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Seven Actionable Strategies for Advancing Women in Science, Engineering, and Medicine

Smith, Kristin A.; Arlotta, Paola; Watt, Fiona M.; ; Solomon, Susan L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/03/2015 EN
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36.14%
Achieving gender equality in science will require devising and implementing strategies to overcome the political, administrative, financial, and cultural challenges that exist in the current environment. In this forum, we propose an initial shortlist of recommendations to promote gender equality in science and stimulate future efforts to level the field.

Global Monitoring Report 2007 : Millennium Development Goals, Confronting the Challenges of Gender Equality and Fragile States

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
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Broad-based global economic growth in 2006, and more generally since 2000, provides grounds for optimism about progress in advancing the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The 2007 Global Monitoring Report (GMR) takes stock of this progress and assesses the contributions of developing countries, donor nations, and the international financial institutions toward meeting commitments under the 2002 Monterrey consensus. This fourth annual GMR finds both areas of progress and gaps where far greater effort is required. The GMR highlights two areas that require greater international attention: gender equality and fragile states. Risks from failure to advance multilateral trade liberalization and expand market access are also highlighted. To address these risks and advance the MDG agenda there is a pressing need for better aid coordination to strengthen aid quality and scale-up assistance.

Alternative Dispute Resolution and the Rule of Law in International Development Cooperation

Michel, James
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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The role of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in efforts to strengthen the rule of law is attracting increased interest in international development cooperation. From a development perspective, the principal interest in this question is a concern for expanding rights and opportunities for poor people who do not fully benefit from the protection of the law in their daily lives. Other interests in ADR, such as in commercial arbitration and court-annexed mediation in civil litigation, also have important positive implications for development. Facilitating commerce and expediting the disposition of lawsuits are valuable services and worthwhile undertakings. However, the principal focus for development is on the non-formal processes intended to expand access to justice. These include statutory schemes, such as the barangay justice system in the Philippines; state-sponsored mediation centers, such as those of the Procurador General in El Salvador; traditional systems that provide the vast majority of dispute-resolution services in many African countries; and systems of mediation and conciliation operated by public and private entities throughout the world. This paper briefly reviews the concept of development and related international cooperation. It then examines how the rule of law has been addressed in development programs and offers some thoughts about the contribution of ADR for advancing the rule of law and...

Toward Universal Access

Stein, Peer; Randhawa, Bikki; Bilandzic, Nina
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
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This report highlights key trends, challenges, and opportunities for advancing financial inclusion and presents major high-level policy recommendations for consideration by the Group of 20 (G-20) policy makers to benefit a wider range of developing countries, including many non-G-20 countries. The report serves a broad audience, ranging from policy makers, development finance institutions, and the private sector to experts seeking a synopsis of the key subtopics relevant for financial inclusion and areas of work for advancing progress. The report is organized into four sections. The first recommends broad goals and agenda items to accelerate progress in financial inclusion. The second defines the financial inclusion concept and its importance for economic growth and poverty reduction. The third section provides a snapshot of each of the pillars presented as part of the recommendations, and the fourth section summarizes the way forward. The report also contains an annex that takes a closer look at the microfinance industry as a case in point for reviewing the successes...

Morocco -- Mind the Gap

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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Morocco saw significant progress in terms economic, social and human development outcomes during the past decade. Women, as men, benefitted from such progress and increased access to services. Gender gaps in access to education narrowed significantly. The report recommends few key areas for strategic interventions. The recommendations are for the government and other development actors to focus on areas which are not only of greater potential impact but also a pre-requisite for women’s agency and empowerment. These include investment in women’s education (access and quality), the re-examination of certain discriminatory provisions in the country’s legal system (combined with an effort to strengthen implementation of the legislation and delivery of public sector services), and the promotion of cultural norms that value women as equal partners to men. The ultimate objective is to promote women’s empowerment as a means to achieve a more inclusive, open and prosperous society.

