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Dimensions of Disadvantage: Normative and Empirical Analysis of the Effect of Public Insurance on Low-Income Children and Families

Saloner, Brendan
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
This dissertation considers some challenges to delivering effective and equitable health care to disadvantaged children and families in the United States. Chapter one examines whether expanded access to health insurance following the enactment of the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) in 1997 reduced the prevalence of economic hardships (food insecurity, problems affording housing) and postponed medical care. In difference-in-differences analysis, I find that relative to a comparison group of families that missed the eligibility cutoffs, families that gained eligibility under CHIP did not experience changes in food or housing problems, but were significantly less likely to postpone medical care. These findings suggest that while public insurance for families with children likely improves access to care, it does not significantly reduce other forms of hardship. Chapter two provides an ethical argument for subsidizing health insurance for low income families – a central component of the 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA). I argue subsidies are a vehicle for promoting equality of opportunity: specifically, subsidies ensure access to specific “basic opportunities” (such as the ability to attend college) when out-of-pocket spending on insurance would have otherwise crowded out those opportunities. Subsidies thus make a modest...

Toward Defining and Measuring the Affordability of Public Utility Services

Kessides, Ioannis; Miniaci, Raffaele; Scarpa, Carlo; Valbonesi, Paola
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
This paper reviews the progress made in the literature toward defining and measuring the affordability of utilities. It highlights the relative merits of alternate affordability metrics; the practical challenges to their operationalization, including the underlying data requirements; and their implications for the design, evaluation, and implementation of appropriate affordability programs.

Accessibility and Affordability of Tertiary Education in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru within a Global Context

Murakami, Yuki; Blom, Andreas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
This paper examines the financing of tertiary education in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, comparing the affordability and accessibility of tertiary education with that in high-income countries. To measure affordability, the authors estimate education costs, living costs, grants, and loans. Further, they compute the participation rate, attainment rate, and socio-economic equity index in education and the gender equity index as indicators of accessibility. This is the first study attempting to estimate affordability of tertiary education in Latin America within a global context. The analysis combines information from household surveys, expenditure surveys, and administrative and institutional databases. The findings show that families in Latin America have to pay 60 percent of per-capita income for tertiary education per student per year compared with 19 percent in high-income countries. Living costs are significant, at 29 percent of gross domestic product per capita in Latin America (19 percent in high-income countries). Student assistance through grants and loans plays a marginal role in improving affordability. Moreover...

Accessibility and Affordability of Tertiary Education in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru within a Global Context

Murakami, Yuki; Blom, Andreas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
In the past two decades, countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LCR) liberalized their economy. Together with technological advances and increased globalization, this policy has increased demand for knowledge and workers with tertiary education. LCR governments also have increased investments in education in the last two decades, for children of low-income families. As a result, graduation rates of primary and secondary education improved significantly. This increased the demand for tertiary education. As a consequence, the rate of enrollment in tertiary education in LCR has increased annually by 2 percent since 1985. In LCR countries, such as Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, public and non-governmental universities expanded and diversified to absorb some of the increased pool of qualified students from secondary education. However, LCR countries continue to trail high-income countries in terms of enrollment. In 2003, the tertiary education enrollment rate in high-income countries was about 62 percent compared to 26 percent for LCR countries. The goal of a recently released Working Paper is to estimate affordability and accessibility of tertiary education in selected Latin American countries. This seeks to provide more objective information for policymakers. Also...

Europe and Central Asia Balancing Act : Cutting Subsidies, Protecting Affordability, and Investing in the Energy Sector in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
The cost of energy in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, as elsewhere, is an important policy issue, as shown by the concerns for energy affordability during the past harsh winter. Governments try to moderate the burden of energy expenditures that is experienced by households through subsidies to the energy providers, so that households pay tariffs below the cost recovery level for the energy they use. These subsidies result in significant pressures on government budgets when international prices rise. They also provide perverse incentives for the overconsumption of energy as households do not pay the true cost of energy, and therefore, have fewer incentives to save or to invest in energy efficiency. Balancing competing claims-fiscal and environmental concerns which would push for raising energy tariffs on the one hand and affordability and political economy concerns which push for keeping tariffs artificially low on the other-is a task that policy makers in the region are increasingly unable to put off. Addressing this issue is all the more pressing as the ongoing crisis continues to add stress to government budgets...

