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Os millennials em Portugal: estudo exploratório a partir de um coorte etário sobre engagement consumidor-marca

Freitas, Inês Jardim Vital de
Fonte: Escola Superior de Comunicação Social Publicador: Escola Superior de Comunicação Social
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /11/2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
Dissertação apresentada à Escola Superior de Comunicação Social como parte dos requisitos para obtenção de grau de mestre em Publicidade e Marketing.; A Era Digital revolucionou os paradigmas comunicacionais vigentes. A Geracao Millennial compreende todos os nascidos entre o início dos anos 1980 e os anos 1990: Um coorte etário que surge como o primeiro considerado efectivamente nativo digital. Esta e, assim, uma geração representativa de um processo de transição face as gerações anteriores. Tem como objectivo esta investigação compreender o comportamento de consumo deste coorte etário a partir do processo de engagement consumidor-marca(ECM), numa abordagem exploratoria. Aplicou-se um método quantitativo ‐ o questionário ‐ inspirado no modelo de Hollebeek et al. (2014) por forma a medir o processo de engagement consumidor-marca numa visão holistica, considerando os seus antecedentes e as suas consequencias. Para medicao do envolvimento utilizou-se a escala de Zaichkowsky (1994), na medicao da ligação eu‐marca aplicou‐se a escala de Escalas (2004) e a escala de Yoo e Donthu (2001) para a medicao da intenção de uso da marca. Tanto o processamento cognitivo, como o afecto e a activação foram medidos por escalas criadas de raiz por Hollebeek et al. (2014). O questionário foi aplicado a uma amostra de conveniência (N=150)...

Monitoring and projecting cancer incidence in Saarland, Germany, based on age-cohort analyses.

Brenner, H; Ziegler, H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1992 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.12%
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aims were (1) to monitor and compare incidence rates of cancer from successive birth cohorts in Saarland over the period from 1968 to 1987; (2) to project cancer incidence in Saarland in 1988-2002 in order to provide guidelines for health policy planning. DESIGN--This was an ecological study of overlapping birth cohorts of women and men. SETTING--The study was population based involving the whole state of Saarland. PATIENTS--80,028 cases of malignant neoplasms (other than non-melanoma skin cancer) diagnosed from 1968 to 1987 and reported to the cancer registry of Saarland were included. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Age specific, sex specific, and period specific cancer incidence rates were analysed and extrapolated by multiplicative age-cohort models. Due to a steady rise in birth cohort specific cancer incidence rates in males, a substantial rise in incidence of total cancer is projected, while a moderate decline is expected for females. Analogous analyses are presented for the most common single forms of cancer in women and men. Alternative strategies of analysis, such as age-period-cohort modelling, are discussed. CONCLUSIONS--The age-cohort model is well suited for monitoring incidence of most forms of cancer. The projections provide quantitative guidelines for planning of health care resources and underline and quantify the challenge for primary and secondary cancer prevention in Saarland.

Estimating life expectancy using an age-cohort model in Taiwan.

Lee, W C; Hsieh, R L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1996 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
OBJECTIVES: Life expectation is a valuable summary index in public health and actuarial science. The life expectancies published in the vital statistics, however, are derived from the "current" rather than from the "cohort" life table. The former is based on a strong assumption of constant mortality in the population, whereas the latter calls for a recording of the mortality experience of a group of individuals, which is often an impossible task. Thus, a method of calculating cohort life expectancy without actual follow up is much needed. METHODS: Estimation of cohort life expectancy was based on an age-cohort model. Mortality data for the male population in Taiwan from 1951 to 1990 are used to illustrate the methodology. RESULTS: The increment of life expectancy over time in Taiwan is actually steeper than was previously thought using the current life table technique. CONCLUSIONS: The method is easy to implement and the data required are the usual age and period cross classified mortality data. It warrants further investigation.

