Página 1 dos resultados de 304 itens digitais encontrados em 0.016 segundos

Education in Ghana : Improving Equity, Efficiency and Accountability of Education Service Delivery

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
The purpose of this report is to provide sound analytical foundations for strategic planning and sector dialogue between education policy makers, development partners and civil society representatives at a key turning point in the development of education in Ghana. During the last five years, access has radically improved. As the Government of Ghana (GOG) refines its economic development and poverty reduction agendas, it has become increasingly clear that better quality learning and increased educational attainment across the country are essential part of that agenda. After six years of accelerated growth in the sector, the Government and the stakeholders have come to the conclusion that an earlier strategic plan needs to be revised for a number of reasons. Extensive growth seems to have reached a point after which the scale of education services cannot be stretched too far. Gross admission rate to primary education is over a hundred percent, gross enrollment rate at primary level is in the upper 90 percentile...

Evaluating Public Per-Student Subsidies to Low-Cost Private Schools : Regression-Discontinuity Evidence from Pakistan

Barrera-Osorio, Felipe; Raju, Dhushyanth
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
This study estimates the causal effects of a public per-student subsidy program targeted at low-cost private schools in Pakistan on student enrollment and schooling inputs. Program entry is ultimately conditional on achieving a minimum stipulated student pass rate (cutoff) in a standardized academic test. This mechanism for treatment assignment allows the application of regression-discontinuity (RD) methods to estimate program impacts at the cutoff. Data on two rounds of entry test takers (phase 3 and phase 4) are used. Modeling the entry process of phase-4 test takers as a sharp RD design, the authors find evidence of large positive impacts on the number of students, teachers, classrooms, and blackboards. Modeling the entry process of phase-3 test takers as a partially-fuzzy RD design given treatment crossovers, they do not find evidence of significant program impacts on outcomes of interest. The latter finding is likely due to weak identification arising from a small jump in the probability of treatment at the cutoff.

Education for all in Bangladesh : Where does Bangladesh Stand in Terms of Achieving the EFA Goals by 2015?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.29%
The objectives of this policy note are twofold: first, take stock of where Bangladesh stands in terms of achieving the Education For All (EFA) goals; and second, suggest policy recommendations that could help Bangladesh to meet the EFA goals by 2015. The policy note will focus mainly on: 1) universal primary enrollment for all children; 2) universal primary completion; 3) gender parity in education; 4) adult literacy; and 5) quality of education. This is because these areas can be more meaningfully analyzed with reasonably reliable information from various sources. Bangladesh is unlikely to achieve universal primary enrollment and completion by 2015 if the current trends in access and completion do not improve. Progress in school quality is more difficult to assess because of the lack of systematic assessment and monitoring of learning achievement results. The government continues to be the main provider and financer of primary education. Improving the overall quality of schooling is a pressing task in order to substantially raise enrollment and help more children complete primary school with the appropriate skills in literacy and numeracy. Bangladesh has made progress towards increasing both primary and secondary enrollment and has already reached gender parity in both education levels.

Learning Levels and Gaps in Pakistan

Das, Jishnu; Pandey, Priyanka; Zajonc, Tristan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.14%
The authors report on a survey of primary public and private schools in rural Pakistan with a focus on student achievement as measured through test scores. Absolute learning is low compared with curricular standards and international norms. Tested at the end of the third grade, a bare majority had mastered the K-I mathematics curriculum and 31 percent could correctly form a sentence with the word "school" in the vernacular (Urdu). As in high-income countries, bivariate comparisons show that higher learning is associated with household wealth and parental literacy. In sharp contrast to high-income countries, these gaps decrease dramatically in a multivariate regression once differences between children in the same school are looked at. Consequently, the largest gaps are between schools. The gap in English test scores between government and private schools, for instance, is 12 times the gap between children from rich and poor families. To contextualize these results within a broader South Asian context, the authors use data from public schools in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. Levels of learning and the structure of the educational gaps are similar in the two samples. As in Pakistan, absolute learning is low and the largest gaps are between schools: the gap between good and bad government schools...

What Factors Influence World Literacy? Is Africa Different?

