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Access and Affordability of Electricity in Developing Countries

WINKLER, Harald; SIMOES, Andre Felipe; ROVERE, Emilio Lebre La; ALAM, Mozaharul; RAHMAN, Atiq; MWAKASONDA, Stanford
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.35%
A key objective of developing countries is to provide affordable access to modern energy services in order to support economic and social development. The paper presents a number of arguments for why and in which way energy access and affordability can play a key role in national development programs and in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Approaches for measuring accessibility and affordability are presented, drawing on case studies of Bangladesh. Brazil, and South Africa, countries with different rates of electrification. Affordability of using electricity is examined in relation to the energy expenditure burden for households and time consumption. Conclusions focus on lessons learned and recommendations for implementing policies, instruments, and regulatory measures to tackle the challenge of affordability. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Indicadores de housing affordability para o mercado brasileiro

Ramirez, Guilherme Lisboa
Fonte: Fundação Getúlio Vargas Publicador: Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Tipo: Dissertação
PT_BR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
A análise da evolução dos indicadores de housing affordability permite acompanhar o comportamento do poder de compra de um imóvel. A metodologia utilizada nesta dissertação, ao considerar toda a distribuição da renda domiciliar e do preço dos imóveis, uma vez que as mesmas possuem assimetrias diferentes, possibilita analisar estes indicadores para diferentes segmentos da população. A aplicação desta metodologia para o mercado brasileiro possibilitou observar que a capacidade de compra se reduziu nos últimos anos devido, principalmente, ao aumento do preço dos imóveis a uma taxa maior do que a variação da renda combinada com a flexibilização das condições de credito imobiliário.

RURAL HOUSING AFFORDABILITY: A LOCATION-BASED INVESTIGATION OF THE CHARACTERISITCS OF THOSE EXPERIENCING HOUSING AFFORDABILITY PROBLEMS IN ONTARIO

Atfield, Marika
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.52%
This report explores locational differences in the incidence of those experiencing housing affordability problems between 1991 and 2001 in Ontario. Three variables were created for this purpose using publicly available census data (PUMF) for: Toronto, CMAs and Other/Rural. The following key research questions were considered: 1. Are there differences between affordability rates in rural and urban locations? 2. What are the identified characteristics of low-income households experiencing affordability problems? (e.g. income, education, age, etc.) 3. Do differences in the identified characteristics between rural and urban locations help to explain differences in the intensity of low-income and housing affordability problems in these locations? 4. What are the planning implications of any identified differences between rural and urban locations? In considering these questions, this report takes the following structure: Summary of general trends in each of the locales (including in population, incidence of low-income, and affordability) Household trends in each of the locales (including household size, income and employment) Primary maintainer characteristic trends in each of the locales (including employment income, labour-force participation...

Toward Defining and Measuring the Affordability of Public Utility Services

Kessides, Ioannis; Miniaci, Raffaele; Scarpa, Carlo; Valbonesi, Paola
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.41%
This paper reviews the progress made in the literature toward defining and measuring the affordability of utilities. It highlights the relative merits of alternate affordability metrics; the practical challenges to their operationalization, including the underlying data requirements; and their implications for the design, evaluation, and implementation of appropriate affordability programs.

Accessibility and Affordability of Tertiary Education in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru within a Global Context

Murakami, Yuki; Blom, Andreas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.35%
This paper examines the financing of tertiary education in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, comparing the affordability and accessibility of tertiary education with that in high-income countries. To measure affordability, the authors estimate education costs, living costs, grants, and loans. Further, they compute the participation rate, attainment rate, and socio-economic equity index in education and the gender equity index as indicators of accessibility. This is the first study attempting to estimate affordability of tertiary education in Latin America within a global context. The analysis combines information from household surveys, expenditure surveys, and administrative and institutional databases. The findings show that families in Latin America have to pay 60 percent of per-capita income for tertiary education per student per year compared with 19 percent in high-income countries. Living costs are significant, at 29 percent of gross domestic product per capita in Latin America (19 percent in high-income countries). Student assistance through grants and loans plays a marginal role in improving affordability. Moreover...

