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Cost Recovery, Equity, and Efficiency in Water Tariffs : Evidence from African Utilities

Banerjee, Sudeshna; Foster, Vivien; Ying, Yvonne; Skilling, Heather; Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.5%
Water and sanitation utilities in Africa operate in a high-cost environment. They also have a mandate to at least partially recover their costs of operations and maintenance (O&M). As a result, water tariffs are higher than in other regions of the world. The increasing block tariff (IBT) is the most common tariff structure in Africa. Most African utilities are able to achieve O&M cost recovery at the highest block tariffs, but not at the first-block tariffs, which are designed to provide affordable water to low-volume consumers, who are often poor. At the same time, few utilities can recover even a small part of their capital costs, even in the highest tariff blocks. Unfortunately, the equity objectives of the IBT structure are not met in many countries. The subsidy to the lowest tariff-block does not benefit the poor exclusively, and the minimum consumption charge is often burdensome for the poorest customers. Many poor households cannot even afford a connection to the piped water network. This can be a significant barrier to expansion for utilities. Therefore...

Comparing the Impact of Food and Energy Price Shocks on Consumers : A Social Accounting Matrix Analysis for Ghana

Parra, Juan Carlos; Wodon, Quentin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.5%
Many countries have been affected by food and oil price shocks. Rising energy costs have manifested themselves through higher prices of gas at the pump and through price increases for many other goods such as kerosene and transport. But in some countries there has also been some degree of protection for consumers for example when authorities have chosen to try to keep electricity tariffs affordable through implicit subsidies (which are unfortunately often poorly targeted). For food prices, the effect on consumers has often been more rapid than for oil-related products, as the increase in import prices have been typically fully passed on to consumers and has often been accompanied by increases in the prices of domestically produced foods. Recent attention has therefore rightly been focused on food prices, but the issue of oil prices is important as well. While food prices tend to have a larger direct impact on consumers due to the larger share of food in total household consumption, oil prices may have larger multiplier effects than food prices because oil-related products are used as intermediary products in many productive sectors. It therefore remains an open question as to whether the medium-term impact of food or oil prices is likely to be larger in any given country. It also remains open to question as to whether urban as opposed to rural households are most likely to be affected. While urban households are likely to rely on consumption of imported goods more than rural households...

Arab Republic of Egypt : Analysis of Housing Supply Mechanisms, Final Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.74%
The objective of this study, requested by the Minister of Housing, Utilities and Urban Development, is to assist the government of Egypt in: formulating a coherent national affordable housing strategy which puts in place an effective institutional and regulatory framework that creates the necessary conditions for an efficiently functioning housing market, devises the incentive structure needed to promote increased private sector participation in affordable housing supply and the subsidy package to enable limited-income households to access affordable housing, and addresses distortions in factor markets; and designing the foundations and key elements of the national affordable housing program for Egypt, which aims to enable the delivery of 500,000 affordable housing units in the coming six years. This study critically analyzes the existing situation on housing supply in urban areas in Egypt. This includes examining existing formal and informal mechanisms for the supply/ delivery of urban housing in Egypt, institutions responsible for supply and regulation...

Telecommunications Regulation Handbook

Intven, Hank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
In recognition of the fundamental importance of an appropriate regulatory environment to accelerate connectivity, and access to information services, this handbook provides a practical reference source, on the methods used to regulate the telecommunications sector around the world, emphasizing best practices. The focus is on practices that promote the efficient supply of telecommunications services in a competitive marketplace. It offers a useful compilation of descriptions, and analyses of regulatory practices, and approaches applied in a wide range of countries. The handbook outlines the various factors that motivated the liberalization of telecommunications markets, i.e., increased growth, and fast innovations for better services; the need to expand and upgrade telecommunications networks with new services; growth of the Internet; of mobile and other wireless services; and, of international trade in telecommunications services. These factors compelled regulatory objectives to foster competitive markets to promote efficient supply of telecommunications...

Strengthening the Non-Conventional and Rural Energy Development Program in the Philippines : A Policy Framework and Action Plan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
As articulated in the new energy plan for 1999-2008, the key sector objectives for the Philippines energy sector remain security of energy supply, affordable prices, and an energy infrastructure compatible with broader social and environmental objectives. Ths report is organized as follows: Chapter 1 briefly lays out the social, environmental, and economic justifications for developing non-renewable energy resources (NRE) against the backdrop of privatization and reform of the energy sector. It reviews the experience with NRE from the 1970s to the present, highlighting some important lessons learned from both successful and failed initiatives. Chapter 2 reviews the commercial status and current and expected costs internationally of NRE technologies of potential usefulness. It distinguishes between immediate and long-term potential, small- and large-scale systems, and rural and urban applications, as well as reviewing the status of several off-grid and grid-connected technologies. Chapter 3 examines how existing and impending policies...