Identifying the Age Cohort Responsible for Transmission in a Natural Outbreak of Bordetella bronchiseptica

Long, Gráinne H.; Sinha, Divya; Read, Andrew F.; Pritt, Stacy; Kline, Barry; Harvill, Eric T.; Hudson, Peter J.; Bjørnstad, Ottar N.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
Identifying the major routes of disease transmission and reservoirs of infection are needed to increase our understanding of disease dynamics and improve disease control. Despite this, transmission events are rarely observed directly. Here we had the unique opportunity to study natural transmission of Bordetella bronchiseptica – a directly transmitted respiratory pathogen with a wide mammalian host range, including sporadic infection of humans – within a commercial rabbitry to evaluate the relative effects of sex and age on the transmission dynamics therein. We did this by developing an a priori set of hypotheses outlining how natural B. bronchiseptica infections may be transmitted between rabbits. We discriminated between these hypotheses by using force-of-infection estimates coupled with random effects binomial regression analysis of B. bronchiseptica age-prevalence data from within our rabbit population. Force-of-infection analysis allowed us to quantify the apparent prevalence of B. bronchiseptica while correcting for age structure. To determine whether transmission is largely within social groups (in this case litter), or from an external group, we used random-effect binomial regression to evaluate the importance of social mixing in disease spread. Between these two approaches our results support young weanlings – as opposed to...

On the Confounds among Retest Gains and Age-Cohort Differences in the Estimation of Within-Person Change in Longitudinal Studies: A Simulation Study

Hoffman, Lesa; Hofer, Scott M.; Sliwinski, Martin J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
Although longitudinal designs are the only way in which age changes can be directly observed, a recurrent criticism involves to what extent retest effects may downwardly bias estimates of true age-related cognitive change. Considerable attention has been given to the problem of retest effects within mixed effects models that include separate parameters for longitudinal change over time (usually specified as a function of age) and for the impact of retest (specified as a function of number of exposures). Because time (i.e., intervals between assessment) and number of exposures are highly correlated (and are perfectly correlated in equal interval designs) in most longitudinal designs, the separation of effects of within-person change from effects of retest gains is only possible given certain assumptions (e.g., age convergence). To the extent that cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of age differ, obtained estimates of aging and retest may not be informative. The current simulation study investigated the recovery of within-person change (i.e., aging) and retest effects from repeated cognitive testing as a function of number of waves, age range at baseline, and size and direction of age-cohort differences on the intercept and age slope in age-based models of change. Significant bias and Type I error rates in the estimated effects of retest were observed when these convergence assumptions were not met. These simulation results suggest that retest effects may not be distinguishable from effects of aging-related change and age-cohort differences in typical long-term traditional longitudinal designs.

The Incidence of Colorectal Cancer Is Decreasing in the Older Age Cohorts in the Zaanstreek Region in the Netherlands: An Age-Cohort Effect

Loffeld, R. J. L. F.; Dekkers, P. E. P.; Flens, M.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/07/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
Introduction. Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a high incidence. Removal of adenomas, the precursor lesion, could be helpful in the prevention of cancer. Aim. To investigate the yearly incidence of CRC in consecutive years. Patients and Methods. All patients diagnosed with CRC in the years 1990 till 2010 were studied. Date of diagnosis, age at time of diagnosis, gender, and localisation of the tumour were assessed. Results. A total of 1575 incident CRC were diagnosed, 865 men (55%) and 710 women (45%). CRC occurred more often in men. In the course of the years, the occurrence of CRC increased. After exclusion of rectal cancer, the percentage of proximal cancer in the colon shows a trend towards increase in the consecutive years. In the twenty consecutive years, the population of the Zaanstreek region increased from 130.000 to 145.330. There was a significant increase of CRC in the age cohort 51–70 in the period of twenty years, while a significant decreasing incidence of cancer was seen in patients above 71 years. Conclusion. The decreasing incidence of colorectal cancer in the age cohorts above 71 years possibly reflects indirect evidence of an age-cohort effect due to removal of adenomas in these age cohorts earlier in life.

Structure and Correlates of Cognitive Aging in a Narrow Age Cohort

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Briley, Daniel A.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.
Fonte: American Psychological Association Publicador: American Psychological Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.07%
Aging-related changes occur for multiple domains of cognitive functioning. An accumulating body of research indicates that, rather than representing statistically independent phenomena, aging-related cognitive changes are moderately to strongly correlated across domains. However, previous studies have typically been conducted in age-heterogeneous samples over longitudinal time lags of 6 or more years, and have failed to consider whether results are robust to a comprehensive set of controls. Capitalizing on 3-year longitudinal data from the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936, we took a longitudinal narrow age cohort approach to examine cross-domain cognitive change interrelations from ages 70 to 73 years. We fit multivariate latent difference score models to factors representing visuospatial ability, processing speed, memory, and crystallized ability. Changes were moderately interrelated, with a general factor of change accounting for 47% of the variance in changes across domains. Change interrelations persisted at close to full strength after controlling for a comprehensive set of demographic, physical, and medical factors including educational attainment, childhood intelligence, physical function, APOE genotype, smoking status, diagnosis of hypertension...