Accessibility and Affordability of Tertiary Education in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and Peru within a Global Context

Murakami, Yuki; Blom, Andreas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
In the past two decades, countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LCR) liberalized their economy. Together with technological advances and increased globalization, this policy has increased demand for knowledge and workers with tertiary education. LCR governments also have increased investments in education in the last two decades, for children of low-income families. As a result, graduation rates of primary and secondary education improved significantly. This increased the demand for tertiary education. As a consequence, the rate of enrollment in tertiary education in LCR has increased annually by 2 percent since 1985. In LCR countries, such as Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, public and non-governmental universities expanded and diversified to absorb some of the increased pool of qualified students from secondary education. However, LCR countries continue to trail high-income countries in terms of enrollment. In 2003, the tertiary education enrollment rate in high-income countries was about 62 percent compared to 26 percent for LCR countries. The goal of a recently released Working Paper is to estimate affordability and accessibility of tertiary education in selected Latin American countries. This seeks to provide more objective information for policymakers. Also...

Affordability of Public Transport in Developing Countries

Carruthers, Robin; Dick, Malise; Saurkar, Anuja
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.49%
The analysis reported here was prompted by a realization that there was little reliable and consistent information on what proportion of household income is spent on urban public transport. The information available uses inconsistent definitions of what costs are included and how income is measured, making comparisons between cities difficult. The authors report here on about a dozen studies that have addressed the issue of affordability. Though different measures are used in different countries, making it difficult to compare the results between cities, from the studies in South America, South Asia, Eastern and Western Europe, Africa, East Asia and Australasia summarized here, the authors make clear that the affordability of urban transport is considered an issue of importance throughout the developing world. There is also evidence that the high cost of urban transport is having a negative impact on the lives of the urban poor - either through restricting their access to jobs that are within feasible walking or cycling distance...

Housing affordability and mental health: does the relationship differ for renters and home purchasers?

Mason, K.; Baker, E.; Blakely, T.; Bentley, R.
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.28%
There is increasing evidence of a direct association between unaffordable housing and poor mental health, over and above the effects of general financial hardship. Type of housing tenure may be an important factor in determining how individuals experience and respond to housing affordability problems. This study investigated whether a relationship exists between unaffordable housing and mental health that differs for home purchasers and private renters among low-income households. Data from 2001 to 2010 of the longitudinal Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey were analysed using fixed-effects linear regression to examine change in the SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS) score of individuals aged 25-64 years, associated with changes in housing affordability, testing for an interaction with housing tenure type. After adjusting for age, survey year and household income, among individuals living in households in the lower 40% of the national income distribution, private renters in unaffordable housing experienced somewhat poorer in mental health than when their housing was affordable (difference in MCS = -1.18 or about 20% of one S.D. of the MCS score; 95% CI: -1.95,-0.41; p = 0.003) while home purchasers experienced no difference on average. The statistical evidence for housing tenure modifying the association between unaffordable housing and mental health was moderate (p = 0.058). When alternatives to 40% were considered as income cut-offs for inclusion in the sample...

Exploring the bi-directional relationship between health and housing in Australia

Baker, E.; Mason, K.; Bentley, R.; Mallett, S.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis (Routledge) Publicador: Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.46%
Over the last decade, Australia has experienced ongoing housing affordability decline, and this has been experienced unevenly across the population. Because housing affordability directly affects the type, quality and security of housing that individuals can access, it represents both an important potential source and symptom of disadvantage in Australia. This article examines the nature of the relationship between housing affordability and a central human right—health. It asks two essential questions for Australian policymakers: does poor health predict unaffordable housing? Moreover, does unaffordable housing influence individual health? Analysis was based upon the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. We highlight key populations who are most vulnerable to housing affordability problems such as lone parents, their children and older renters, and consider the potential bi-directionality of the pathways between housing affordability and health. We find new, compelling evidence to suggest that such a bi-directional relationship exists between housing affordability and health (especially mental health) in Australia—suggesting that health may influence affordable housing outcomes, while housing affordability may also predict health outcomes. This work opens up new avenues for more causally focused future research in the area.; Emma Baker...