Access to Affordable and Low-Income Housing in East Asia and the Pacific

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
Across the world, the housing sector plays a key role in local and national economies, and expanding access to housing can encourage more equitably shared economic growth. This report surveys current policy interventions designed to encourage affordable housing in East Asia and the Pacific (EAP). The purpose of this report is to provide a general overview of the recent trends in urbanization and development in EAP and to consider different forms of government, market, and nonprofit actions that support housing affordability. It will also highlight key constraints and barriers that restrict the provision of low-cost housing in urban areas. Housing is important because it represents a significant household expenditure. The report assesses the strengths and limitations of affordable housing strategies used by different countries throughout EAP. This report offers broad conclusions that account for the broad social, political, and institutional variation among EAP countries; as such, these conclusions may well be applicable to more than one country context. The report also provides specific recommendations for improvement where existing interventions are new or have proven less successful. The report is divided into following chapters: chapter one gives introduction. Chapter two examines trends in urbanization rates...

Energy Pricing Strategy in Egypt

KANTOR Management Consultants; EQI
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.5%
The present report is the final deliverable of the consulting study, an energy pricing strategy for Egypt, undertaken for the Government of Egypt with World Bank financing. The purpose of the report is threefold: to provide an overview and summarize key aspects of the project, and integrate the main findings that have been presented in a series of separate reports developed during the project; to provide specific recommendations for energy prices and levels, the transition path to full cost-reflective prices and the mitigation support to accompany the pricing reform; and to provide an overview of the organizational arrangements and key actions for implementing the energy pricing strategy. The present report comprises of the following sections: section one gives introduction, section two provides an overview of key elements of the study, including its objectives and tasks, the rationale for reforming energy prices, and the methodology for determining cost-reflective prices and assessing the impact of implementing them. Section three contains the recommended energy prices over the suggested transition period...

The Global Findex Database 2014

Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Klapper, Leora; Singer, Dorothe; Van Oudheusden, Peter
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
The Global Financial Inclusion (Global Findex) database, launched by the World Bank in 2011, provides comparable indicators showing how people around the world save, borrow, make payments, and manage risk. The 2014 edition of the database reveals that 62 percent of adults worldwide have an account at a bank or another type of financial institution or with a mobile money provider. Between 2011 and 2014, 700 million adults became account holders while the number of those without an account—the unbanked—dropped by 20 percent to 2 billion. What drove this increase in account ownership? A growth in account penetration of 13 percentage points in developing economies and innovations in technology—particularly mobile money, which is helping to rapidly expand access to financial services in Sub-Saharan Africa. Along with these gains, the data also show that big opportunities remain to increase financial inclusion, especially among women and poor people. Governments and the private sector can play a pivotal role by shifting the payment of wages and government transfers from cash into accounts. There are also large opportunities to spur greater use of accounts...

On the definition of affordable prices under universal service obligations

Losada, Ramiro
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2004 ENG; ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.75%
In this paper, we investigate the social welfare implications of the European and American definition of affordable prices when a country is divided into independent zones. We find that the European definition is always soc ial welfare superior, because it forces to keep lower prices. We also introduce to new defintions of affordable prices. The first definition advocates for a common price for the unprofitable area. We prove that this definition is social welfare superior to the current definitions. In the second definition denote as "yardstick pricing" , we define the affordable prices for the unprofitable areas as a function that does not depende on their own zone profitable area price. We show that yardstick price is more efficient for social welfare when the differences in demand among zones are not very large .

Vietnam Affordable Housing; A Way Forward

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Urban Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
Affordable housing will be instrumental to helping Vietnam achieve its goals for increasing productivity and inclusive urban growth. Since Doi Moi, the country has experienced impressive economic growth, averaged at 7.4 percent per annum from 1990 to 2008, lowering to an average of 6 percent per annum from 2007 to 2013. Strong economic growth has supported a substantial reduction in poverty, from 58 percent in 1993 to 17 percent in 20121. Yet, the country has remained largely rural, with more than half of its population working in the agricultural sector, which only contributed 17 percent of GDP in 20142. In some countries, urbanization has been used as a tool to accelerate economic growth and poverty reduction. As Vietnam aims to maintain a high growth rate, supporting urbanization, where cities contribute a growing share of jobs and GDP, will be an important measure. This structural shift will drive population growth and new demand for housing in cities, for which quality and affordable housing options in well-serviced and connected settlements will be needed. Areas of particular importance in the Law is support toward self-built housing...

