Página 1 dos resultados de 34 itens digitais encontrados em 0.003 segundos

Credit Constraints and Investment Behavior in Mexico’s Rural Economy

Love, Inessa; Sanchez, Susana M.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.26%
This paper uses two recently completed surveys of individual entrepreneurs (farmers and microentrepreneurs) and registered enterprises (agricultural and nonagricultural) operating in Mexico s rural sector to provide new evidence about the factors influencing the incidence of credit constraints and investment behavior. To measure the incidence of credit constraints, the authors use self-reported information on whether economic agents have a demand for loans, separating formal and informal markets. They define credit constraints as a situation where rural agents report an unsatisfied demand for loans (formal or informal), which originates from rural agents having projects that are too risky or from impediments hindering the ability of rural agents and lenders to reduce information asymmetries. The authors find that the self-reported demand for loans is low. Nevertheless, the incidence of credit constraints is pervasive, especially among individual entrepreneurs. The low use of loans has consequences for the amount of investments that occur in the rural economy...

Vyāghranomics in Space and Time : Estimating Habitat Threats for Bengal, Indochinese, Malayan and Sumatran Tigers

Dasgupta, Susmita; Hammer, Dan; Kraft, Robin; Wheeler, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.42%
As the wild tiger population in tropical Asia dropped from about 100,000 to 3,500 in the last century, the need to conserve tiger habitats poses a challenge for the Global Tiger Recovery Program. This paper develops and uses a high-resolution monthly forest clearing database for 74 tiger habitat areas in ten countries to investigate habitat threats for Bengal, Indochinese, Malayan and Sumatran tigers. The econometric model links forest habitat loss and forest clearing to profitability calculations that are affected by market expectations, environmental conditions and evolving patterns of settlement, among others. It uses new spatial panel estimation methods that allow for temporal and spatial autocorrelation. The econometric results emphasize the role of short-run market variables, including the exchange rate, real interest rate and prices of agricultural products in forest clearing, with considerable variation in the estimated timing for response and impact elasticities across countries. The results highlight a critical message for the conservation policy community: Changes in world agricultural-product markets and national financial policies have significant...

The Political Economy of the World Bank : The Early Years

Alacevich, Michele
Fonte: Stanford: Stanford University Press and the World Bank Publicador: Stanford: Stanford University Press and the World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.36%
This book covers the early years of the International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), commonly known as the World Bank when it first confronted the issue of development as a fundamental part of its mission. The book is mainly concerned with how the Bank interpreted its mission and, more specifically, how its mission was born: what events shaped it, what cultural and ideological background influenced it and what was the historical context in which it arose. So this book is a contribution to the study of the prehistory of development, understood in its social and economic context. In this respect, the study of the early years of the World Bank offers excellent context for observation for three reasons. First, during its history there is a clear separation between the growth phase and the phase of social objectives. Second, in the first years of activity already the Bank could hear murmurs of opposition. Finally, there was a sudden change in the mandate of the institution changed from supporting the reconstruction of Europe after the war, to help developing countries. The transition from one phase to another was a formative one and redefined the institution. The upshot of the foregoing was to set a fertile ground for exploring the signs of conflict between the different approaches to development. The first chapter deals with the historiography that underlies the writing. It refers to a wide literature using periods of transition or crisis in the history of the institution to understand its dynamics and mechanisms. Reducing its support for European reconstruction...

A Strategy for Development

Stern, Nicholas
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.1%
This book is about a collection of speeches -all delivered since Nicholas Stern became Chief Economist of the World Bank in July 2000- they reflect insights that Mr. Stern has gained over more than three decades of study and work in development economics. Together they provide an analysis of development experience and an agenda for action in coming years. In his introduction the author explains the evolution of his ideas, starting with early work in Africa and India, within the larger context of changes in development thinking and strategy. The speeches that follow draw on his varied experience and on the research findings and operational experience of the World Bank. The first speech provides and overview of the past five decades of development. Speeches that follow explore current development issues in India, Indonesia, Pakistan, and China. A strategy for development is then outlined; building an economic climate that facilitates investment and growth, and empowering poor people to participate in that growth. A concluding speech examines the role of the international financial institutions in promoting investment and overcoming poverty.

