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Georgia - Poverty dynamics, 2003-2010

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
For Georgia, the 2000s were characterized not only by sweeping economic reforms and subsequent strong growth, but also by two major shocks. Following the rose revolution, the Georgian economy and institutions underwent major positive transformations and saw significant improvements in the functioning of the public institutions. The Government of Georgia (GOG) made a sustained effort to improve the climate for doing business, promote private sector development, and establish the policy framework to attract foreign direct investment (FDI). Buoyed by sound policies and structural reforms, Georgia achieved an average annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate of more than 9 percent from 2004-2007. The potential poverty and social impacts of the major shocks that resulted in decline of economic output in the second half of 2008 and in 2009 are also unknown. There is a general belief that poverty incidence increased during the crises. However, again due to a lack of relevant and comparable data, the magnitude of change in poverty incidence is largely unknown. The main objective of this note is to fill this information gap. The report shows the trends in monetary dimensions of living standards and the dynamics in the distribution of the poor at the urban and rural level for various time periods. It presents empirical estimations regarding how much poverty declined during the high growth period and increased during the crises. Specifically...

Poverty Lines across the World

Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
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46.61%
National poverty lines vary greatly across the world, from under $1 per person per day to over $40 (at 2005 purchasing power parity). What accounts for these huge differences, and can they be understood within a common global definition of poverty? For all except the poorest countries, the absolute, nutrition-based, poverty lines found in practice tend to behave more like relative lines, in that they are higher for richer countries. Prevailing methods of setting absolute lines allow ample scope for such relativity, even when nutritional norms are common across countries. Both macro data on poverty lines across the world and micro data on subjective perceptions of poverty are consistent with a weak form of relativity that combines absolute consumption needs with social-inclusion needs that are positive for the poorest but rise with a country s mean consumption. The strong form of relativism favored by some developed countries -- whereby the line is set at a fixed proportion of the mean -- emerges as the limiting case for very rich countries.

Assessing Poverty and Distributional Impacts of the Global Crisis in the Philippines : A Microsimulation Approach

Habib, Bilal; Narayan, Ambar; Olivieri, Sergio; Sanchez-Paramo, Carolina
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.58%
As the financial crisis has spread through the world, the lack of real-time data has made it difficult to track its impact in developing countries. This paper uses a micro-simulation approach to assess the poverty and distributional effects of the crisis in the Philippines. The authors find increases in both the level and the depth of aggregate poverty. Income shocks are relatively large in the middle part of the income distribution. They also find that characteristics of people who become poor because of the crisis are different from those of both chronically poor people and the general population. The findings can be useful for policy makers wishing to identify leading monitoring indicators to track the impact of macroeconomic shocks and to design policies that protect vulnerable groups.

Weakly Relative Poverty

Chen, Shaohua; Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
Prevailing measures of relative poverty put an implausibly high weight on relative deprivation, such that measured poverty does not fall when all incomes grow at the same rate. This stems from the (implicit) assumption in past measures that very poor people incur a negligible cost of social inclusion. That assumption is inconsistent with evidence on the social roles of certain private expenditures in poor settings and with data on national poverty lines. The authors propose a new schedule of "weakly relative" lines that relax this assumption and estimate the implied poverty measures for 116 developing countries. The authors find that there is more relative poverty than past estimates have suggested. In 2005, one half of the population of the developing world lived in relative poverty, half of whom were absolutely poor. The total number of relatively poor rose over 1981-2005, despite falling numbers of absolutely poor. With sustained economic growth, the incidence of relative poverty becomes less responsive to further growth. Slower progress against relative poverty can thus be seen as the "other side of the coin" to success against absolute poverty.

The Pattern of Growth and Poverty Reduction in China

Montalvo, Jose G.; Ravallion, Martin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.73%
China has seen a huge reduction in the incidence of extreme poverty since the economic reforms that started in the late 1970s. Yet, the growth process has been highly uneven across sectors and regions. The paper tests whether the pattern of China´s growth mattered to poverty reduction using a new provincial panel data set constructed for this purpose. The econometric tests support the view that the primary sector (mainly agriculture) has been the main driving force in poverty reduction over the period since 1980. It was the sectoral unevenness in the growth process, rather than its geographic unevenness, that handicapped poverty reduction. Yes, China has had great success in reducing poverty through economic growth, but this happened despite the unevenness in its sectoral pattern of growth. The idea of a trade-off between these sectors in terms of overall progress against poverty in China turns out to be a moot point, given how little evidence there is of any poverty impact of non-primary sector growth, controlling for primary-sector growth. While the non-primary sectors were key drivers of aggregate growth...

