, silvicultura e aquicultura e pesca; qualidade do trabalho dos empregados nas atividades selecionadas. Os principais resultados mostraram que os empregados permanentes e temporários são, em sua maioria, homens, brancos, relativamente jovens e com residência urbana. Possuem níveis de formalidade do emprego e contribuição para a Previdência Social relativamente altos e média salarial superior ao salário mínimo. Constatou-se também que as atividades de cultivo de cana-de-açúcar, cultivo de frutas cítricas, criação de bovinos, serviços relacionados com a agricultura, cultivo de café e cultivo de hortaliças, legumes e outros produtos da horticultura são as principais, em termos de ocupação dos empregados no Estado de São Paulo. ________________________________________________________________________________________ RESUMO; Essentially based on microdata drawn from Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey (PNAD) of the Brazilian Geographical and Statistical Institute (IBGE)...

Poverty Decline, Agricultural Wages, and Non-Farm Employment in Rural India 1983–2004

Lanjouw, Peter; Murgai, Rinku
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The authors analyze five rounds of National Sample Survey data covering 1983, 1987/8, 1993/4, 1999/0, and 2004/5 to explore the relationship between rural diversification and poverty. Poverty in rural India declined at a modest rate during this period. The authors provide region-level estimates that illustrate considerable geographic heterogeneity in this progress. Poverty estimates correlate well with region-level data on changes in agricultural wage rates. Agricultural labor remains the preserve of the uneducated and also to a large extent of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Although agricultural labor grew as a share of total economic activity over the first four rounds, it had fallen back to the levels observed at the beginning of the survey period by 2004. This all-India trajectory masks widely varying trends across states. During this period, the rural non-farm sector grew modestly, mainly between the last two survey rounds. Regular non-farm employment remains largely associated with education levels and social status that are rare among the poor. However...

Does Employment Generation Really Matter for Poverty Reduction?

Gutierrez, Catalina; Orecchia, Carlo; Paci, Pierella; Serneels, Pieter
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This paper analyzes how the employment/productivity profile of growth and its sectoral pattern are correlated with poverty reduction. The authors use a sample of 104 short-run growth spells in developing countries, between 1980 and 2001. They also identify some conditions of the labor market and the economic environment that are associated with employment-intensive growth or specific sectoral growth. The results show that, in the short run, although the aggregate employment-rate intensity of growth does not matter for poverty reduction any more than the aggregate productivity intensity of growth, the sectoral pattern of employment growth and productivity growth is important. Employment-intensive growth in the secondary sector is associated with decreases in poverty, while employment-intensive growth in agriculture is correlated with poverty increases. Similarly, productivity-intensive growth in agriculture is associated with decreases in poverty. Although the study does not address causality, coincidence of these phenomena in this large sample of heterogeneous countries and periods suggests that...

Finance and Hunger : Empirical Evidence of the Agricultural Productivity Channel

Claessens, Stijn; Feijen, Erik
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
Using cross-country and panel regressions, the authors show that financial sector development significantly reduces undernourishment (hunger), largely through gaining farmers and others access to productivity-enhancing equipment, translating into beneficial income and general effects. They show specifically that a deeper financial sector leads to higher agricultural productivity, including higher cereal yields, through increased fertilizer and tractor use. Higher productivity in turn leads to lower undernourishment. The results are robust to various specifications and econometric tests and imply that a 1 percentage point increase in private credit to GDP reduces undernourishment by 0.22-2.45 percentage points, or about one-quarter the impact of GDP per capita.

Self-Employment in the Developing World

Gindling, T. H.; Newhouse, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.7%
This paper analyzes heterogeneity among the self-employed in 74 developing countries, representing two-thirds of the population of the developing world. After profiling how worker characteristics vary by employment status, it classifies self-employed workers outside agriculture as "successful" or "unsuccessful" entrepreneurs, based on two measures of success: whether the worker is an employer, and whether the worker resides in a non-poor household. Four main findings emerge. First, jobs exhibit a clear pecking order, with household welfare and worker education highest for employers, followed by wage and salaried employees, non-agricultural own-account workers, non-agricultural unpaid family workers, and finally agricultural workers. Second, a substantial minority of own-account workers reside in non-poor households, suggesting that their profits are often a secondary source of household income. Third, as per capita income increases, the structure of employment shifts rapidly, first out of agriculture into unsuccessful non-agricultural self-employment...

Agricultural Employment Trends in Asia and Africa; Too Fast or Too Slow?