Balancing Act : Cutting Energy Subsidies While Protecting Affordability

Laderchi, Caterina Ruggeri; Olivier, Anne; Trimble, Chris
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
The cost of energy in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, as elsewhere, is an important policy issue, as shown by the concerns for energy affordability during the past harsh winter. Governments try to moderate the burden of energy expenditures that is experienced by households through subsidies to the energy providers, so that households pay tariffs below the cost recovery level for the energy they use. These subsidies result in significant pressures on government budgets when international prices rise. They also provide perverse incentives for the overconsumption of energy as households do not pay the true cost of energy, and therefore, have fewer incentives to save or to invest in energy efficiency. Balancing competing claims-fiscal and environmental concerns which would push for raising energy tariffs on the one hand, and affordability and political economy concerns which push for keeping tariffs artificially low on the other-is a task that policy makers in the region are increasingly unable to put off. Addressing this issue is all the more pressing as the ongoing crisis continues to add stress to government budgets...

Tailoring Civil Service Pay Analysis and Advice to Context : Challenges, Approaches, and the Case of Lao PDR

Barma, Naazneen H.; Orac, Jana
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.93%
The adequacy of compensation for government workers and the affordability of the public sector wage bill are important concerns for many developing countries. Suitable pay is considered a necessary -- albeit far from sufficient -- condition for attracting and retaining skilled public sector staff. This paper makes the case for conducting fine-grained analysis of pay and compensation issues in order to enable an accurate assessment of the challenges faced and thereby to generate good-fit reform recommendations that are both principled and feasible. The first part of the paper focuses on prevalent challenges in pay reform, both contextual and analytical. It builds on the experiences from three very different settings: Armenia, the Lao People s Democratic Republic, and Mongolia. The study begins by surveying some of the common difficulties in conducting granular analysis on civil service compensation. It then outlines a series of methodological approaches that can prove useful in developing comprehensive...

Affordability of Public Transport in Developing Countries

Carruthers, Robin; Dick, Malise; Saurkar, Anuja
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.4%
The analysis reported here was prompted by a realization that there was little reliable and consistent information on what proportion of household income is spent on urban public transport. The information available uses inconsistent definitions of what costs are included and how income is measured, making comparisons between cities difficult. The authors report here on about a dozen studies that have addressed the issue of affordability. Though different measures are used in different countries, making it difficult to compare the results between cities, from the studies in South America, South Asia, Eastern and Western Europe, Africa, East Asia and Australasia summarized here, the authors make clear that the affordability of urban transport is considered an issue of importance throughout the developing world. There is also evidence that the high cost of urban transport is having a negative impact on the lives of the urban poor - either through restricting their access to jobs that are within feasible walking or cycling distance...

The Design and Sustainability of Renewable Energy Incentives : An Economic Analysis

Meier, Peter; Vagliasindi, Maria; Imran, Mudassar; Eberhard, Anton; Siyambalapitiya, Tilak
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
Rapid urbanization and economic growth, new demographic trends, and climate change are key challenges that developing countries must face as they strive to meet growing energy demand. The main objectives of this study are to offer: (a) a global taxonomy of the economic and financial incentives provided by renewable support schemes and (b) an economic modeling of the sustainability and affordability of such support schemes. In an attempt to contribute to the lively debate, this study provides a global taxonomy of the economic and financial incentives provided by renewable energy (RE) support schemes. It summarizes economic models of the sustainability and affordability of such support schemes, alongside operational advice on how the regulatory design may need to be modified to minimize the impact on the budget and be affordable to the poor, as well as how to identify and fill the financing gap. This analytical framework: (a) differentiates and illustrates tradeoffs among local, regional, and national impacts...

Measuring housing affordability: a longitudinal approach

Baker, E.; Mason, K.; Bentley, R.
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
Poor housing affordability is of increasing concern for individuals and their governments across post-industrial countries. This article examines the measurement of housing affordability, to show that conventional point-in-time measures of housing affordability fail to capture the substantial movement that many individuals make into and out of poor affordability over time in our cities and regions. The analysis highlights two very different groups affected by housing affordability stress (HAS)—those who slip in and out for short periods (Slippers), and those who spend extended periods in HAS (Stickers). The article examines their characteristics and the relative urban concentration of housing affordability problems. The article concludes by reflecting on what this approach to conceptualising HAS might mean for future research and policy in our cities and regions; Emma Baker, Kate Mason, Rebecca Bentley

Housing affordability, tenure and mental health in Australia and the United Kingdom: a comparative panel analysis

Bentley, R.J.; Pevalin, D.; Baker, E.; Mason, K.; Reeves, A.; Beer, A.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.16%
This paper contributes insights into the role of tenure in modifying the relationship between housing affordability and health, using a cross-national comparison of similar post-industrial nations—Australia and the United Kingdom—with different tenure structures. The paper utilises longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey and British Household Panel Survey to examine change in the mental health of individuals associated with housing becoming unaffordable and considers modification by tenure. We present evidence that the role of tenure in the relationship between housing and health is context dependent and should not be unthinkingly generalised across nations. These findings suggest that the UK housing context offers a greater level of protection to tenants living in unaffordable housing when compared with Australia, and this finds expression in the mental health of the two populations. We conclude that Australian governments could improve the mental health of their economically vulnerable populations through more supportive housing policies.; Rebecca J. Bentley, David Pevalin, Emma Baker, Kate Mason, Aaron Reeves and Andrew Beer; Published online: 20 Aug 2015

