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Childhood and adolescent obesity and adult mortality: a systematic review of cohort studies; Obesidade na infância e adolescência e mortalidade na idade adulta: uma revisão sistemática de estudos de coorte

ADAMI, Fernando; VASCONCELOS, Francisco de Assis Guedes de
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.19%
This systematic review addressed cohort studies on obesity in childhood and adolescence and adult mortality, published from January 1990 to March 2007. We searched the PubMed database with the following uniterms: obesity, mortality, child, adolescent; obesity and mortality; overweight and mortality. References were also analyzed. The age limit was 2 to 18 years. Quality of the articles was assessed, and eight were identified and reviewed. All used weight and stature for determination of obesity, and seven used body mass index (BMI). The quality score varied from 9 to 17. Evidence of association between obesity in childhood and adolescence and adult mortality should be viewed with caution. Use of BMI and potential confounders were discussed. Further research is needed to analyze the relationship between childhood and adolescent obesity and adult mortality.; Esta revisão sistemática avaliou artigos de coorte sobre obesidade na infância e adolescência e mortalidade adulta, publicados entre janeiro de 1990 e março de 2007, indexados na base de dados PubMed. Os unitermos utilizados foram: obesity, mortality, child, adolescent; obesity e mortality; overweight e mortality. Referências bibliográficas também foram analisadas. Foi utilizado limite de idade entre 2 e 18 anos. A qualidade dos artigos foi determinada por meio de metodologia apropriada para avaliação de estudos de coorte. Foram encontrados e revisados oito estudos...

Childhood and adolescent obesity and adult mortality: a systematic review of cohort studies

Adami,Fernando; Vasconcelos,Francisco de Assis Guedes de
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.16%
This systematic review addressed cohort studies on obesity in childhood and adolescence and adult mortality, published from January 1990 to March 2007. We searched the PubMed database with the following uniterms: obesity, mortality, child, adolescent; obesity and mortality; overweight and mortality. References were also analyzed. The age limit was 2 to 18 years. Quality of the articles was assessed, and eight were identified and reviewed. All used weight and stature for determination of obesity, and seven used body mass index (BMI). The quality score varied from 9 to 17. Evidence of association between obesity in childhood and adolescence and adult mortality should be viewed with caution. Use of BMI and potential confounders were discussed. Further research is needed to analyze the relationship between childhood and adolescent obesity and adult mortality.

Assessing adult mortality in HIV-1-afflicted Zimbabwe (1998 -2003).

Lopman, Ben A.; Barnabas, Ruanne; Hallett, Timothy B.; Nyamukapa, Constance; Mundandi, Costa; Mushati, Phyllis; Garnett, Geoff P.; Gregson, Simon
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
OBJECTIVE: To compare alternative methods to vital registration systems for estimating adult mortality, and describe patterns of mortality in Manicaland, Zimbabwe, which has been severely affected by HIV. METHODS: We compared estimates of adult mortality from (1) a single question on household mortality, (2) repeated household censuses, and (3) an adult cohort study with linked HIV testing from Manicaland, with a mathematical model fitted to local age-specific HIV prevalence (1998 -2000). FINDINGS: The crude death rate from the single question (29 per 1000 person-years) was roughly consistent with that from the mathematical model (22 -25 per 1000 person-years), but much higher than that from the household censuses (12 per 1000 person-years). Adult mortality in the household censuses (males 0.65; females 0.51) was lower than in the cohort study (males 0.77; females 0.57), while mathematical models gave a much higher estimate, especially for females (males 0.80 -0.83; females 0.75 -0.80). The population attributable fraction of adult deaths due to HIV was 0.61 for men and 0.70 for women, with life expectancy estimated to be 34.3 years for males and 38.2 years for females. CONCLUSION: Each method for estimating adult mortality had limitations in terms of loss to follow-up (cohort study)...