Voice and Agency : Empowering Women and Girls for Shared Prosperity

Klugman, Jeni; Hanmer, Lucia; Twigg, Sarah; Hasan, Tazeen; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Santamaria, Julieth
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Group Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank Group
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The 2012 World Development Report recognized that expanding women's agency - their ability to make decisions and take advantage of opportunities is key to improving their lives as well as the world. This report represents a major advance in global knowledge on this critical front. The vast data and thousands of surveys distilled in this report cast important light on the nature of constraints women and girls continue to face globally. This report identifies promising opportunities and entry points for lasting transformation, such as interventions that reach across sectors and include life-skills training, sexual and reproductive health education, conditional cash transfers, and mentoring. It finds that addressing what the World Health Organization has identified as an epidemic of violence against women means sharply scaling up engagement with men and boys. The report also underlines the vital role information and communication technologies can play in amplifying women's voices, expanding their economic and learning opportunities...

Exports, Equity, and Empowerment : The Effects Of Readymade Garments Manufacturing Employment On Gender Equality In Bangladesh Bangladesh

Hossain, Naomi
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
ENGLISH
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Bangladesh has become known as something of a success in advancing gender equity since the 1990s. There have been rapid gains in a number of social and economic domains, yet by most objective standards the current condition and status of women and girls within Bangladeshi society remain low. Rapid progress has come about under conditions of mass poverty and interlocking forms of social disadvantage, political instability and under-development, overlain with persistent 'classic' forms of patriarchy. Mass employment of women and girls in the country's flagship export sector - the readymade garments (RMG) sector - has been one of the more visible and prominent changes in women's lives since its late 1970s' introduction.

Papua New Guinea : Country Gender Assessment, 2011-2012

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Papua New Guinea (PNG) became independent in 1976 as a constitutional parliamentary democracy. The country has four regions (Highlands, Islands, Momase and Southern) and 21 provinces including the autonomous region of Bougainville and two new provinces recently created in the southern and western parts of the highlands region. Another province-level division is the National Capital District, which comprises the capital city, Port Moresby. Each province is divided into electorates that vote for members of parliament as well as for a provincial member of parliament, who serves as the governor of the province. The country has a population of just over seven million, with an estimated population growth rate of 2.8 percent. Nearly half of PNG's population is under the age of 20 and the number of young people is expected to double in the next 20 years. Youth unemployment is high and rising, with only one in ten school graduates finding jobs in the private sector. With many young people leaving their villages in search of jobs in the towns and cities...

Country Gender Assessment for Lao PDR : Reducing Vulnerability and Increasing Opportunity

Asian Development Bank; World Bank
Fonte: Manila Publicador: Manila
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Since the introduction of economic reforms in the mid-1980s, strong growth and development have lifted thousands of poor women and men out of poverty, changing traditional ways of life in Lao PDR. In this environment of change, gender relations, within the family, village and society at large, are changing too. Gender equality is a core development objective. It is also smart economics. Greater gender equality can enhance productivity, improve development outcomes for the next generation, and make institutions more representative. As Lao PDR continues its development, the empowerment of women and girls will be a key to translating the country's economic growth and the energies of its young people into improved living standards that benefit women and men alike. This assessment synthesizes information and findings from recent literature and research on gender issues in Lao PDR for the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the World Bank's (WB) country partnership strategies. The assessment is planned to contribute not only to the work of the ADB and the WB...

Regional Gender Action Plan for the Middle East and North Africa Region, FY13-FY16

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Women in Development and Gender Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is experiencing a time of momentous change. Some countries are in the midst of a profound political, economic, and demographic transition, others are striving to emerge from protracted conflict, yet others are experiencing internal tensions and rising demands for more citizen voice. This period of change and uncertainty presents challenges and opportunities, including with regard to gender issues. Yet some governments may not prioritize gender issues, while in others there could be a regression. MENA Regional Gender Action Plan (RGAP) is part of the World Bank's institutional commitment to operationalize the policy priorities identified in the WDR 2012 and the regional companion to the World Development Report (WDR) 2012. The MENA Regional Gender Action Plan (RGAP) will require that the Bank be nimble and practical in its approach to advancing gender equality in the region. The MENA RGAP provides a two-pronged approach to supporting MENA countries in advancing gender equality: Prong 1: through country programs; and Prong 2: championing dialogue.

Africa's Pulse, October 2010 : An Analysis of Issues Shaping Africa's Economic Future

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Newsletter; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This Africa's pulse newsletter includes the following heading: recent economic trends and prospects; country policy and institutional assessment: results and trends for Sub-Saharan Africa; and Sub-Saharan Africa: advancing toward the millennium development goals (MDGs).