Measuring housing affordability: a longitudinal approach

Baker, E.; Mason, K.; Bentley, R.
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.46%
Poor housing affordability is of increasing concern for individuals and their governments across post-industrial countries. This article examines the measurement of housing affordability, to show that conventional point-in-time measures of housing affordability fail to capture the substantial movement that many individuals make into and out of poor affordability over time in our cities and regions. The analysis highlights two very different groups affected by housing affordability stress (HAS)—those who slip in and out for short periods (Slippers), and those who spend extended periods in HAS (Stickers). The article examines their characteristics and the relative urban concentration of housing affordability problems. The article concludes by reflecting on what this approach to conceptualising HAS might mean for future research and policy in our cities and regions; Emma Baker, Kate Mason, Rebecca Bentley

Housing affordability, tenure and mental health in Australia and the United Kingdom: a comparative panel analysis

Bentley, R.J.; Pevalin, D.; Baker, E.; Mason, K.; Reeves, A.; Beer, A.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
This paper contributes insights into the role of tenure in modifying the relationship between housing affordability and health, using a cross-national comparison of similar post-industrial nations—Australia and the United Kingdom—with different tenure structures. The paper utilises longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey and British Household Panel Survey to examine change in the mental health of individuals associated with housing becoming unaffordable and considers modification by tenure. We present evidence that the role of tenure in the relationship between housing and health is context dependent and should not be unthinkingly generalised across nations. These findings suggest that the UK housing context offers a greater level of protection to tenants living in unaffordable housing when compared with Australia, and this finds expression in the mental health of the two populations. We conclude that Australian governments could improve the mental health of their economically vulnerable populations through more supportive housing policies.; Rebecca J. Bentley, David Pevalin, Emma Baker, Kate Mason, Aaron Reeves and Andrew Beer; Published online: 20 Aug 2015

Affordability of Basic Public Utilities: Regulation and Poverty Policies

Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.28%
The FSR Workshop on “Affordability of basic public utilities” organized by the Florence School of Regulation gathered 36 participants from 12 countries. The Workshop was devoted to present the current knowledge on issues in affordability of public utilities, to facilitate a discussion between academics and interested parties from the public, private and voluntary sectors, and to explore the potential for a research program. Participants to the workshop were mostly experts from Academic Institutions, National Regulatory Authorities, and Energy Companies.; Report on the FSR Workshop on “Affordability of basic public utilities”, 8 October 2008

Operating and support costs and affordability of a 324 ship Naval battle force

Antonucci, Kevin C.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xvi, 113 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.17%
The purpose of this research was to determine both the added operating and support (OandS) costs and affordability of operating and maintaining a future naval battle force of 324 ships as proposed in the Navy's 30-year shipbuilding plan. Cost estimation including regression, 3-year moving averages, point, expert and analogous modeling was used to capture both historical and future OandS costs from FY1991 to FY2024. With an emphasis on the three main cost drivers, (manpower, fuel and maintenance) which arguably had the largest influence on ships' OandS costs, data were obtained from the Visibility and Management of Operating and Support Cost (VAMOSC) database and various Selected Acquisition Reports (SARs). Analysis and modeling followed suite in order to forecast expected future costs and affordability for a proposed 12.5 percent growth in naval fleet size by FY2024. Reviewing all 29 classes of ship within the expected FY2024 battle force, normalized results from the cost estimation models yielded a minimum cost growth of 17 percent in OandS costs. Even if budget growth trend rates were to remain steady, negating the possibility of budget decreases, this thesis argues the Navy would still not be able to afford its proposed future battle force in FY2024.; US Navy (USN) author

The Affordability of Energy: How Much Protection for the Vulnerable Consumers?