Recent Lung Cancer Patterns in Younger Age-Cohorts in Ireland

Clancy, Luke; Kabir, Zubair; Connolly, Gregrory N.
Fonte: The Ulster Medical Society Publicador: The Ulster Medical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
Background: Smoking causes 85% of all lung cancers in males and 70% in females. Therefore, birth cohort analysis and annual-percent-changes (APC) in age-specific lung cancer mortality rates, particularly in the youngest age cohorts, can explain the beneficial impacts of both past and recent anti-smoking interventions. Methods: A long-term time-trend analysis (1958-2002) in lung cancer mortality rates focusing on the youngest age-cohorts (30-49 years of age) in particular was investigated in Ireland. The rates were standardised to the World Standard Population. Lung cancer mortality data were downloaded from the WHO Cancer Mortality Database to estimate APCs in death rates, using the Joinpoint regression (version 3.0) program. A simple age-cohort modelling (log-linear Poisson model) was also done, using SAS software. Results: The youngest birth cohorts (born after 1965) have almost one-fourth lower lung cancer risk relative to those born around the First World War. A more than 50% relative decline in death rates among those between 35 and 39 years of age was observed in both sexes in recent years. The youngest age-cohorts (30-39 years of age) in males also showed a significant decrease in death rates in 1998-2002 by more than 3% every five years from 1958-1962 onwards. However...

Chile : Decades of Educational Reform Deliver

Holm-Nielsen, Lauritz; Thorn, Kristian; Prawda, Juan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
A common vision and a consistent effort on the part of Chilean governments from the late 1960s to the present have placed Chile at an advanced stage of educational development. Today, primary education is almost universal, net secondary coverage is at 75 percent and more than one third of the 18- 24 age-cohort is enrolled in tertiary education. In addition, Chile features many components of a modern educational system, including a full school day, use of private providers, a competency-based curriculum, assessment of learning outcomes and a strong material basis for learning.

Impact of age on choice of chemotherapy and outcome in advanced colorectal cancer

Khattak, M.; Townsend, A.; Beeke, C.; Karapetis, C.; Luke, C.; Padbury, R.; Maddern, G.; Roder, D.; Price, T.
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
BACKGROUND: Age is a major risk factor for development of sporadic colorectal cancer but elderly patients are underrepresented in clinical trials and are potentially offered chemotherapy less often. METHODS: Data were obtained from South Australian Clinical Registry for advanced colorectal cancer between 1st February 2006 and 9th September 2010. Patients who received chemotherapy were analysed to assess the impact of single versus combination chemotherapy and to assess the outcome in two age cohorts, age < 70 years and ≥ 70 years. RESULTS: Out of a total of 1745 patients in the database during this time period, 951 (54.5%) received systemic chemotherapy. 286 (30%) received first line therapy (median age 74 years) with single agent fluoropyrimidine and 643 patients (68%) received first line combination chemotherapy (median age 64 years). The median overall survival of patients receiving first line combination chemotherapy was 23.9 months compared to 17.2 months for those who received single agent fluoropyrimidine (p<0.001). Combination chemotherapy was given to 81% of patients aged < 70 years compared to 53% of those ≥ 70 years. There was no significant difference in median overall survival of patients receiving chemotherapy by age cohort...

Dental service rates: age, period, and cohort effects

Brennan, D.; Ryan, P.; Spencer, A.; Szuster, F.
Fonte: F D I World Dental Press Ltd Publicador: F D I World Dental Press Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
OBJECTIVE: Variation in dental service provision over time has been related to changes in factors such as oral health and demographics. Dentist factors such as age and cohort effects are also potential sources of influence. The aim of the study was to examine the operation of age, period, and cohort factors on variation in service rates. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: data were collected by a mailed survey of a random sample of 10% of male and 40% of female dentists from each state/territory of Australia in 1983-84, 1988-89. and 1993-94 with response rates of 73, 75 and 74% respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data on main areas of service were obtained from a log of service items provided on a typical day. RESULTS: Poisson regressions of rates for the 10 main areas of service over time showed increased rates over the study period for diagnostic, preventive, endodontic, crown and bridge, general/miscellaneous and orthodontic services, and decreased rates of prosthodontic services. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that models for periodontal and endodontic services had a good fit. However, only endodontic services were readily interpretable in terms of descriptive trends. While the age-period-cohort model was preferred, age-period and age-cohort models were also examined because of problems of identification with age-period-cohort models. Endodontic rates were higher among younger dentist birth cohorts...