Operating and support costs and affordability of a 324 ship Naval battle force

Antonucci, Kevin C.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xvi, 113 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
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36.24%
The purpose of this research was to determine both the added operating and support (OandS) costs and affordability of operating and maintaining a future naval battle force of 324 ships as proposed in the Navy's 30-year shipbuilding plan. Cost estimation including regression, 3-year moving averages, point, expert and analogous modeling was used to capture both historical and future OandS costs from FY1991 to FY2024. With an emphasis on the three main cost drivers, (manpower, fuel and maintenance) which arguably had the largest influence on ships' OandS costs, data were obtained from the Visibility and Management of Operating and Support Cost (VAMOSC) database and various Selected Acquisition Reports (SARs). Analysis and modeling followed suite in order to forecast expected future costs and affordability for a proposed 12.5 percent growth in naval fleet size by FY2024. Reviewing all 29 classes of ship within the expected FY2024 battle force, normalized results from the cost estimation models yielded a minimum cost growth of 17 percent in OandS costs. Even if budget growth trend rates were to remain steady, negating the possibility of budget decreases, this thesis argues the Navy would still not be able to afford its proposed future battle force in FY2024.; US Navy (USN) author

Promoting or Perturbing Access: An Event History Analysis of Latinos' Educational Attainment

Gross, Jacob P.K.
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
Thesis (Ph.D.) - Indiana University, School of Education, 2008; At a time when Latinos make up an increasing proportion of the U.S. school population and increasingly seek entrance to postsecondary education the role of financial aid in postsecondary access remains in flux and uncertain. Though federal, state, and institutional grants have historically helped the lowest income students pay for their educational costs, grants have generally not kept pace with increasing costs (Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2001; Ficklen & Stone, 2002). Therefore, education costs have increasingly shifted to students and their families via loans. This shift has a disproportionately negative effect on Latinos (as well as African Americans), who are more likely to come from low- to low-middle income families (Price, 2004). Moreover, recent data suggest that concerns about affordability and access are not the sole domain of low-income families. While the net price (total costs less total grant aid) paid by low-income (<$40,000) students as a proportion of total income remained constant between 1992-1993 and 2003-2004 for students enrolled at public four-year institutions, students from low-middle income ($40,000 to $69,999) families in the same sector paid more as a proportion of total income. Although low-income students still pay a disproportionately high percent of family income for school (particularly when room and board is included)...

Monitoring the price and affordability of foods and diets globally

Friel, Sharon; Lee, A.; Mhurchu, C. N.; Sacks, G.; Swinburn, B.; Snowdon, W.; Vandevijvere, S.; Hawkes, C.; L’Abbé, M.; Rayner, M.; Sanders, D.; Barquera, S.; Kelly, B.; Kumanyika, S.; Lobstein, T.; Ma, J.; Macmullan, J.; Mohan, S.; Monteiro, C.; Neal,
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 14 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.33%
Food prices and food affordability are important determinants of food choices, obesity and non-communicable diseases. As governments around the world consider policies to promote the consumption of healthier foods, data on the relative price and affordability of foods, with a particular focus on the difference between ‘less healthy’ and ‘healthy’ foods and diets, are urgently needed. This paper briefly reviews past and current approaches to monitoring food prices, and identifies key issues affecting the development of practical tools and methods for food price data collection, analysis and reporting. A step-wise monitoring framework, including measurement indicators, is proposed. ‘Minimal’ data collection will assess the differential price of ‘healthy’ and ‘less healthy’ foods; ‘expanded’ monitoring will assess the differential price of ‘healthy’ and ‘less healthy’ diets; and the ‘optimal’ approach will also monitor food affordability, by taking into account household income. The monitoring of the price and affordability of ‘healthy’ and ‘less healthy’ foods and diets globally will provide robust data and benchmarks to inform economic and fiscal policy responses. Given the range of methodological...

The Role of Policy Driven Incentives : A Cross-Country Analysis

Vagliasindi, Maria
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.92%
This paper presents new global evidence on the key determinants of public-private partnership investment in electricity generated by renewable energy based on a panel data analysis for 105 developing countries over a period of 16 years from 1993 to 2008. It aims to identify the key factors affecting the private investor's decision to enter renewable-based energy generation, through a probit analysis and the amount of investment sunk in this market segment, based on Heckman's sample selection analysis. One of the key results of the paper is that the market for renewable-based energy is strongly driven by supportive policies. Support policies serve not only to attract the entry of private investors, but also to determine the level of investment. In the latter case, its impact is less significant, suggesting the need over time to revisit the power of the incentive schemes, as well as the implied allocation of risks between the public and private sector to ensure that feed-in tariffs produce the desired amount of investment. In contrast...