Marriage Behavior Response to Prime-Age Adult Mortality: Evidence from Malawi

UEYAMA, MIKA; YAMAUCHI, FUTOSHI
Fonte: Population Association of America Publicador: Population Association of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.21%
This article examines the effect of AIDS-related mortality of the prime-age adult population on marriage behavior among women in Malawi. A rise in prime-age adult mortality increases risks associated with the search for a marriage partner in the marriage market. A possible behavioral change in the marriage market in response to an increase in prime-age adult mortality is to marry earlier to avoid exposure to HIV/AIDS risks. We test this hypothesis by using micro data from Malawi, where prime-age adult mortality has drastically increased. In the analysis, we estimate the probability of prime-age adult mortality that sample women have observed during their adolescent period by utilizing retrospective information on deaths of their siblings. Empirical analysis shows that excess prime-age adult mortality in the local marriage market lowers the marriage age for females and shortens the interval between the first sex and first marriage.

Dying in their prime: determinants and space-time risk of adult mortality in rural South Africa

Sartorius, Benn; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A.; Sartorius, Kurt; Tollman, Stephen M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.27%
A longitudinal dataset was used to investigate adult mortality in rural South Africa in order to determine location, trends, high impact determinants and policy implications. Adult (15-59 years) mortality data for the period 1993-2010 were extracted from the health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in the rural sub-district of Agincourt. A Bayesian geostatistical frailty survival model was used to quantify significant associations between adult mortality and various multilevel (individual, household and community) variables. It was found that adult mortality significantly increased over time with a reduction observed late in the study period. Non-communicable disease mortality appeared to increase and decrease in parallel with communicable mortality, whilst deaths due to external causes remained constant. Male gender, unemployment, circular (labour) migrant status, age and gender of household heads, partner and/or other household death, low education and low household socioeconomic status (SES) were identified as significant and highly attributable determinants of adult mortality. Health facility remoteness was also a risk for adult mortality and households falling outside a critical buffering zone were identified. Spatial foci of higher adult mortality risk were observed indicating a strong non-random pattern. Communicable diseases differed from non-communicable diseases with respect to spatial distribution of mortality. Areas with significant excess mortality risk (hotspots) were found to be part of a complex interaction of highly attributable factors that continues to drive differential space-time risk patterns of communicable (HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis) mortality in Agincourt. The impact of HIV mortality and its subsequent lowering due to the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) was found to be clearly evident in this rural population.

Trends and Socioeconomic Gradients in Adult Mortality around the Developing World

de Walque, Damien; Filmer, Deon
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.31%
The authors combine data from 84 Demographic and Health Surveys from 46 countries to analyze trends and socioeconomic differences in adult mortality, calculating mortality based on the sibling mortality reports collected from female respondents aged 15-49. The analysis yields four main findings. First, adult mortality is different from child mortality: while under-5 mortality shows a definite improving trend over time, adult mortality does not, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. The second main finding is the increase in adult mortality in Sub-Saharan African countries. The increase is dramatic among those most affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Mortality rates in the highest HIV-prevalence countries of southern Africa exceed those in countries that experienced episodes of civil war. Third, even in Sub-Saharan countries where HIV-prevalence is not as high, mortality rates appear to be at best stagnating, and even increasing in several cases. Finally, the main socioeconomic dimension along which mortality appears to differ in the aggregate is gender. Adult mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa have risen substantially higher for men than for women especially so in the high HIV-prevalence countries. On the whole...

The Long-Run Impacts of Adult Deaths on Older Household Members in Tanzania

Adhvaryu, Achyuta R.; Beegle, Kathleen
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
HIV/AIDS is drastically changing the demographic landscape in high-prevalence countries in Africa. The prime-age adult population bears the majority of the mortality burden. These missing prime-age adults have implications for the socioeconomic well-being of surviving family members. This study uses a 13-year panel from Tanzania to examine the impacts of prime-age mortality on the time use and health outcomes of older adults, with a focus on long-run impacts and gender dimensions. Prime-age deaths are weakly associated with increases in working hours of older women when the deceased adult was co-resident in the household. The association is strongest when the deceased adult was living with the elderly individual at the time of death and for deaths in the distant past, suggesting that shorter-run studies may not capture the full extent of the consequences of adult mortality for survivors. Holding more assets seems to buffer older adults from having to work more after these shocks. Most health indicators are not worse for older adults when a prime-age household member died...