Headey, Derek; Bezemer, Dirk; Hazell, Peter B.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
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Contrary to conventional economic theories, the relationship between income growth and agricultural employment is extremely diverse, even among regions starting from similar levels of development, such as Asia and Africa. Due to its labor-intensive Green Revolution and strong farm–nonfarm linkages, Asia's development path is mostly characterized by fast growth with relatively slow agricultural exits. In contrast to Asia, urban biased policies, low rural population density, and high rates of population growth have led a number of African countries down a path of slow economic growth with surprisingly rapid agricultural exits. Despite this divergence both continents now face daunting employment problems. Asia appears to be increasingly vulnerable to rising inequality, slower job creation, and shrinking farm sizes, suggesting that Asian governments need to refocus on integrating smallholders and lagging regions into increasingly commercialized rural and urban economies. Africa, in contrast, has yet to achieve its own Green Revolution, which would still be a highly effective tool for job creation and poverty reduction. However, the diversity of its endowments and its tighter budget constraints mean that agricultural development strategies in Africa need to be highly context specific...

Kyrgyz Republic : Agricultural Policy Update, Volume 2. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This policy note examines the policy and investment framework between 2003 and 2010, resulting sector performance and the priorities for future development. It draws attention to the need to refocus on completing the fundamental reforms and investments on which Kyrgyzstan's early successes were built. These include further development of land market, building rural finance markets, further public investment and institutional development in the irrigation sector, encouraging greater private investment in the seeds sector and machinery services, public-private partnerships for advisory service provision, completion of ongoing reforms in pasture management, development of veterinary services and improving the business environment for private investment in agro-processing. The policy Note discusses the government's approach to achieving greater food security, which centers on food self-sufficiency and discusses why this is not the best route to raising low rural incomes - the root cause of food insecurity. The report discusses some of the policies conceived after the food price crisis...

Reviving Sri Lanka's Agricultural Research and Extension System : Towards More Innovation and Market Orientation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This review's objectives were to examine the structure and performance of the agricultural research and extension systems (public and private) at the central and provincial levels, identify successes as well as constraints to improving the system s effectiveness for fostering innovation, and propose options for further policy and institutional development, drawing on lessons from international experience. The review focused principally on nonplantation crops, although its main recommendations apply across the agricultural sector. This synthesis report summarizes the main findings of the review and builds upon them by adding some new elements. The conflict in Sri Lanka is explicitly recognized. Additionally, the implications of changes in the wider agricultural context for agricultural research and extension are explored, and have led to the adoption of an innovation systems perspective to organize the major findings

The Impact of Chilean Fruit Sector Development on Female Employment and Household Income

Jarvis, Lovell; Vera-Toscano, Esperanza
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Modern fruit sector development in Chile led to agricultural employment for women, though usually only as temporary workers and often at a piece rate. Nonetheless, fruit sector employment offered women access to income and personal fulfillment previously lacking. The authors link the fruit sector to improving female and family economic welfare in rural Chile and changing gender relations. Using a unique longitudinal data set, they examine women's decisions regarding labor force participation and employment, their earnings and contributions to household income, and their attitudes toward employment to understand how new opportunities are changing women, their households, and the rural sector.

Liberia - Employment and Pro-Poor Growth

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Fourteen years of civil conflict (1989-2003) have destroyed Liberia's social and economic infrastructure and brought the economy nearly to a halt. Workers who came of age during the conflict are largely unskilled, and the supply of workers exceeds demand by a substantial margin. The negative effects of unemployment, underemployment, and low productivity on economic growth have made employment the most urgent demand of the population and the top priority for Government action. This report offers guidance to the Government of Liberia in its development of a more strategic approach toward increasing productivity and employment, in order to achieve its pro-poor growth objectives. This report includes seven sections: employment is key for poverty reduction; one in five workers is unemployed or underemployed; the structure of Liberia's economy limits prospects for formal sector employment; transformation of the agriculture sector is essential for pro-poor growth; investment and job growth in the formal sector are constrained by three main factors; labor-intensive public works programs are necessary for the very poor; and education and training must be improved to enhance employability.

Welfare and Poverty Impacts of India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme : Evidence from Andhra Pradesh

Deininger, Klaus; Liu, Yanyan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
This paper uses a three-round 4,000-household panel from Andhra Pradesh together with administrative data to explore short and medium-term poverty and welfare effects of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. Triple difference estimates suggest that participants significantly increase consumption (protein and energy intake) in the short run and accumulate more nonfinancial assets in the medium term. Direct benefits exceed program-related transfers and are most pronounced for scheduled castes and tribes and households supplying casual labor. Asset creation via program-induced land improvements is consistent with a medium-term increase in assets by nonparticipants and increases in wage income in excess of program cost.