Vulnerability and Safety Nets in Lao PDR

Lindelow, Magnus; Fenton, Nina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
Lao PDR has experienced high levels of economic growth in recent years and the incidence of poverty has fallen dramatically since the 1990s. Yet, this report shows that Lao households continue to be highly vulnerable to regular seasonal fluctuations, as well as agricultural shocks and natural disasters. The report also highlights the importance of health shocks, injury and death for household welfare. Households adopt a variety of strategies to cope with these shocks, but in many cases are unable to fully smooth consumption, with negative short and long term consequences. Overall, the report points to a number of important vulnerable groups. The chronic poor in remote rural areas, including ethnic minority groups, remain highly vulnerable to seasonal fluctuations and natural disasters. However, households in urban areas, particularly the poor and near-poor, are vulnerable to future increases in food prices if they are not accompanied by increases in real wages. Moreover, as the Lao economy develops, more households will rely on off-farm work or migrant remittances...

Converting Land into Affordable Housing Floor Space

Bertaud, Alain
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
Cities emerge from the spatial concentration of people and economic activities. But spatial concentration is not enough; the economic viability of cities depends on people, ideas, and goods to move rapidly across the urban area. This constant movement within dense cities creates wealth but also various degrees of unpleasantness and misery that economists call negative externalities, such as congestion, pollution, and environmental degradation. In addition, the poorest inhabitants of many cities are often unable to afford a minimum-size dwelling with safe water and sanitation, as if the wealth created by cities was part of a zero-sum game where the poor will be at the losing end. The main challenge for urban planners and economists is reducing cities' negative externalities without destroying the wealth created by spatial concentration. To do that, they must plan and design infrastructure and regulations while leaving intact the self-organizing created by land and labor markets. The balance between letting markets work and correcting market externalities through infrastructure investment and regulation is difficult to achieve. Too often...

Global Monitoring Report 2012 : Food Prices, Nutrition, and the Millennium Development Goals

World Bank; International Monetary Fund
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
Every year, the Global Monitoring Report (GMR) gauges progress across the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), so we can better understand whether we are delivering on basic global needs. These needs include affordable, nutritious food; access to health services and education; and the ability to tap natural resources sustainably whether clean water, land for urban expansion, or renewable energy sources. We assess how well the world is doing by looking at income poverty, schooling levels, the health of mothers and children, and inroads in treating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, as well as assessing how the international development community delivers aid. We also try to measure levels of malnutrition and hunger in the world. Food prices can affect all these indicators. For these reasons, the Global Monitoring Report 2012 takes the theme of 'food prices, nutrition, and the MDG.' This year's edition highlights the need to help developing countries deal with the harmful effects of higher and more volatile food prices. The 2012 GMR addresses these basic questions. It summarizes effects of food prices on several MDGs. It reviews policy responses including domestic social safety nets...

Biotechnology Innovation for Inclusive Growth : A Study of Indian Policies to Foster Accelerated Technology Adaptation for Affordable Development

Vijayaraghavan, K.; Dutz, Mark A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.22%
This paper describes and analyzes a series of complementary policy initiatives in India to adapt and commercialize existing global biotechnologies to meet local needs in healthcare, agriculture, industry and the environment in a more affordable manner. This evolving approach has been implemented through six complementary elements, namely (1) translational research; (2) technology access through global consortia; (3) commercialization supported by public-private partnerships, broadly interpreted; (4) skills development; (5) regulation; and (6) institutional governance, including special purpose vehicles, for effective project management. The paper focuses on two public-private partnership initiatives, the Small Business Innovation Research Initiative and the Biotechnology Industry Partnership Program, which together have allocated more than US$70 million in public funding to almost 150 projects, contributing to a total public-private investment of more than $170 million over the past five years. The authors' key recommendation...

Ahmedabad : More but Different Government for “Slum Free” and Livable Cities

Clarke Annez, Patricia; Bertaud, Alain; Bertaud, Marie-Agnes; Bhatt, Bijal; Bhatt, Chirayu; Patel, Bimal; Phatak, Vidyadhar
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.5%
This paper analyzes real estate market dynamics over the past decade in the city of Ahmedabad, India, with a view to improving the living conditions of the large population living in slums. The paper combines census data, the National Sample Survey, and slum household surveys to review the demand side of the market. Satellite photography was used to estimate the production of both formal and informal housing over the past ten years. Analysis of the execution of the development plan for the Ahmedabad region and town planning schemes shows how the system of housing supply has evolved. These analyses are used to assess the feasibility of various approaches to achieving "slum free" cities, the goal of the Government of India's planned assistance program Rajiv Awas Yojana. The paper concludes that notwithstanding a substantial increase in public housing production in recent years, providing subsidized formal homes from government or through reservations for lower income groups in private developments would take more than a generation just to handle the current slum population -- representing one-third of households. Providing basic environmental infrastructure services in existing underserved neighborhoods -- a proven approach under the Slum Networking Program -- and bolstering infrastructure networks for the city to accommodate increased demand are affordable and feasible. Addressing issues such as rural-urban land conversion and ambiguous land tenure...