Adult Mortality and Consumption Growth in the Age of HIV/AIDS

Beegle, Kathleen; De Weerdt, Joachim; Dercon, Stefan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
The authors use a 13-year panel of individuals in Tanzania to assess how adult mortality shocks affect both short and long-run consumption growth of surviving household members. Using unique data which tracks individuals from 1991 to 2004, they examine consumption growth, controlling for a set of initial community, household and individual characteristics. The effect is identified using the sample of households in 2004 which grew out of baseline households. The authors find robust evidence that an affected household will see consumption drop 7 percent within the first five years after the adult death. With high growth in the sample over this time period, this creates a 19 percentage point growth gap with the average household. There is some evidence of persistent effects of these shocks for up to 13 years, but these effects are imprecisely estimated and not significantly different from zero. The impact of female adult death is found to be particularly severe.

Trends and Socio-Economic Gradients in Adult Mortality around the Developing World

de Walque, Damien; Filmer, Deon
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
The authors combine data from 84 Demographic and Health Surveys from 46 countries to analyze trends and socioeconomic differences in adult mortality, calculating mortality based on the sibling mortality reports collected from female respondents aged 15-49. The analysis yields four main findings. First, adult mortality is different from child mortality: while under-5 mortality shows a definite improving trend over time, adult mortality does not, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. The second main finding is the increase in adult mortality in Sub-Saharan African countries. The increase is dramatic among those most affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Mortality rates in the highest HIV-prevalence countries of southern Africa exceed those in countries that experienced episodes of civil war. Third, even in Sub-Saharan countries where HIV-prevalence is not as high, mortality rates appear to be at best stagnating, and even increasing in several cases. Finally, the main socioeconomic dimension along which mortality appears to differ in the aggregate is gender. Adult mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa have risen substantially higher for men than for women--especially so in the high HIV-prevalence countries. On the whole, the data do not show large gaps by urban/rural residence or by school attainment.

Labor Effects of Adult Mortality in Tanzanian Households

Beegle, Kathleen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
Due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, sub-Saharan populations are challenged with increasing adult mortality rates that have potentially profound economic implications. Yet, little is known about the impact of adult deaths in African households. Using panel data from Tanzania, this paper will explore how prime-age adult mortality impacts the time allocation of surviving household members and the portfolio of household farming activities. Analysis of farm and chore hours across demographic groups generally found small and insignificant changes in labor supply of individuals in households experiencing a prime-age adult death. While some farm activities are temporarily scaled back and wage employment falls after a male death, households did not shift cultivation towards subsistence food farming and did not appear to have reduced their diversification over income sources more than six months after a death.

Measurement of adult mortality in populations affected by AIDS: an assessment of the orphanhood method

Timaeus, Ian M; Nunn, A.J
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National Universityhttp://nceph.anu.edu.au/htc/pdfs/Timaeus2.pdf Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National Universityhttp://nceph.anu.edu.au/htc/pdfs/Timaeus2.pdf
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 79892 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.1%
This paper demonstrates that orphanhood data can be used to estimate adult women’s mortality in populations experiencing an epidemic of AIDS. It develops both a correction for selection bias in reports of orphanhood and a revised procedure for estimating life table survivorship for use in populations with significant AIDS mortality. These new methods yield mortality estimates for a Ugandan population that are consistent with those obtained by prospective surveillance. Countries that lack effective death registration systems should ask about the survival of mothers in the census and surveys in order to monitor the effect of the AIDS epidemic on mortality.; no