Age, period and cohort analysis of patient dental visits in Australia

Ju, X.; Brennan, D.S.; Spencer, A.J.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.18%
BACKGROUND: Understanding dentists' capacity to supply dental services over time is a key element in the process of planning for the future. The aim was to identify time trends and estimate age, period and cohort effects in patients' visits supplied per dentist per year. METHODS: Mailed questionnaires were collected from a random sample of Australian private general practice dentists. The response rates were 73%, 75%, 74%, 71%, 76% and 67% in 1983, 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003 and 2009, respectively. The time trends in the mean number of patient visits supplied per dentist per year (PPY) was described by using a standard cohort table and age-period-cohort analyses applying a nested general linear regression models approach. RESULTS: The mean number of PPY decreased across most age groups of dentists over the time of study. The age-period model showed that younger dentists (20-29 years) and older dentists (65-74 and 80-84 years) had lower PPY than middle-aged dentists, and the age-cohort model showed higher PPY among earlier cohorts, and lower PPY among more recent cohorts. CONCLUSION: The study found a period effect of declining PPY over the observation period. More recent cohorts of dentists provide lower numbers of PPY than earlier cohorts at similar ages...

Reviews of National Policies for Education : Tertiary Education in Chile

Mogollón, Maria Paulina; Crawford, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.87%
Tertiary education in Chile has been transformed radically over the past 20 years. As recently as 1990, tertiary education was an elite system centered on a handful of traditional universities which served a small number of well-prepared students. Today the system is diverse and dynamic, with over 6,000 programs of study offered by more than 200 institutions. More than 800,000 students are now enrolled, representing over 40 percent of the age cohort. In making this transition, the country has relied on significant development of private tertiary education and the introduction of substantial cost-sharing (tuition and fees) in the entire system. It has coupled this with a strong licensing and quality assurance system, and, increasingly, an innovative and robust student aid system. The aforementioned changes have been a key to Chile's drive for increased competitiveness over the last two decades, and have been consistent with efforts to gain permanent membership in the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The World Bank assisted the Government of Chile during much of this period...

Estimating the Causal Effects of Conflict on Education in Côte d'Ivoire

Dabalen, Andrew L.; Paul, Saumik
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
This paper estimates the causal effects of civil war on years of education in the context of a school-going age cohort that is exposed to armed conflict in Cote d'Ivoire. Using year and department of birth to identify an individual's exposure to war, the difference-in-difference outcomes indicate that the average years of education for a school-going age cohort is .94 years fewer compared with an older cohort in war-affected regions. To minimize the potential bias in the estimated outcome, the authors use a set of victimization indicators to identify the true effect of war. The propensity score matching estimates do not alter the main findings. In addition, the outcomes of double-robust models minimize the specification errors in the model. Moreover, the paper finds the outcomes are robust across alternative matching methods, estimation by using subsamples, and other education outcome variables. Overall, the findings across different models suggest a drop in average years of education by a range of .2 to .9 fewer years.

The Relative Age Effect in Minor Ice Hockey: Investigating the 'Underdog Effect'

Belgiorgio, Matthew
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
Abstract The Relative Age Effect (RAE), defined as a skewed birth date distribution, has been identified as a known phenomenon in minor ice hockey. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the RAE, physical measurements, and skating ability/in-game performance in forty-four youth male ice hockey players competing in the same age cohort. Physical anthropometrics, grip strength, in-game performance and skating abilities were measured. An RAE was found in the sample (χ2(3, N = 44) = 12.18, p = 0.007). Players born in the first half of the age cohort had longer leg length (F(1,42) =4.49 , p = 0.04), larger body mass (F(1,42) = 3.90, p = 0.05), and stronger grip strength (F(1,42) = 7.58, p = 0.009). Performance scores were negatively associated with grip strength (r = -.443, p = 0.003). Findings suggest that adequate skill development can help relatively younger players overcome physical maturity disadvantages.