BARTL, Marija
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.35%
Affordability is a new 'alien' concept penetrating the field of contract and consumer law as one of the obligations related to the provision of 'universal services' or 'public service' in the context of services of general economic interest. Affordability becomes an important element of the European social model (using Scharf's terminology; Scharf, J Common Mark Stud 40:645-670, 2002) and its constitutional dimension will be confirmed by the Treaty of Lisbon and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (EU). The major European Commission policy tool for ensuring the Affordability of Energy Supply is, on the one hand, functioning competition, which should bring about reasonable prices in general, and on the other hand, regulation targeted at so-called vulnerable consumers. First tested in the UK, it was later spread mainly by the requirements of the Second Energy Package in other Member States (MS). The Third Energy Package (to be implemented by March 2011) further develops this idea and clarifies the set of obligations that the protection of consumers and ensuring the Affordability of Energy Supply require in the understanding of the EU legislator. One could speculate to what extent this is a reaction to the fact that some MS and...

Households responses to declining housing affordability; Scoping study on household responses to declining affordability

Baker, E.L.; Lester, L.; Beer, A.; Bunce, D.
Fonte: University of Adelaide Publicador: University of Adelaide
Tipo: Relatório
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.55%
The Household Responses to Declining Affordability study investigated individual and household responses to declining housing affordability in Australia. This scoping study highlights current knowledge, existing research gaps and research required to fill those gaps, focusing on: Affordability constraints and trade-offs, Population changes (including household formation patterns) that might occur in response to poor housing affordability, The extent to which the housing needs of the population unable or unwilling to access the private housing market are met in the non-private housing market. The study examines housing affordability in broad terms, considering housing-related living costs including those costs that are affected by choice of location and tenure type. It notes that the relationship between housing affordability and household change is uneven and does not occur in isolation. Non-housing factors (such as a loss of employment) can also influence both housing affordability and/or household structures. The study outlines an econometric model to measure changes in the number of individuals in each household due to multiple influences—including housing affordability stress. Analysis of the extent to which people are accommodated in 'non private' dwellings...

Monitoring the price and affordability of foods and diets globally

Friel, Sharon; Lee, A.; Mhurchu, C. N.; Sacks, G.; Swinburn, B.; Snowdon, W.; Vandevijvere, S.; Hawkes, C.; L’Abbé, M.; Rayner, M.; Sanders, D.; Barquera, S.; Kelly, B.; Kumanyika, S.; Lobstein, T.; Ma, J.; Macmullan, J.; Mohan, S.; Monteiro, C.; Neal,
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 14 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.35%
Food prices and food affordability are important determinants of food choices, obesity and non-communicable diseases. As governments around the world consider policies to promote the consumption of healthier foods, data on the relative price and affordability of foods, with a particular focus on the difference between ‘less healthy’ and ‘healthy’ foods and diets, are urgently needed. This paper briefly reviews past and current approaches to monitoring food prices, and identifies key issues affecting the development of practical tools and methods for food price data collection, analysis and reporting. A step-wise monitoring framework, including measurement indicators, is proposed. ‘Minimal’ data collection will assess the differential price of ‘healthy’ and ‘less healthy’ foods; ‘expanded’ monitoring will assess the differential price of ‘healthy’ and ‘less healthy’ diets; and the ‘optimal’ approach will also monitor food affordability, by taking into account household income. The monitoring of the price and affordability of ‘healthy’ and ‘less healthy’ foods and diets globally will provide robust data and benchmarks to inform economic and fiscal policy responses. Given the range of methodological...

Affordability of Purpose-Built Rental Housing for Young Adult Singles in Greater Vancouver CMA, 2006

Johnson, Tristan M.
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.28%
This study examined the affordability of purpose-built rental housing for young adult singles (ages 18 to 29) in the Greater Vancouver CMA. The aim of the report was to determine the affordability of different types of rental units (bachelor, 1 bedroom, and 2 bedroom), as well as units within different sub-areas of the Greater Vancouver CMA, and affordability of units for young adult singles in different income quartiles. This was completed using two methodologies. Both methods utilized an 'ability to afford' approach. The first method calculated the rent to income ratio that young adult singles in different income quartiles would have to have spent in order to afford 'average rent' units of different types in different sub-areas. The second method calculated the percentage of young adult singles who could have afforded to rent different types of units in different sub-areas. Both methods used income data from the 2006 Canadian census and rent data from Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation's 2006 rental market report for the Greater Vancouver CMA.; The study found that sharing a 2 bedroom unit with 1 roommate was generally a more affordable option than living in a bachelor or 1 bedroom unit alone. Inner sub-areas and the central sub-area were found to be less affordable than the outer sub-areas in regards to rent. Finally...