Girls' Education in the 21st Century : Gender Equality, Empowerment, and Economic Growth

Tembon, Mercy; Fort, Lucia
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Gender equality is not just a women's issue, it is a development issue. Women's economic empowerment is essential for economic development, growth, and poverty reduction not only because of the income it generates, but also because it helps to break the vicious cycle of poverty. Educating girls and women is critical to economic development. Research conducted in a variety of countries and regions has established that educating girls is one of the most cost-effective ways of spurring development. Female education creates powerful poverty-reducing synergies and yields enormous intergenerational gains. It is positively correlated with increased economic productivity, more robust labor markets, higher earnings, and improved societal health and well-being. This book is based on the background papers developed for the symposium. Although the papers have been edited, their key messages remain intact, and the theme of the symposium respected. The overview chapter is a thematic paper prepared by the World Bank that brings out the main messages of the symposium. The subsequent chapters reflect the current state of education from a gender perspective and highlight the importance of and challenges to female education as well as the interdependence of education and development objectives. The final chapter presents five strategic directions for advancing gender equity in education.

Social Safety Nets and Gender : Learning from Impact Evaluations and World Bank Projects

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Poverty reduction is the overarching objective of the World Bank Group and is reflected in the institution s commitment to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). More recently, the twin goals of the institution, eradicating extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity, expressed a renewed commitment toward the Bank Group s vision of a world free of poverty. This message is intimately related to another main goal of the institution: advancing gender equality. The shared prosperity goal calls for ensuring that men and women and boys and girls are included in the development process. This review focuses on a core set of poverty reduction interventions: Social Safety Net (SSN) programs. SSNs, a subset of social protection programs, are noncontributory transfer programs. Their main objective is to protect the poor against destitution and promoting equality of opportunity. The need to integrate gender considerations into the design of SSNs (and social protection interventions more generally) is an explicit objective of the World Bank Social Protection (SP) strategy. This report analyzes whether SSN interventions produce results and help to improve gender equality for men and women and boys and girls...

More than Mainstreaming : Promoting Gender Equality and Empowering Women through Post-Disaster Reconstruction

MDF-JRF Secretariat
Fonte: World Bank, Jakarta Publicador: World Bank, Jakarta
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The Multi Donor Fund for Aceh and Nias (MDF) and the Java Reconstruction Fund (JRF) have played significant roles in the remarkable recovery of Aceh, Nias and Java, following some of the worst disasters in Indonesia in recent years. The MDF and the JRF, which is patterned after it, are each considered a highly successful model for post-disaster reconstruction. This paper presents lessons from the MDF and JRF's efforts to facilitate women's empowerment and gender equality during the reconstruction process. The reconstruction process presented opportunity to address gender issues and other social inequalities. Enhancing the role of women under the MDF and JRF programs saw significant results, such as improved and sustained outcomes in housing and infrastructure, faster economic and livelihood recovery and increased productivity, strengthening of women's legal rights, more representative decision making and enhanced resilience for women and communities.

Pakistan - Balochistan Economic Report : From Periphery to Core, Volume 1. Summary Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Balochistan offers some of the best assets for development. Balochistan is generously bestowed with natural and locational resources. It possesses the largest land area of any province of Pakistan, proving vast rangeland for goats, sheep, buffaloes, cattle, camels and other livestock. Its southern border makes up about two thirds of the national coastline, giving access to a large pool of fishery resources. As a frontier province, it is ideally situated for trade with Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia and the Persian Gulf countries. Over the last four decades, it supplied cheap natural gas to Pakistan's economic centers, supporting the country's industrialization. This report offers an empirical analysis of provincial economic development and the ways in which the provincial and federal governments, supported by donors, can help to foster it. It is organized around three topics: the stock taking of economic outcomes over the last decades; the Strategies for inclusive economic development of generating growth...