Levels and causes of adult mortality in rural Tanzania with special reference to HIV/AIDS

Boerma, J. Ties; Ngalula, Juliana; Isingo, Raphael; Urassa, Mark; Senkoro, Kesheni P; Gabone, R; Mkumbo, E. N
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 42859 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
Data from a longitudinal study in northwest Tanzania were used to assess the levels of adult mortality and the leading causes of death. Adult mortality in this rural area was high and 42 per cent of persons aged 15 will die before their sixtieth birthday at current mortality rates. Mortality in this population with an HIV prevalence of about six per cent in 1994-95, has increased by about one-third because of HIV/AIDS, and further increase is likely. Other infectious diseases cause nearly a quarter of deaths and non-communicable diseases are still a relatively minor cause. The occurrence of the AIDS epidemic may have further delayed the onset of the epidemiological transition in many parts of Africa.; no

Estimating adult mortality rates in the context of the AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa: analysis of DHS sibling histories

Bicego, George
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 52923 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
Recent efforts to model the demographic effect of the AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa have far outnumbered empirical studies of adult mortality levels and patterns in AIDS-affected countries of the region. There is still a paucity of population-based data on adult mortality for nearly all countries in the region. Using data from recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of six countries and one in-depth DHS, this paper examines the use of sibling histories to directly estimate rates of adult mortality. The countries studied include Uganda, Zambia, Central African Republic, Côte d’Ivoire, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Tanzania. Rates of adult male and female mortality are presented at the national level in comparison to estimates obtained from other published sources, where available, and for subnational areas where cohort and other mortality studies have been recently conducted. The results indicate surprising consistency with external data and, on the whole, underscore the expected but hitherto only sparsely documented association between residence in high HIV-prevalence areas and sharply elevated mortality risk during the relevant adult ages. The cases of Zambia and Uganda in particular provide clear evidence of very high adult mortality levels among both men and women. In general...

Forum: Adult mortality

Strong, Michael A; Warren, Kenneth S; Sethapongkul, Supamas
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 54702 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.05%
The World Bank's publication, 'The Health of Adults in the Developing World', edited by Feachem, Kjellstrom, Murray, Over and Phillips, is both a response to concerns that adult mortality has been receiving insufficient attention and a challenge to governments, public-health workers and researchers. We present some different perspectives.; no

The Impact of Adult Deaths on Children's Health in Northwestern Tanzania

Ainsworth, Martha; Semali, Innocent
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
The AIDS epidemic is dramatically increasing mortality of adults in many Sub-Saharan African countries, with potentially severe consequences for surviving family members. Until now, most of these impacts had not been quantified. The authors examine the impact of adult mortality in Tanzania on three measures of health among children under five: morbidity, height for age, and weight for height. The children hit hardest by the death of a parent or other adult are those in the poorest households, those with uneducated parents, and those with the least access to health care. The authors also show how much three important health interventions--immunization against measles, and rehydration salts, and access to health care--can do to mitigate the impact of adult mortality. These programs disproportionately improve health outcomes among the poorest children and, within that group, among children affected by adult mortality. In Tanzania there is so much poverty, and child health indicators are so low that these interventions should be targeted as much as possible to the poorest households...

Adult Mortality and Children's Transition into Marriage

Beegle, Kathleen; Krutikova, Sofya
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
Adult mortality due to HIV/AIDS and other diseases is posited to affect children through a number of pathways. On top of health and education outcomes, adult mortality can have significant effects on children by influencing demographic outcomes including the timing of marriage. The authors examine marriage outcomes for a sample of children interviewed in Tanzania in the early 1990s and re-interviewed in 2004. They find that while girls who became paternal orphans married at significantly younger ages, orphanhood had little effect on boys. On the other hand, non-parental deaths in the household affect the timing of marriage for boys