Moving off the Farm : Land Institutions to Facilitate Structural Transformation and Agricultural Productivity Growth in China

Deininger, Klaus; Jin, Songqing; Xia, Fang
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
Agriculture has made major contributions to China's economic growth and poverty reduction, but the literature has rarely focused on the institutional factors that might underpin such structural transformation and productivity. This paper aims to fill that gap. Drawing on an 8-year panel of 1,200 households in six key provinces, it explores the impact of government land reallocations and formal land-use certificates on agricultural productivity growth, as well as the likelihood of households to exit from agriculture or send family members to the non-farm sector. It finds that land tenure insecurity, measured by the history of past land reallocations, discourages households from quitting agriculture. The recognition of land rights through formal certificates encourages the temporary migration of rural labor. Both factors have a large impact on productivity (at about 30 percent each), mainly by encouraging market-based land transfers. A sustained increase in non-agricultural opportunities will likely reinforce the importance of secure land tenure...

Does It Pay to Be a Cadre? Estimating the Returns to Being a Local Official in Rural China

Zhang, Jian; Giles, John; Rozelle, Scott
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
Recruiting and retaining leaders and public servants at the grass-roots level in developing countries creates a potential tension between providing sufficient returns to attract talent and limiting the scope for excessive rent-seeking behavior. In China, researchers have frequently argued that village cadres, who are the lowest level of administrators in rural areas, exploit personal political status for economic gain. Much existing research, however, compares the earnings of cadre and non-cadre households in rural China without controlling for unobserved dimensions of ability that are also correlated with success as entrepreneurs or in non-agricultural activities. The findings of this paper suggest a measurable return to cadre status, but the magnitudes are not large and provide only a modest incentive to participate in village-level government. The paper does not find evidence that households of village cadres earn significant rents from having a family member who is a cadre. Given the increasing returns to non-agricultural employment since China's economic reforms began, it is not surprising that the returns to working as a village cadre have also increased over time. Returns to cadre-status are derived both from direct compensation and subsidies for cadres and indirectly through returns earned in off-farm employment from businesses and economic activities managed by villages.

Agricultural Productivity, Hired Labor, Wages and Poverty : Evidence from Bangladesh

Emran, Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.67%
This paper provides evidence on the effects of agricultural productivity on wage rates, labor supply to market oriented activities, and labor allocation between own farming and wage labor in agriculture. To guide the empirical work, this paper develops a general equilibrium model that underscores the role of reallocation of family labor engaged in the production of non-marketed services at home (`home production'). The model predicts positive effects of a favorable agricultural productivity shock on wages and income, but the effect on hired labor is ambiguous; it depends on the strength of reallocation of labor from home to market production by labor surplus and deficit households. Taking rainfall variations as a measure of shock to agricultural productivity, and using subdistrict level panel data from Bangladesh, this paper finds significant positive effects of a favorable rainfall shock on agricultural wages, labor supply to market work, and per capita household expenditure. The share of hired labor in contrast declines substantially in response to a favorable productivity shock...

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Agricultural Sector Review; Revitalizing Agriculture for Economic Growth, Job Creation and Food Security

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
Economic growth, job creation, and development are central to the decade of transformation (2015-25) and long-term security for the people of Afghanistan. The Bank and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (GoIRA) recognize that agriculture and rural development are a key to inclusive growth, and hence need renewed vigor and strategic long-term investments. Further, the Bank and the GoIRA acknowledge that increases in agricultural productivity and market access for smallholders are critical for rural development, job creation, and food security in Afghanistan. Sections two and three of this report describe the agricultural sector and its current and potential roles in the Afghan economy, and present the rationale for choosing certain areas and subsectors for a selective 'first mover' strategy to achieve early gains. Section four outlines the constraints and potential in each of the three value chains proposed for the selective strategy, irrigated wheat, intensive livestock production, and horticulture. Section five describes cross-cutting constraints and how best to address them...

Making Work Pay in Madagascar : Employment, Growth, and Poverty Reduction

Hoftijzer, Margo; Paci, Pierella
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.67%
There is little doubt that economic growth contributes significantly to poverty reduction; however, countries clearly differ in the degree to which income growth translates into reduced levels of poverty. Although cross-country estimates suggest that differences in the responsiveness of poverty to income growth account for a small fraction of overall differences in poverty changes across countries, from the point of view of an individual country these differences may have significant implications for poverty reduction, especially in the short term. The report is structured into eight chapters, beginning with this introduction. Chapter two describes the data and the main definitions used in this report. Chapter three provides the socioeconomic context of the study, with a particular emphasis on growth, poverty, and labor market characteristics. Chapter four takes a look at the linkages between macro and microeconomic data by reviewing the ways in which changes in aggregate and sectoral labor productivity translate into individual earnings as gathered from the household surveys. Chapter five also reviews the relationships between productivity and earnings by looking at the linkages between changes in aggregate and sectoral labor productivity data (macro) and changes in individual earnings as gathered from the household surveys (micro). Chapter six examines the origins and determining factors of household earnings and employment and assesses their impact on poverty and poverty reduction. Chapter seven analyzes the individual and household characteristics that are associated with having either 'good' jobs or 'bad' jobs and reviews the question of whether there may be barriers preventing the movement of workers from bad to good labor market segments. Finally...