Growth and Poverty Reduction : Case Studies from West Africa

Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
The objective of this volume is to assess the relationships between growth and poverty reduction on the basis of a number of case studies, all but one of which are based on recent household survey data. The first part of the volume presents data on Ghana and Senegal, two countries that have benefited from high levels of growth over the last dozen years. The analysis suggests that growth led to substantial reductions in the share of the population in poverty. Yet growth could not be said to be "pro-poor" because the gains in consumption for better off households were proportionately larger than the gains for poorer households. In the second part of the volume, case studies for Burkina Faso and Cape Verde are presented to solve the paradox of high growth without poverty reduction. It was initially believed in both countries that there had been no poverty reduction despite high growth during the 1990s. Yet a closer examination of the data suggests that this paradox was actually due to measurement errors: more careful work confirmed that poverty reduction was substantial. The third and last part of the volume presents case studies for Guinea-Bissau and Nigeria on the impediments to growth...

A Poverty-Focused Evaluation of Commodity Tax Options

Essama-Nssah, B.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.59%
The difficulties faced by many developing countries in raising revenue from direct taxes have forced them to rely heavily on indirect taxes to finance development interventions. The purpose of this paper is to show how to identify socially desirable options for commodity taxation in the context of a poverty reduction strategy. Within the logic of social evaluation the author assesses tax options on the basis of value judgments underlying members of the additively separable class of poverty measures. The criterion hinges on both the pattern of consumption of each commodity and the price elasticity of the poverty measure used. An application of this methodology to data for Guinea shows that many components of food expenditure (particularly cereals, grains, and roots) would be good candidates for exemption from value-added tax. Even though expenditure on health and education is distributed in favor of the non-poor, their importance for human capital development argues for a program of targeted subsidies in a broader context of cost recovery.

Kyrgyz Republic : Poverty Update, Profile of Living Standards in 2003

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
This report examines poverty issues in the Kyrgyz Republic, focusing on three areas. First, it provides a summary of the trends in poverty over the period 2000-2003 by drawing upon comparable data from the Household Budget Surveys from those years. Second, based upon the Kyrgyz Integrated Household Survey (KIHS ) it presents the new estimates of absolute and extreme poverty by applying updated poverty analysis methodology. Third, the report provides a profile of the poor in order to determine whether with the changes in survey instruments and sampling, there have been any major changes in the composition and location of the poor. It is organized with: an overview of the main social and infrastructure indictors of the Kyrgyz Republic against other Europe and Central Asia countries; a review of the changes in poverty over time; and an updated poverty profile using the KIHS data. Annexes both present the methodology and elaborate on methodological and statistical topics

Measuring the Pro-Poorness of Income Growth within an Elasticity Framework

Essama-Nssah, B.; Lambert, Peter J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.77%
Poverty reduction has become a fundamental objective of development, and therefore a metric for assessing the effectiveness of various interventions. Economic growth can be a powerful instrument of income poverty reduction. This creates a need for meaningful ways of assessing the poverty impact of growth. This paper follows the elasticity approach to propose a measure of pro-poorness defined as a weighted average of the deviation of a growth pattern from the benchmark case. The measure can help assess pro-poorness both in terms of aggregate poverty measures, which are members of the additively separable class, and at percentiles. It also lends itself to a decomposition procedure, whereby the overall pattern of income growth can be unbundled, and the contributions of income components to overall pro-poorness identified. An application to data for Indonesia in the 1990s reveals that the amount of poverty reduction achieved over that period remains far below what would have been achieved under distributional neutrality. This conclusion is robust to the choice of a poverty measure among members of the additively separable class, and can be tracked back to changes in expenditure components.

The Impact of the Financial Crisis on Poverty and Income Distribution : Insights from Simulations in Selected Countries

Habib, Bilal; Narayan, Ambar; Olivieri, Sergio; Sanchez, Carolina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.61%
As the financial crisis has spread through the world, the lack of real-time data has made it difficult to track its impact in developing countries. The authors use a micro-simulation approach to assess the poverty and distributional effects of the crisis. In Bangladesh, Mexico, and the Philippines, the authors find increases in both the level and the depth of aggregate poverty. Income shocks are relatively large in the middle (and, in Mexico, the bottom) parts of the income distribution. The authors also find that characteristics of people who become poor because of the crisis are different from those of both chronically poor people and the general population. Findings will be useful for policy makers wishing to identify leading monitoring indicators to track the impact of macroeconomic shocks and to design policies that protect vulnerable groups.