Verner, Dorte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
Ninety-five percent of the world s illiterate people live in developing countries, and about 70 percent are women. Female illiteracy rates are particularly high in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Niger and Burkina Faso, for example, more than 90 percent of women are illiterate. This paper presents a model of literacy. It shows that the main determinants of worldwide literacy are enrollment rates, average years of schooling of adults, and life expectancy at birth. Income has a weak nonlinear effect, negatively affecting literacy until a threshold level of per-capita income of about $2200 a year is reached and positively affecting literacy thereafter. Finally, African countries do not have a significantly higher literacy rate when controlling for other factors.

Romania : Diagnostic Review of Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy, Volume 2. Comparison against Good Practices

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
The diagnostic review on consumer protection and financial literacy in Romania is the fourth in a World Bank-sponsored pilot program to assess consumer protection and financial literacy in developing and middle-income countries. The objective of this review are three-fold to: (1) refine a set of good practices for assessing consumer protection and financial literacy, including financial literacy; (2) conduct a review of the existing rules and practices in Romania compared to the good practices; and (3) provide recommendations on ways to improve consumer protection and financial literacy in Romania. The diagnostic review was prepared at the request of National Authority for Consumers Protection (ANPC), whose request was endorsed by the Ministry of Economy and Finance. Support was provided by the National Bank of Romania (BNR), which supervises banks and non-bank credit institutions. Further assistance was given by supervisory commissions for securities (CNVM), insurance (CSA) and private pensions (CSSPP). Volume one notes the importance of consumer protection and finical literacy...

Romania : Diagnostic Review of Consumer Protection and Financial Literacy, Volume 1. Key Finding and Recommendations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.16%
The diagnostic review on consumer protection and financial literacy in Romania is the fourth in a World Bank-sponsored pilot program to assess consumer protection and financial literacy in developing and middle-income countries. The objective of this review are three-fold to: (1) refine a set of good practices for assessing consumer protection and financial literacy, including financial literacy; (2) conduct a review of the existing rules and practices in Romania compared to the good practices; and (3) provide recommendations on ways to improve consumer protection and financial literacy in Romania. The diagnostic review was prepared at the request of National Authority for Consumers Protection (ANPC), whose request was endorsed by the Ministry of Economy and Finance. Support was provided by the National Bank of Romania (BNR), which supervises banks and non-bank credit institutions. Further assistance was given by supervisory commissions for securities (CNVM), insurance (CSA) and private pensions (CSSPP). Volume one notes the importance of consumer protection and finical literacy...

Diagnostics and Policy Advice for Supporting Roma Inclusion in Romania

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.25%
Romanian Roma families today constitute a large, young, and extremely poor ethnic minority group, facing exclusion from markets and services. Investments in Roma inclusion are essential for Romania to achieve its Europe 2020 social inclusion goals, and the considerable returns on such investments will lay a more solid foundation for achieving sustained, shared prosperity across Romanian society. Therefore, Roma inclusion is not only a moral imperative, but also smart economics for Romania. This report discusses what it will take for Romania to achieve the socioeconomic inclusion of its Roma population. The report identifies the most important socioeconomic achievement gaps of Romanian Roma. It identifies obstacles to Roma inclusion and examines the relevant institutional framework. It draws policy recommendations based on the observed gaps in outcomes and policies, informed by evidence on what works from international experience. These recommendations focus on providing support and enhancing opportunities for the next generation of Roma while helping to improve the living conditions of the current generation. In this context...

Jordan Workforce Development : SABER Country Report 2013

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
Human Development in Jordan has witnessed significant progress over the past two decades, in line with Jordan s vision to become a regional leader through leveraging its strong human capital base into a skills, knowledge and innovation driven economy. Evidence of progress on this front is provided by the advancement of the country s human development and education indicators. Between 1980 and 2011, the Human Development Index (HDI) value increased by 29 percent, the adult literacy rate reached 92.6 percent; the primary school completion rate hit 100 percent and combined gross enrolment reached 79 percent. In the decade prior to the global financial slowdown of 2008 and the subsequent political unrest in the region, Jordan experienced rapid economic growth, outperforming the MENA average.