Africa's Water and Sanitation Infrastructure : Access, Affordability, and Alternatives

Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Morella, Elvira
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.09%
The Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic (AICD) has produced continent-wide analysis of many aspects of Africa's infrastructure challenge. The main findings were synthesized in a flagship report titled Africa's Infrastructure: a time for transformation, published in November 2009. Meant for policy makers, that report necessarily focused on the high-level conclusions. It attracted widespread media coverage feeding directly into discussions at the 2009 African Union Commission Heads of State Summit on Infrastructure. Although the flagship report served a valuable role in highlighting the main findings of the project, it could not do full justice to the richness of the data collected and technical analysis undertaken. There was clearly a need to make this more detailed material available to a wider audience of infrastructure practitioners. Hence the idea of producing four technical monographs, such as this one, to provide detailed results on each of the major infrastructure sectors, information and communication technologies (ICT)...

Lebanon - Social Impact Analysis : Electricity and Water Sectors

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.9%
The purpose of this Social Impact Analysis (SIA) is to probe the social, poverty, and equity dimensions of electricity and water sector reforms' and provide meaningful analysis to policy makers based on recently collected data. With a focus on households, the end users of utility services, the study complements the recent and ongoing studies on the Lebanon water and energy sectors that deal with more technical and supply side issues. The study assesses how poor and vulnerable households are affected by the current utility service situation and how they may be affected by reform proposals under deliberation. The aim is to provide policy makers with a deeper understanding of the social dimensions of water and electricity consumption as well as tools for estimating the distributional impacts of reform measures. This study followed the Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) approach, an increasingly common approach, used both within and outside the World Bank to evaluate the distributional impacts of policy reforms. Chapter two provides a review of household electricity supply and demand...

Densification & affordability : comparative real estate projects across Montreal

Ho, Enoch Tim
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
Montréal, Québec se construit vers une forme urbaine compacte, mais il en relève des questionnements quant aux effets sur l’abordabilité et l’accession à la propriété. En tenant compte du processus de la densification urbaine, une enquête sur une série de projets de condominiums immobiliers à travers la ville est menée afin de divulguer les prix des projets nouveaux ou en construction. Au préalable, ceci survole la littérature et les études actuelles portant sur la planification urbaine, notamment celles qui sont reliées au Smart Growth, études dans lesquelles le contexte de densification et de tendances consuméristes à préférer les formes urbaines étalées est mis en évidence. Essentiellement, Moroni (2010) souligne l’approche dichotomique en planification urbaine entre les perspectives «teleocratic» et «nomocratic». La densification montréalaise actuelle contemporaine s’exprime par une multitude de modèles de condos conformes aux nouvelles tendances démographiques et des modes de vie. En s’appuyant sur les critères du programme Accès Condos, sur les critères du SCHL (32% du revenu) et sur le revenu médian des ménages, le niveau d’accessibilité à la propriété d’un condominium peut être mesuré. Les résultats indiquent que selon ces critères...

Synthesis and analysis of induction nanomachines

Lyshevski, Sergey
Fonte: IEEE Publicador: IEEE
Tipo: Proceedings
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.85%
This paper studies nanomachines (motion nanodevices) synthesized utilizing induction electromagnetics. In particular, the rotor currents are induced in the rotor short-circuited nanowindings due to time-varying stator magnetic field as well as motion of the rotor with respect to the stator. The electromagnetic torque results due to the interaction of the time-varying electromagnetic fields. These nanomachines guarantee good performance and affordability. We verify the synthesized induction nanomachines and develop a lamped-parameters mathematical model in the form of nonlinear differential equations.; Copyright 2003 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.

Main determinants of tenure choice in Spain: cross-analysis of distinct city sizes

Sawaya Neto,Melchior
Fonte: Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A. C. Publicador: Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A. C.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
Many governments design homogeneous housing policies for the whole country without considering differences in economic preferences of households living in cities with distinct sizes. The problem with this practice is that households in larger localities may face stronger budgetary restrictions than those living in smaller ones because of higher housing prices and worse affordability conditions. To deal with this issue a set of tenure choice models are estimated to represent the households' preferences in Spanish cities of different sizes: big, medium or small localities. The results show interesting differences in parameter estimates for groups usually object of public policy such as young household heads and single member families. Disregarding these differences can cause serious problems of non-participation in government programs.