Pakistan - Balochistan Economic Report : From Periphery to Core, Volume 2. Full Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Balochistan offers some of the best assets for development. Balochistan is generously bestowed with natural and locational resources. It possesses the largest land area of any province of Pakistan, proving vast rangeland for goats, sheep, buffaloes, cattle, camels and other livestock. Its southern border makes up about two thirds of the national coastline, giving access to a large pool of fishery resources. As a frontier province, it is ideally situated for trade with Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia and the Persian Gulf countries. Over the last four decades, it supplied cheap natural gas to Pakistan's economic centers, supporting the country's industrialization. This report offers an empirical analysis of provincial economic development and the ways in which the provincial and federal governments, supported by donors, can help to foster it. It is organized around three topics: the stock taking of economic outcomes over the last decades; the Strategies for inclusive economic development of generating growth...

Financial Inclusion Data; Assessing the Landscape and Country-level Target Approaches

International Finance Corporation; Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The group of 20 (G-20) recognizes data and measurement as an essential foundation for advancing financial inclusion at a global level. The data and measurement sub-group, in its first year, was tasked to identify the existing financial inclusion data landscape, to assess the data gaps, to develop key performance indicators, and to lay out the foundations for the framing of financial inclusion target setting approaches. The purpose of this report, prepared for the global partnership for financial inclusion (GPFI), is to highlight the key findings and recommendations of the data and measurement sub-group during its first year, provide input for a roadmap for the GPFI's work plan for the coming year, and to present key policy recommendations for consideration by the G-20 policy makers for the Cannes summit in November 2011. The policy recommendations presented are relevant at the global level, including both G-20 and non-G-20 countries. The GPFI holds the potential for impact on two levels: (i) incorporating guidance on measurement frameworks and prioritizations of targets through GPFI country-level pilots; and (ii) aligning on the roadmap and determining a toolkit for formulating country level targets or goals to help - operationalize GPFI's universal access vision.

Engaging Men and Boys in Advancing Women's Agency : Where We Stand and New Directions

Fleming, Paul J.; Barker, Gary; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Despite advances in gender equality, women and girls still face disadvantages and limits on their agency. Men and boys can be key stakeholders and allies to increase women's agency. This paper focuses on examining men's attitudes and behaviors related to gender equality and violence perpetration to better understand how to engage men and boys as. It uses data collected from men and women from eight countries (Bosnia, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo, India, Mexico, and Rwanda) as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES). There is wide variation across countries in men's support for gender equality, equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Key findings of this investigation include: 1) that in most countries male perpetrators of violence are more likely to be depressed or engage in binge drinking than non-perpetrators; 2) that witnessing one's mother being abused by a partner is one of the strongest predictors of ever perpetrating violence...

Advancing gender equality in the Caribbean: legislative approaches to sex discrimination

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
EN
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Includes bibliography; Introduction The 1990s was marked by a process of review of governmental policy towards the attainment of the goal of gender equality and equity. To a large extent, this review process was facilitated and strengthened by the preparation for the Fourth World Conference on Women which allowed for assessments and reviews both of the achievements and as well as the strategies for the promotion of gender equality. In this review, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean/Caribbean Development and Cooperation Committee (ECLAC/CDCC) secretariat convened the Third Ministerial Meeting on Women, 4-6 October, 1999 at which a number of recommendations were made. The meeting acknowledged that the member States had all signed and ratified the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (the Women's Convention). However, the delegates urged the strengthening of the process of review and reform of legislation and of administrative and bureaucratic practices to ensure the full compliance with, in particular, the Women's Convention. This paper seeks to contribute to that process by providing a review and assessment of equality legislation in the Caribbean subregion...

Are Litigation and Collective Bargaining Complements or Substitutes for Achieving Gender Equality? A Study of the British Equal Pay Act

Deakin, Simon; Butlin, Sarah Fraser; McLaughlin, Colm; Polanska, Aleksandra
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
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This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Oxford University Press via http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cje/bev006; We present a socio-legal case study of the recent equal pay litigation wave in Britain, which saw an unprecedented increase in the number of claims, triggered in part by the entry of no-win, no-fee law firms into this part of the legal services market. Although the rise in litigation led to greater adversarialism in pay bargaining, litigation and collective bargaining mostly operated as complementary mechanisms in advancing an equality agenda. Litigation may be a more potent agent for social change than some recent analyses, which stress the limits of the law in the face of organisational pressures to canalise and diffuse human rights, have suggested; We are grateful to the ESRC?s Gender Network for financial support