Parental Human Capital and Effective School Management

Blimpo, Moussa P.; Evans, David; Lahire, Nathalie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.18%
Education systems in developing countries are often centrally managed in a top-down structure. In environments where schools have different needs and where localized information plays an important role, empowerment of the local community may be attractive, but low levels of human capital at the local level may offset gains from local information. This paper reports the results of a four-year, large-scale experiment that provided a grant and comprehensive school management training to principals, teachers, and community representatives in a set of schools. To separate the effect of the training from the grant, a second set of schools received the grant only with no training. A third set of schools served as a control group and received neither intervention. Each of 273 Gambian primary schools were randomized to one of the three groups. The program was implemented through the government education system. Three to four years into the program, the full intervention led to a 21 percent reduction in student absenteeism and a 23 percent reduction in teacher absenteeism...

Republic of Cameroon

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.29%
The overarching goal of this study is to facilitate Cameroon’s strategic objective of ensuring a well-educated human resources base in support of its quest to emerge as a strong middle-income economy by 2035. This study is intended to support Cameroon in preparing a national strategy for skills development, related policies, and institutions to boost competitiveness and productivity, and job creation - while being aware that many factors other than skills can limit productivity and job creation, including weak governance, bureaucracy, infrastructure, and taxation policies that directly affect the business environment. The study focuses on skills development for the informal and formal labor markets. For this purpose the authors have undertaken empirical analyses on growth accumulation effects, skills development through the education, and training system that is presented by examining skills accumulation effects, and value-chain analysis that shows the constraints for the demand and supply of skilled and unskilled labor in Cameroon. This report also presents a comprehensive diagnostic of skills development policies and institutions in Cameroon. It analyzes the various mechanisms for skills development and their alignment with emerging sector demand. The study attempts to bridge a knowledge gap about the skills mismatch in Cameroon...

Early Child Development in China : Breaking the Cycle of Poverty and Improving Future Competitiveness

Wu, Kin Bing; Young, Mary Eming; Cai, Jianhua
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.99%
In the past 30 years, China has reached the target of lifting 500 million people out of poverty. The rate of increase in human development indicators has become the second fastest in the world, allowing China to enter the ranks of middle-income countries. As the most populous country, accounting for one-fifth of the world's population, its transformation has been unprecedented in human history. Scientific evidence and international experience in the past 10 years have found that early child development (ECD) is key to human development, as it lays the foundation for the rest of life. Early child development includes physical, psychological, emotional, language, behavioral, and social development. Experience in the early years of life will determine healthy development and happiness in the rest of life. Research has found that investment in ECD is the most cost effective strategy to improve human development. In China's demographic transition, the population of children and youth is declining in absolute numbers...

When Governments Get Creative : Adult Literacy in Senegal

Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.32%
This report summarizes lessons learned and key policy findings on the World Bank's work in education in Senegal. In 1993, Senegal established a new policy for literacy programs based on partnership between civil society and the state: the state ensures policy leadership, overall coordination, monitoring and evaluation; the providers (civil society organizations, such as non-profits, village associations, and language associations) implement local literacy activities; an independent contract-managing agency handles contracts and rapid transfer of funds to providers. The World Bank financed project achieved the following results, which were similar to those achieved by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA): about 190,000 participants, of which 87 percent were women, enrolled in literacy classes over a five-year period; capacity in government and civil society organizations improved consistently; the dropout rate averaged 15 percent (much lower than for most adult literacy programs); most participants achieved learning mastery levels for reading (although not for math). The results of the literacy training exceeded target levels. Learning outcomes systematically improved as a result of two factors: providers became more experienced; and research led to improved procedures. The report notes that weak monitoring and evaluation contributed to the following shortcomings: re-financing of low-quality providers; lack of information about impact. As a result of these problems...