Poverty and the Policy Response to the Economic Crisis in Liberia

Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
The purpose of this study is to provide in one place a set of papers that were written at various points in time over the last four years on poverty and the response to the recent economic crisis in Liberia. More precisely, the objective of the study is twofold. First it is to provide a basic diagnostic of both consumption-based poverty and human development (especially education and health) in the country using the 2007 CWIQ (Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire) survey. Second, it is to assess the likely impact on the poor of the recent economic crisis, and especially the increase in rice prices, and to document the targeting performance of measures taken by the government in 2008/09 to help the poor cope with the crisis. These measures included a reduction in import taxes for rice, a reform of the personal income tax, and the implementation of cash for work temporary employment program. This introductory chapter outlines the topics covered in the various chapters of the study and summarizes their main results. The study is structured in three parts. Part one consists of three basic diagnostic chapters for poverty, education, and health. Part two is devoted to assessing the likely impact on the poor of the recent economic crisis...

Microfinance and Poverty : Evidence using Panel Data from Bangladesh

Khandker, Shahidur R.
Fonte: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.67%
Microfinance supports mainly informal activities that often have a low return and low market demand. It may therefore be hypothesized that the aggregate poverty impact of microfinance is modest or even nonexistent. If true, the poverty impact of microfinance observed at the participant level represents either income redistribution or short run income generation from the microfinance intervention. This article examines the effects of microfinance on poverty reduction at both the participant and the aggregate levels using panel data from Bangladesh. The results suggest that access to microfinance contributes to poverty reduction, especially for female participants, and to overall poverty reduction at the village level. Microfinance thus helps not only poor participants but also the local economy.

Micro-Finance and Poverty : Evidence Using Panel Data from Bangladesh

Khandker, Shahidur R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.66%
Micro-finance supports mainly informal activities that often have low market demand. It may be thus hypothesized that the aggregate poverty impact of micro-finance in an economy with low economic growth is modest or nonexistent. The observed borrower-level poverty impact is then a result of income redistribution or short-run income generation. The author addresses these questions using household level panel data from Bangladesh. The findings confirm that micro-finance benefits the poorest and has sustained impact in reducing poverty among program participants. It also has positive spillover impact, reducing poverty at the village level. But the effect is more pronounced in reducing extreme rather than moderate poverty.

Understanding Changes in Poverty

Inchauste, Gabriela; Azevedo, João Pedro; Essama-Nssah, B.; Olivieri, Sergio; Van Nguyen, Trang; Saavedra-Chanduvi, Jaime; Winkler, Hernan
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
Understanding Changes in Poverty brings together different methods to decompose the contributions to poverty reduction. A simple approach quantifies the contribution of changes in demographics, employment, earnings, public transfers, and remittances to poverty reduction. A more complex approach quantifies the contributions to poverty reduction from changes in individual and household characteristics, including changes in the sectoral, occupational, and educational structure of the workforce, as well as changes in the returns to individual and household characteristics. Understanding Changes in Poverty implements these approaches and finds that labor income growth that is, growth in income per worker rather than an increase in the number of employed workers was the largest contributor to moderate poverty reduction in 21 countries experiencing substantial reductions in poverty over the past decade. Changes in demographics, public transfers, and remittances helped, but made relatively smaller contributions to poverty reduction. Further decompositions in three countries find that labor income grew mainly because of higher returns to human capital endowments...

Estimating Poverty with Panel Data, Comparably

Jolliffe, Dean; Serajuddin, Umar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.6%
Poverty estimates based on enumeration from a single point in time form the cornerstone for much of the literature on poverty. Households are typically interviewed once about their consumption or income, and their wellbeing is assessed from their responses. Global estimates of poverty that aggregate poverty counts from all countries implicitly assume that the counts are comparable. This paper illustrates that this assumption of comparability is potentially invalid when households are interviewed multiple times with repeat visits throughout the year. The paper provides an example from Jordan, where the internationally comparable approach of handling the data from repeat visits yields a poverty rate that is 26 percent greater than the rate that is currently reported as the official estimate. The paper also explores alternative definitions of poverty, informed in part by the psychological and biophysical literature on the long-run effects of short-term exposure to poverty or generally adverse environments. This alternative concept of poverty suggests that the prevalence of those who have been affected by poverty in Jordan during 2010 is more than twice as large as the official 2010 estimate of poverty.