Power Tariffs : Caught between Cost Recovery and Affordability

Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia; Shkaratan, Maria
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.5%
This is the first paper to build a comprehensive empirical picture of power pricing practices across Sub-Saharan Africa, based on a new database of tariff structures in 27 countries for the years 2004-2008. Using a variety of quantitative indicators, the paper evaluates the performance of electricity tariffs against four key policy objectives: recovery of historic power production costs, efficient signaling of future power production costs, affordability to low income households, and distributional equity. As regards cost recovery, 80 percent of the countries in the sample fully recover operating costs, while only around 30 percent of the countries are practicing full recovery of capital costs. However, due to the fact that future power development may be based on a shift toward more economic technologies than those available in the past, existing tariffs look as though they would be consistent with Long Run Marginal Costs in nearly 40 percent of countries and hence provide efficient pricing signals. As regards affordability...

Latin America and the Caribbean Region Energy Sector : Retrospective Review and Challenges

Byer, Trevor; Crousillat, Enrique; Dussan, Manuel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.65%
During the 90s, most countries in Latin America and the Caribbean Region (LCR) supported by the World Bank, implemented a market-oriented reform in the energy sector to promote competition, economic regulation and greater private sector participation, as the main instruments to improve the quality, reliability and efficiency of energy services, and improve the government's fiscal position and increase affordable access to modern energy services for the poor. This report comprises an assessment of the energy sector reform in the region: its achievements, difficulties, lessons learnt and current status; an assessment of the future needs of the energy sector investment and financing requirements, constraints, and challenges; and a review of the role of development agencies in supporting the region's energy needs. The study is not a systematic analysis of the reform experience and needs of individual countries, which is not deemed necessary to define an energy strategy for the region, but rather an analysis of the main themes that are common to most countries...

Financing Energy Efficiency Measures for Residential Building Stock : Scaling Up Energy Efficiency in Buildings in the Western Balkans

Kalkum, Bernd
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.53%
Within the Western Balkans region, a secure energy supply is critical to sustaining economic growth. Currently, the region relies heavily on imported hydrocarbons and maintains high energy intensity relative to Gross Domestic Product, or GDP. This places a huge burden on companies, which require affordable and reliable infrastructure services to be competitive; the public sector, which spends significant budgetary resources on energy; and households, which have to pay a high portion of their income for energy services. As energy pricing is further rationalized, a higher burden will be placed on all sectors, especially poorer households. The residential sector is a significant energy consumer. Its share of total final energy consumption ranges from 28 percent to 32 percent (compared with the EU average of 27 percent). Fairly simple renovations such as insulation, heating system upgrades, and improvements to windows and lighting could reduce consumption in this sector by some 9 percent, with payback periods generally less than 8 years. Such improvements could help ease the impact of future tariff increases while helping reduce the region's projected energy supply and demand gap.

Converting Land into Affordable Housing Floor Space

Bertaud, Alain
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.57%
Cities emerge from the spatial concentration of people and economic activities. But spatial concentration is not enough; the economic viability of cities depends on people, ideas, and goods to move rapidly across the urban area. This constant movement within dense cities creates wealth but also various degrees of unpleasantness and misery that economists call negative externalities, such as congestion, pollution, and environmental degradation. In addition, the poorest inhabitants of many cities are often unable to afford a minimum-size dwelling with safe water and sanitation, as if the wealth created by cities was part of a zero-sum game where the poor will be at the losing end. The main challenge for urban planners and economists is reducing cities' negative externalities without destroying the wealth created by spatial concentration. To do that, they must plan and design infrastructure and regulations while leaving intact the self-organizing created by land and labor markets. The balance between letting markets work and correcting market externalities through infrastructure investment and regulation is difficult to achieve. Too often...

Decide vaccine prices and subsidies for developing countries

Zhang, Wenbo
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.53%
Vaccination has been deemed the most cost-effective way to fight against preventable diseases and improve global health. In recent years, expensive combination vaccines which provide multiple antigens in a single shot have been developed to replace traditional monovalent vaccines and have become the preferred choice of healthcare systems in industrialized countries. High prices have not only barricaded low-income countries from accessing combination vaccines but also lure vaccine manufacturers to shift their production capacity from making traditional vaccines to combination vaccines. Such a shift could eventually lead to shortages on the vaccine supply for low-income countries. This work extends the ABP model proposed by Proaño which optimally prices vaccines under tiered pricing strategy to make them affordable and available across different market segments. This thesis first introduces a heuristic method to solve the ABP. Second, this thesis presents an optimization model to decide the minimum amount of subsidy needed to make an expensive combination vaccine affordable to people in a low-income country.