Densification & affordability : comparative real estate projects across Montreal

Ho, Enoch Tim
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.28%
Montréal, Québec se construit vers une forme urbaine compacte, mais il en relève des questionnements quant aux effets sur l’abordabilité et l’accession à la propriété. En tenant compte du processus de la densification urbaine, une enquête sur une série de projets de condominiums immobiliers à travers la ville est menée afin de divulguer les prix des projets nouveaux ou en construction. Au préalable, ceci survole la littérature et les études actuelles portant sur la planification urbaine, notamment celles qui sont reliées au Smart Growth, études dans lesquelles le contexte de densification et de tendances consuméristes à préférer les formes urbaines étalées est mis en évidence. Essentiellement, Moroni (2010) souligne l’approche dichotomique en planification urbaine entre les perspectives «teleocratic» et «nomocratic». La densification montréalaise actuelle contemporaine s’exprime par une multitude de modèles de condos conformes aux nouvelles tendances démographiques et des modes de vie. En s’appuyant sur les critères du programme Accès Condos, sur les critères du SCHL (32% du revenu) et sur le revenu médian des ménages, le niveau d’accessibilité à la propriété d’un condominium peut être mesuré. Les résultats indiquent que selon ces critères...

Perceived affordability of health insurance and medical financial burdens five years in to Massachusetts health reform

Zallman, Leah; Nardin, Rachel; Sayah, Assaad; McCormick, Danny
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
Introduction: Under the Massachusetts health reform, low income residents (those with incomes below 150 % of the Federal Poverty Level [FPL]) were eligible for Medicaid and health insurance exchange-based plans with minimal cost-sharing and no premiums. Those with slightly higher incomes (150 %-300 % FPL) were eligible for exchange-based plans that required cost-sharing and premium payments. Methods: We conducted face to face surveys in four languages with a convenience sample of 976 patients seeking care at three hospital emergency departments five years after Massachusetts reform. We compared perceived affordability of insurance, financial burden, and satisfaction among low cost sharing plan recipients (recipients of Medicaid and insurance exchange-based plans with minimal cost-sharing and no premiums), high cost sharing plan recipients (recipients of exchange-based plans that required cost-sharing and premium payments) and the commercially insured. Results: We found that despite having higher incomes, higher cost-sharing plan recipients were less satisfied with their insurance plans and perceived more difficulty affording their insurance than those with low cost-sharing plans. Higher cost-sharing plan recipients also reported more difficulty affording medical and non-medical health care as well as insurance premiums than those with commercial insurance. In contrast...

Calculating the affordability of antiretrovirals in St Lucia

Reddock,JR; Grignon,M
Fonte: West Indian Medical Journal Publicador: West Indian Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
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37.46%
The cost of antiretrovirals is borne by donors in many low- and middle-income countries, including St Lucia. Although donor involvement has facilitated access to antiretrovirals, donor engagement in HIV/AIDS has changed over the years. This paper assesses the affordability of antiretrovirals at the individual level if donors were no longer available to fund the cost of first and second-line antiretrovirals and a prospective third-line regimen. Various conceptions of affordability are reviewed using different assumptions of what is required to maintain a standard of living that would avoid individuals descending into poverty as a result of antiretroviral purchases. These concepts of affordability are operationalized using data from the Household Budgeting Survey conducted in St Lucia in 2005/2006. While there is a range of results for the affordability of first and second-line antiretrovirals depending on which standard of affordability is used, third-line antiretrovirals are unaffordable to more than 80% of the population across the four standards of affordability used - the national poverty line, 50% of median annual consumption, 10% of annual consumption and a proposed reasonable minimum standard.