Estimating Quarterly Poverty Rates Using Labor Force Surveys : A Primer

Douidich, Mohamed; Ezzrari, Abdeljaouad; Van der Weide, Roy; Verme, Paolo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.39%
The paper shows how Labor Force Surveys can be used effectively to estimate poverty rates using Household Expenditure Surveys and cross-survey imputation methods. With only two rounds of Household Expenditure Survey data for Morocco (2001 and 2007), the paper estimates quarterly poverty rates for the period 2001-2010 by imputing household expenditures into the Labor Force Surveys. The results are encouraging. The methodology is able to accurately reproduce official poverty statistics by combining current Labor Force Surveys with previous period Household Expenditure Surveys, and vice versa. Although the focus is on head-count poverty, the method can be applied to any welfare indicator that is a function of household income or expenditure, such as the poverty gap or the Gini index of inequality. The newly produced time-series of poverty rates can help researchers and policy makers to: (a) study the determinants of poverty reduction or use poverty as an explanatory factor in cross-section and panel models; (b) forecast poverty rates based on a time-series model fitted to the data; and (c) explore the linkages between labor market conditions and poverty and simulate the effects of policy reforms or economic shocks. This is a promising research agenda that can expand significantly the tool-kit of the welfare economist.

India : Diagnostic Assessment of Select Environmental Challenges, Volume 3. Valuation of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in India

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.1%
This report provides estimates of social and financial costs of environmental damage in India from three pollution damage categories: (i) urban air pollution, including particulate matter and lead; (ii) inadequate water supply, poor sanitation, and hygiene; (iii) indoor air pollution; and four natural resource damage categories: (a) agricultural damage from soil salinity, water logging, and soil erosion; (b) rangeland degradation; (c) deforestation; and (d) natural disasters. The estimates are based on a combination of Indian data from secondary sources and on the transfer of unit costs of pollution from a range of national and international studies. The quantification and monetary valuation of environmental damage involves many scientific disciplines including environmental, physical, and biological and health sciences, epidemiology, and environmental economics. Estimates of the costs of degradation are generally reported as a percent of conventional gross domestic product (GDP). This provides a useful estimate of the importance of environmental damages but it should not be interpreted that GDP will increase by a given percent if the degradation were to be reduced to zero. Any measures to reduce environmental degradation will have a cost and the additional cost goes up the greater is the reduction that is made. Hence a program to remove all degradation can well result in a lower GDP. This report provides a measure of the overall damage relative to a benchmark...

Rice in the Shadow of Skyscrapers : Policy Choices in a Dynamic East and Southeast Asian Setting

Dawe, David; Jaffee, Steven; Santos, Nuno
Fonte: FAO, Rome Publicador: FAO, Rome
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.54%

Romania - Functional Review : Agriculture and Rural Development Administration

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
This report presents the outcomes of the functional review of Romania's agricultural administration. Given the sectoral and territorial relevance of its regulatory domain, Romania s Agricultural and Rural Development Administration is a key administrative body undergoing this Functional Review. The review will examine whether the policy goals and objectives of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MADR) and its agencies are clearly defined in measurable and achievable terms; whether the management systems, policies, staffing, and internal organizational structure are appropriate to meet objectives; and whether and to what extent factors external to the institutions impede the ability to meet objectives fully. The review analyzes factors promoting and/or limiting the efficiency and effectiveness of the agricultural and rural policy delivery in Romania. It aims at providing practical recommendations on: enhanced strategic coordination of policies and programs in the agricultural and rural policy domain; improved management and implementation of CAP support measures...

Biofuels in Africa : Opportunities, Prospects, and Challenges

Mitchell, Donald
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.42%
Biofuels offer new opportunities for African countries. They can contribute to economic growth, employment, and rural incomes. They can become an important export for some countries and provide low-cost fuel for others. There is also a potentially large demand for biofuels to meet the rapidly growing need for local fuel. Abundant natural resources and low-cost labor make producing biofuel feedstock's a viable alternative to traditional crops; and the preferential access available to most African countries to protected markets in industrial countries provides unique export opportunities. Biofuels also bring challenges and risks, including potential land-use conflicts, environmental risks, and heightened concerns about food security. This book examines the potential of African countries to produce biofuels for export or domestic consumption and looks at the policy framework needed. It is part of the effort by the World Bank's Africa region to examine critical issues that affect the region and to recommend policies that effectively address these issues while providing an enabling environment for the private sector. The book is intended to inform policy makers and the larger development community of the global and domestic market opportunities facing biofuel producers...

Towards a Vision for Agricultural Innovation in Chile in 2030

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
This paper aims to develop a vision statement for the agricultural sector that may then guide the future investments in Chile's agricultural innovation system, A joint and shared perspective on how the sector might look and what role agricultural innovation should play in getting there is a prerequisite for any effective strategy. But developing such a vision is not only a function of what the country wants: it also depends on the context in which Chile's agricultural sector will find itself. This paper therefore reports on a participatory process to explore the many uncertainties that surround Chile's agriculture and to derive possible implications and answers. This will then lead to a vision for the sector that should be realistic both in terms of Chile's agricultural ambitions and its surrounding uncertainties. Based on the vision, a series of topics that needs to be explored in the agricultural innovation system if Chile wishes to make its vision come true will be identified and briefly described. The current paper is the second one in a series of three that were agreed between the Government of Chile and the World Bank to support the development of a long term agricultural innovation strategy. The first paper reviewed the functioning of the three main public technological institutes and made recommendations on how their performance can be improved. This second study explores the future of Chile's agriculture towards 2030...

Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics 2003 : The New Reform Agenda

Pleskovic, Boris; Stern, Nicholas
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.26%
The Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics seeks to expand the flow of ideas among development policy researchers, academics, and practitioners from around the world. It is a premier forum for World Bank and other experts to exchange ideas, challenge one another's findings, and expand theoretical and practical knowledge of development. Each year the topics selected for the conference represent new matters of concern or areas that will benefit from a review of what we know and from the identification of what still needs to be explored and expanded. This year's conference, held at the World Bank on April 29-30, 2002, addressed four themes: trade and poverty, Africa's future in terms of industrial and/or agricultural development, education and empowerment, and investment climate and productivity, with Andrew Berg and Anne Krueger, Paul Collier, Simeon Djankov, Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez-De-Silanes, and Andrei Schleifer, Ravi Kanbur, Carmen M. Reinhart and Kenneth S. Rogoff, L. Alan Winters...

Myanmar : Capitalizing on Rice Export Opportunities

World Bank
Fonte: Bangkok Publicador: Bangkok
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
Improving agricultural productivity and promoting exports are top priorities for the Government of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar. Given the centrality of rice to the rejuvenation of agriculture in Myanmar, the rice sector is of critical importance, especially rice exports. The government announced ambitious targets of 2 million metric tons (tons)2 of rice exports by 2014/15 and 4 million tons by 2019/20. Recent actual performance is falling short of these targets, but the opening of Myanmar's economy has already helped significantly increase rice exports. The rest of the report is organized as follows. Chapter two provides information on recent rice export developments in Myanmar. Chapter three presents the evolving export opportunities as well as challenges that must be overcome to capitalize on them. Chapter four describes the main constraints at various segments of the value chain and offers possible remedies. Chapter five discusses how rice policy should evolve to support modernization of the rice value chain. Chapter six offers conclusions and policy recommendations. Seven annexes provide further...

Quantitative Value Chain Analysis : An Application to Malawi

Tchale, Hardwick; Keyser, John
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.54%
The Government of Malawi has since 2005 been pursuing a growth strategy mainly based on increasing the volume of agricultural exports. This entails that Malawi should endeavor to improve the competitiveness of its agricultural commodities so as to gain an increasing share of the regional and international markets. This paper analyzes the competitiveness of the country's key agricultural commodities -- tobacco, maize, cotton, and rice -- using prices that prevailed in the 2007/08 agricultural season. The paper employs a quantitative value chain methodology to assess the country's prospects for competitiveness and suggest weak links along the value chain that require attention in order to improve trade competitiveness. The results indicate that Malawi has some competitive advantage in the production and exportation of tobacco and cotton, and that this mostly derives from its low labor cost advantage. However, the results indicate that based on 2007/08 prices and costs, Malawi does not have competitive edge in maize and rice production for export. As such...

Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics--Europe 2006 : Securing Development in an Unstable World

Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.1%
The Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE) is one of the world's best-known series of conferences for the presentation and discussion of new knowledge on development. It is an opportunity for many of the world's finest development thinkers to present their ideas. In 1999, in recognition of Europe's pivotal role in the provision of development assistance and to bring the World Bank's research on development into close contact with European perspectives, the World Bank created a distinctively European platform for debate on development issues. The seventh Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics in Europe was held in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, May 23-24, 2005. The conference was co-organized by the Government of the Netherlands. The theme of the conference was "Securing Development in an Unstable World." The conference opened with remarks by Jean-François Rischard, the World Bank's Vice President for Europe, and Agnes van Ardenne-van der Hoeven, Minister for Development Cooperation...

Benin : Financial Sector Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Financial Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.36%
This report combines a study undertaken in two phases of the Benin financial sector. Phase 1 of the study, conducted in 2003, provided a diagnostic of the financial system and focused on the state and performance of commercial banks, microfinance institutions, insurance companies and the pension fund system. Phase 2 of the study, conducted in the first half of 2004, focused on analyzing the access to finance issue identified during the diagnostic study. The lack of access to financial services by the majority of the population in Benin was the main issue revealed by the study. The study explored the view among financial institutions and banks that the lack of credit to the majority and to small and medium enterprises in particular was due to a judicial system that is slow, efficient, arbitrary, and nontransparent. Weaknesses in the legal and judicial framework governing enforceability of commercial contracts and property rights, collateral, and land and real estate registration were cited by bankers as major obstacles to the development of greater access to credit.