Poverty and the Policy Response to the Economic Crisis in Liberia

Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
The purpose of this study is to provide in one place a set of papers that were written at various points in time over the last four years on poverty and the response to the recent economic crisis in Liberia. More precisely, the objective of the study is twofold. First it is to provide a basic diagnostic of both consumption-based poverty and human development (especially education and health) in the country using the 2007 CWIQ (Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire) survey. Second, it is to assess the likely impact on the poor of the recent economic crisis, and especially the increase in rice prices, and to document the targeting performance of measures taken by the government in 2008/09 to help the poor cope with the crisis. These measures included a reduction in import taxes for rice, a reform of the personal income tax, and the implementation of cash for work temporary employment program. This introductory chapter outlines the topics covered in the various chapters of the study and summarizes their main results. The study is structured in three parts. Part one consists of three basic diagnostic chapters for poverty, education, and health. Part two is devoted to assessing the likely impact on the poor of the recent economic crisis...

Kosovo : Poverty assessment, Volume 1. Accelerating Inclusive Growth to Reduce Widespread Poverty; Vleresimi i varferise ne Kosove Procena siromastva na Kosovu

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
Poverty in Kosovo is widespread and has remained persistent in the first half of this decade. The evidence suggests that poverty is higher among those who live in families that are large, have many unemployed members, and have low education levels. The poor are also geographically concentrated in rural areas and a few regions. The main message of this report is that the slow and volatile growth was doubly disadvantageous. The first disadvantage was that it did not enable a significant fraction of the population to earn their way out of poverty. The second disadvantage was that by constraining the government's revenue base, it made it difficult for many families to receive adequate public protection against shocks. Therefore, to improve welfare in the future, the report recommends a focus on generating high and sustainable growth by improving urban services and infrastructure and addressing inequities in the access to secondary and higher education for the poorest population transitioning out of over-reliance on migration...

Mali : Poverty and Gender Notes

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Poverty Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world, with a gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of about $ 691 in 2010. Mali's steady per capita GDP growth was accompanied with a significant decline in the poverty rate, from 55.6 percent in 2001 to 43.6 percent in 2009-10. Mali's rapid population growth still has led to an increase of the overall number of people living in poverty, and is constraining progress in terms of per capita health and education outcomes. High fertility rates and gender imbalances are key drivers of Mali's poverty dynamics. The present report compiles three different notes, emphasizing the interrelation between poverty, demographics and gender imbalances. The first note discusses the evolution of poverty in Mali since 2001. The second note reviews recent demographic trends and related policies. The third note reports on the latest available data on females in business and employment within the formal sector. The compilation of these three notes aims to stimulate debates and the exploration of policy options to tackle poverty through its interactions with fertility and gender imbalances. It also highlights conclusion of each note.

The Kyrgyz Republic : Poverty Update, 2011

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Poverty Assessment; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
This report aims to provide an update of the profile of the poor and describe the dynamics of poverty and inequality in the Kyrgyz Republic during 2007-2011. This period was marked by economic and political volatility which adversely impacted the country's capacity to achieve some of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The lack of progress in indicators related to maternal and child health and combating HIV/AIDS and other diseases continues to be of concern. However, in comparison to other low-income countries, non-monetary indicators of poverty in the Kyrgyz Republic fare relatively well in such areas as health, education, and access to basic infrastructure services. The report finds that at the micro-level the leading factors associated with poverty are household demographic characteristics. Larger and younger households with relatively fewer income-generating members and more net consumers, such as children, are more prone to poverty. Female-headed households have lower consumption per capita all other things held equal.

New Evidence on the Urbanization of Global Poverty

Ravallion, Martin; Chen, Shaohua; Sangraula, Prem
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.6%
The authors provide new evidence on the extent to which absolute poverty has urbanized in the developing world, and the role that population urbanization has played in overall poverty reduction. They find that one-quarter of the world's consumption poor live in urban areas and that the proportion has been rising over time. By fostering economic growth, urbanization helped reduce absolute poverty in the aggregate but did little for urban poverty. Over 1993-2002, the count of the "$1 a day" poor fell by 150 million in rural areas but rose by 50 million in urban areas. The poor have been urbanizing even more rapidly than the population as a whole. Looking forward, the recent pace of urbanization and current forecasts for urban population growth imply that a majority of the poor will still live in rural areas for many decades to come. There are marked regional differences: Latin America has the most urbanized poverty problem, East Asia has the least; there has been a "ruralization" of poverty in Eastern Europe and Central Asia; in marked contrast to other regions...