Mental health of small children for normal gestational age: a cohort study from Southeastern Brazil

Saur,Adriana Martins; Loureiro,Sonia Regina
Fonte: Curso de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Curso de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.09%
The aim of this study is to investigate mental health problems in children born small for gestational age (SGA) and those born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and to assess the association of these problems with child and family characteristics. Six hundred and seventy-seven children, belonging to a birth cohort from 1994 in Ribeirão Preto/SP (southeastern Brazil), were evaluated (140 SGA and 537 AGA). They were later reevaluated at school age (2004/2005) by means of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for mental health assessment (parent report). Results showed that children born SGA presented greater frequency of behavioral problems and emotional symptoms compared to children born AGA. Variables associated with mental health problems in the univariate model were: male sex, children born SGA, low educational level of parents, socioeconomic disadvantage, and belonging to families with many members. However, in multivariate analysis, two factors - being born SGA and father's low educational level - lost their statistical significance, and the other sociodemographic variables remained significant (male sex, low-level of maternal education, low socioeconomic level, families with many members). It has been concluded that being born SGA was not independently associated with mental health problems...

Search for a Common Cause Factor amongst Cognitive, Speed and Biological Variables Using Narrow Age Cohorts

Mackinnon, Andrew; Christensen, Helen; Jorm, Anthony F
Fonte: S Karger AG Publicador: S Karger AG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
Background: Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that age-related effects on many cognitive and biological functioning variables are shared. A number of theories postulate that these associations arise from a common causal mechanism responsible for c

The interpretation of shared age-related variance among factors in cross-sectional cognitive aging studies

Anstey, Kaarin
Fonte: S Karger AG Publicador: S Karger AG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
Many cross-sectional correlational studies in cognitive aging have focused on explaining age-related variance. It has been assumed that variables sharing variance with both cognition and age may be the key explanatory variables underlying the cognitive decline in normal aging. Statistical biases intrinsic to this approach have been described by Hofer and Sliwinski and a narrow age cohort design proposed. The present paper aims at explaining how Hofer and Sliwinski's criticisms apply to a specific type of research design in cognitive aging where the goal is to identify underlying aging processes, but does not apply to more general gerontological research. Methods to estimate bias in cross-sectional studies are required as is greater awareness of this potential bias.

Cohort Differences in Sexual Orientation: Results from a Large Age-Statified Population Sample

Jorm, Anthony F; Dear, Keith; Rodgers, Bryan; Christensen, Helen
Fonte: S Karger AG Publicador: S Karger AG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
Background: There is some community survey evidence for a cohort difference in female sexual orientation. Objective: To determine whether there is a cohort difference in sexual orientation in Australia. Methods: A community survey was carried out with a sample of 7,447 adults from the age groups 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years. As part of this survey respondents were asked a question on sexual orientation which was answered privately. Results: A strong age cohort difference was found for women, with younger women more frequently reporting a homosexual or bisexual orientation. By contrast, no age cohort difference was found for men. Conclusion: These findings suggest that a heterosexual orientation may have become less common in younger cohorts of Australian women. This finding is consistent with data from other recent studies.

Comparison of cohort smoking intensities in Denmark and the Netherlands

Barendregt,Jan J.; Looman,Caspar W.N.; Brønnum-Hansen,Henrik
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.94%
OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of the general framework of the smoking epidemic. METHODS: We use lung cancer mortality as an indicator for smoking intensity and employ an age-cohort model to accommodate the long-lasting and cumulative effects. RESULTS: Dutch males have higher risks than Danish males, but the risks for the younger cohorts have been declining faster in the Netherlands than in Denmark. Danish women have about twice the risk of Dutch women, and in both countries the risks for the younger cohorts are increasing. The smoking epidemic began at about the same time in Denmark and the Netherlands. Dutch males, however, seem to have smoked more but to have given up smoking more quickly than Danish males. Danish females were quicker to take up smoking than Dutch females. CONCLUSIONS: Within the general framework of the smoking epidemic, differences in timing and levels can produce large differences between countries. For the purposes of assessing smoking-related risks, including projections, the smoking epidemic framework therefore has to be tailored to each study population.