Ukraine Agricultural Competitiveness

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
The agri-food sector is an important part of the Ukrainian economy. Agriculture could make an even larger contribution to economic growth and the vitality of rural areas in Ukraine than is currently the case. Ukraine has the agro-climatic potential to be a major player on world agricultural markets. Agricultural competitiveness in Ukraine also suffers from inadequate systems to test and document food product quality and food safety. Ukraine's food safety control system is complicated and characterized by fragmented and often overlapping jurisdictions. Many standards applied in Ukraine are inconsistent with World Trade Organization (WTO) provisions, with standards established by the responsible international bodies and with accepted practices in international trade. Without improvements towards an efficient and internationally recognized food quality and safety control system, Ukrainian agriculture will find it increasingly difficult to sell into international markets and its products will not be able to command top prices. The ban on Ukrainian meat...

Agribusiness Indicators : Kenya

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
The importance of agriculture in the economies of sub-Saharan African countries cannot be overemphasized. With agriculture accounting for about 65 percent of the region's employment and 75 percent of its domestic trade, significant progress in reducing hunger and poverty across the region depends on the development and transformation of the agricultural sector. Transforming agriculture from largely a subsistence enterprise to a profitable commercial venture is the prerequisite and driving force for accelerated development and sustainable economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. The rationale behind the development of agribusiness indicators (ABIs) is to construct indicators for specific factors to support successful, effective private sector involvement in agriculture. The indicators can be used to benchmark and monitor performance in the agricultural sector over time and across countries. The resulting information can provoke knowledge flows and meaningful dialogue among policy makers, government officials...

Beyond the City: The Rural Contribution to Development

de Ferranti, David; Perry, Guillermo E.; Foster, William; Lederman, Daniel; Valdés, Alberto
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.51%
Beyond the City evaluates the contribution of rural development and policies to growth, poverty alleviation, and environmental degradation in the rest of the economy, as well as in the rural space. This title brings together new theoretical and empirical treatments of the links between rural and national development. New findings and are combined with existing literature to enhance our understanding of the how rural economic activities contribute to various aspects of national development. The study is based on original research funded by the World Bank's Office of the Chief Economist for Latin America and the Caribbean. Of particular relevance is the interaction between agricultural and territorial development issues. The empirical findings also make substantial contributions to the debate over the appropriate design of public policies aiming to enhance the rural contribution to national development, including economic growth, poverty reduction, environmental sustainability, and macroeconomic stability.

Friedrich List and Oliveira Marreca: some odd coincidences

Bastien, Carlos
Fonte: ISEG - GHES Publicador: ISEG - GHES
Tipo: Pré-impressão
Publicado em //1997 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.36%
In the middle of the 19th century Portuguese economic backwardness was apparent to the most attentive intellectuals who tried to analyse its causes. António Oliveira Marreca (1805-1889), an economist and politician, was one of them. At first he supported free trade, but as time went by he became closer to the nationalist, protectionist doctrines. His arguments reveal an impressive similarity to the economic views of Friedrich List (1789-1846), though Marreca had never showed to be aware of List's writings. However Marreca's analysis of the effects of Portuguese economic dependence from England - an important cause of Portuguese backwardness in his opinion - and the very concepts he applies - namely the concept of nation -are extremely close to the ideas developed by the German economist. As far as economic policy is concerned, Marreca's prescriptions were also definitly similar to the policies advocated by List. Both emphasized the need of a temporary industrial protectionism, no protection for the agricultural sector and the development of a transport network to support the implementation of a national economy.

Modelling loss of resilience in agroecosystems: rangelands in Botswana

Perrings, C; Stern, David
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.1%
Economist have recently begun to consider the questions raised by the ecological concept of resilience - a measure of the degree to which a system can be perturbed before it switches from one stability domain to another. At a theoretical level, it has been argued that the loss of resilience in an ecological-economic system involves a change in its long-run productive potential, but no consideration has yet been given to the empirical investigation of this. This paper discusses an econometric approach to the problem, using the example of semi-arid rangelands. The long-run productive potential of the system is regarded as an unobserved state variable, change in which is irreversible or at least only slowly reversible. It is estimated by applying the extended (nonlinear) Kalman filter. The paper illustrates the approach using data from Botswana for the period 1965-1993. The maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters associated with the loss of resilience mechanism are non-zero. They indicate a small loss of resilience event at the end of the long drought in the 1980s. However, these parameters are very imprecisely estimated and are therefore statistically insignificant. We find that the sensitivity of the system to exogenous shocks varies with fluctuations in both economic and non-economic parameters. Contratry to what is usually thought to be the case...