Why Are Adult Women Missing? Son Preference and Maternal Survival in India

Milazzo, Annamaria
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.22%
This paper is the first to show that excess mortality among adult women can be partly explained by strong preference for male children, the same cultural norm widely known to cause excess mortality before birth or at young ages. Using pooled individual-level data for India, the paper compares the age structure and anemia status of women by the sex of their first-born and uncovers several new findings. First, the share of living women with a first-born girl is a decreasing function of the women's age at the time of the survey. Second, while there are no systematic differences at the time of birth, women with a first-born girl are significantly more likely to develop anemia when young (under the age of 30) and these differences disappear for older women. Moreover, among those in the older age group, they appear to be significantly better off in terms of various predetermined characteristics. These findings are consistent with a selection effect in which maternal and adult mortality is higher for women with first-born girls...

What do we know about adult mortality and data quality in Peru? Mortality coverage levels and trends from recent decades

Piscoya-Díaz,Mario; Queiroz,Bernardo L.
Fonte: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados de la Población Publicador: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados de la Población
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
Accurate knowledge of adult mortality levels and trends in the developing world is hampered by its widespread lack of complete vital registration systems. Although knowledge of infant and child mortality was once affect by the same problem, survey-based techniques have been more successful in estimating child and infant than adult mortality. The main objective of this paper is to estimate mortality rates for the population aged 5 and above, in Peru by sex. The study evaluates the degree of coverage, and corrects the level of mortality, when necessary, using different methodologies. The literature does not indicate the best method to investigate mortality data problems. Thus, the implementation of alternative methods will improve the understanding of the mortality levels and trends in Peru in recent decades.

Assessing adult mortality in HIV-1-afflicted Zimbabwe (1998 -2003)

Lopman,Ben A; Barnabas,Ruanne; Hallett,Timothy B; Nyamukapa,Constance; Mundandi,Costa; Mushati,Phyllis; Garnett,Geoff P; Gregson,Simon
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.23%
OBJECTIVE: To compare alternative methods to vital registration systems for estimating adult mortality, and describe patterns of mortality in Manicaland, Zimbabwe, which has been severely affected by HIV. METHODS: We compared estimates of adult mortality from (1) a single question on household mortality, (2) repeated household censuses, and (3) an adult cohort study with linked HIV testing from Manicaland, with a mathematical model fitted to local age-specific HIV prevalence (1998 -2000). FINDINGS: The crude death rate from the single question (29 per 1000 person-years) was roughly consistent with that from the mathematical model (22 -25 per 1000 person-years), but much higher than that from the household censuses (12 per 1000 person-years). Adult mortality in the household censuses (males 0.65; females 0.51) was lower than in the cohort study (males 0.77; females 0.57), while mathematical models gave a much higher estimate, especially for females (males 0.80 -0.83; females 0.75 -0.80). The population attributable fraction of adult deaths due to HIV was 0.61 for men and 0.70 for women, with life expectancy estimated to be 34.3 years for males and 38.2 years for females. CONCLUSION: Each method for estimating adult mortality had limitations in terms of loss to follow-up (cohort study)...

Childhood and adolescent obesity and adult mortality: a systematic review of cohort studies

Adami,Fernando; Vasconcelos,Francisco de Assis Guedes de
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.16%
This systematic review addressed cohort studies on obesity in childhood and adolescence and adult mortality, published from January 1990 to March 2007. We searched the PubMed database with the following uniterms: obesity, mortality, child, adolescent; obesity and mortality; overweight and mortality. References were also analyzed. The age limit was 2 to 18 years. Quality of the articles was assessed, and eight were identified and reviewed. All used weight and stature for determination of obesity, and seven used body mass index (BMI). The quality score varied from 9 to 17. Evidence of association between obesity in childhood and adolescence and adult mortality should be viewed with caution. Use of BMI and potential confounders were discussed. Further research is needed to analyze the relationship between childhood and adolescent obesity and adult mortality.