Kyrgyz Republic - Agricultural Policy Update : Sustaining Pro-poor Rural Growth, Rural Challenges for Government and Donors

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.43%
Critical choices must now be made if growth is to be sustained. Significant potential exists for future growth, but bringing out this potential poses a major challenge for government policy. Agricultural strategy must shift its focus towards support for continuous productivity growth by peasant farms in a conducive marketing environment. Key priorities include completion of land reforms (especially in the North); fundamental restructuring and reorientation of public agricultural services, with greater emphasis on private service delivery and cost recovery; and a shift in agricultural public expenditures toward support for private commodity markets and private-sector based systems for technology transfer. In addition, irrigation rehabilitation, operation and maintenance, and cost recovery should continue to receive attention and support. These measures will need to be complemented by broader rural development measures - most importantly the rehabilitation of basic infrastructure in rural areas - in a manner that supports the Government's policy of fiscal and administrative decentralization. Development of rural infrastructure that is locally planned...

Empleo rural no agrícola en Colombia de 1990 a 2012; Rural non-agricultural employment in Colombia from 1990 to 2012

Castaño Ortiz, Fabian Arley; Cañón, Raúl
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Economía Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Economía
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
SPA
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En este ensayo, se pretende establecer cuál ha sido la participación del empleo rural no agrícola en Colombia dentro del conjunto del empleo rural en el período 1990 a 2012. La expresión “empleo rural no agrícola (ERNA)” se utilizará para referirnos a la ocupación principal en actividades no agrícolas de residentes en zonas rurales, entendiéndose por ERNA el empleo directo generado en los subsectores: ganadería, pesca, caza, porcicultura, avicultura, comercio, manufactura, servicios financieros, minas y canteras, comunicaciones y servicios personales. El presente documento fue elaborado a partir del análisis de información obtenida a través de fuentes secundarias y corresponde a un estudio de tipo retrospectivo y horizontal con enfoque cuantitativo.; This essay seeks to establish what has been the participation of rural nonfarm employment in Colombia within the set of rural employment in the period 1990-2012. The term " rural nonfarm employment ( ERNA ) " is used to refer to the main occupation of residents farm activities in rural areas , meaning ERNA direct employment generated in the sub-sectors : farming, fishing , hunting , pig , poultry , trade, manufacturing , financial services, mining and quarrying , communications and personal services. This document was developed through the analysis of information obtained through secondary sources and corresponds to a retrospective study and quantitative approach horizontal.

Incidencia del PIB agrícola en el nivel de empleo agrario. Un análisis comparativo para países seleccionados de Latinoamérica; Incidence of agricultural GDP in the level of agricultural employment. A comparative analysis for selected Latin American countries

Buitrago Torres, Catalina; Marrugo Lazada, Manuel; Ramírez Vigoya, Alejandro; Yanes Guerra, Carlos
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Economía Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Economía
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Este documento presenta un análisis sobre la incidencia del PIB agrícola en el nivel de empleo agrario para una muestra de 10 países de Latinoamérica en el periodo de 1990-2010, para ello, en este articulo se elaboró un modelo de empleo-producto propuesto por Harvey (1986) con la metodología de datos panel; adicionalmente se hizo una recopilación literaria para cada país sobre las políticas económicas agrarias, la coyuntura económica del sector y el comportamiento de la principales variables del mismo, con el fin de contextualizar los resultados del modelo econométrico en donde se determinó una incidencia negativa del PIB agrícola en el nivel de empleo agrario y un mismo comportamiento para todos los países.; This paper presents an analysis on the impact of agricultural GDP in agricultural employment level for a sample of 10 Latin American countries in the period 1990-2010, for this, in this article an employment model proposed by Harvey-product was developed (1986) with the methodology of panel data; further a literary collection for each country on agricultural economic policies, the economic situation of the sector and the behavior of the main variables of the same was made, in order to contextualize the results of the econometric model where a negative impact of agricultural GDP in the level of agricultural employment and the same behavior for all countries was determined.