Nepal : Priorities and Strategies for Education Reform

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
The modern education system in Nepal is one of the youngest in the world and operates within a political democracy that was established only in 1991. While parts of the system have been well designed and are implemented effectively, others remain in an embryonic stage and are only partly effective. This report identifies a number of key constraints which currently are hindering the development of the system and suggests priorities and strategies for organizing and managing the required changes. Six aspects of the current status are highlighted: Levels of literacy and educational attainment remain low. While access to all levels of the education system has increased considerably, participation remains unequal across income and social groups and the benefits of public subsidies are inequitably distributed. The quality of education is low. High repetition and dropout rates throughout the system are wasting valuable resources. The system does not serve the labor market well. This report recommends the government to: ensure within the coming decade that all children enroll in and complete a five year primary education while developing the structures and processes for expanding a strengthened basic cycle of schooling for eight years...

Survey of ICT and Education in Africa : Cameroon Country Report

Tchinda Josue, Tetang
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev) - supported survey of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. Cameroon is among the sub-Saharan African countries that are making enormous progress in the use of the ICTs in the various development sectors, including education. Private schools introduced ICTs into their curricula in the 1990s, but there is no specific policy guiding the teaching or use of ICTs in education, which has lead to each private school applying its own teaching method or program. ICTs were officially introduced into education in 2001 by the president. The Cyber Education Project launched since then by the government targets two sectors: secondary and tertiary education. Primary schools are not yet concerned. The project started a slowly, but is now gaining speed. The French government plays a great role in the implementation and is a major partner both financially and technically. Major achievements include establishing Multimedia Resources Centre's (MRCs) in universities...

Is Functional Literacy a Prerequisite for Entering the Labor Market? An Analysis of Determinants of Adults Literacy and Earnings in Ghana

Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Verner, Dorte
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.29%
The authors analyze the determinants of literacy and earnings in Ghana. They link literacy and earnings with various other factors, including age, gender, family educational background, distance to school, and income. Literacy and age are negatively correlated, suggesting that efforts to strengthen the supply and quality of basic education programs in recent years have succeeded in raising literacy rates. Parents' education is positively associated with literacy. Distance to the nearest primary school, residence in a rural area, and poverty are negatively associated with literacy. Functional literacy appears to be a prerequisite for entering the labor market, which may partly explain the lack of returns to education other than middle school and technical and professional training. The policy implications of this study: Basic education and literacy programs should target girls and poorer households, especially in rural areas.

Education in the Republic of South Sudan : Status and Challenges for a New System

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.27%
This education status report (ESR), prepared at the request of the Government of South Sudan (GoSS), provides a comprehensive snapshot of an education sector that is emerging from a long period of civil strife. It confirms the strong appetite among the people for education; in turn, more educated citizens are needed to provide the bedrock of the new country and its prospects. The purpose of this report is to enhance the knowledge base for policy development in the education sector and, more broadly, create a platform for engaging a diverse audience in dialogue on education policies in the new country. The ultimate aim is to help develop a shared vision for the future of the education system among government, citizens, and partners in Africa's newest nation. The report clearly shows that the education system in South Sudan faces all the challenges of a new nation that is making a visible effort to catch up quickly from a very low base by rapidly increasing student enrollment. These challenges include a concentration of students in the early grades; a high proportion of overage students, repetition, and dropout; and weak levels of student learning. Further, the report indicates that South Sudan is beginning to feel the effects of its success at increasing enrollment at the primary level with growing demand for secondary and higher education. The report also highlights the low overall quality of education...

Transforming Primary Education in Sri Lanka : From a 'Subject' of Education to a 'Stage' of Education

Little, Angela; Aturupane, Harsha; Shojo, Mari
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.13%
Sri Lanka is a lower-middle income country with a per capita income of approximately US$ 2,400, and a population of around 20 million people. Sri Lanka's high rate of literacy is due to its sustained growth through the twentieth century. Primary education spans the first five grades of schooling, grades 1-5. Student's progress automatically to lower secondary education for four years of education in grades 6-9 and then on to upper secondary education in grades 10-11 for a two year course that culminates in the General Certificate of Education Ordinary level examination (GCE O-L). The curriculum for primary education is designed separately from those for subsequent stages of education. The primary education curriculum stage is encapsulated in a primary curriculum framework that derives from extensive debate during the 1990s in connection with the recommendations in 1997 of the national education commission, the work of the technical committee on primary education appointed by the presidential task force and detailed implementation work by the primary education unit of the national institute of education. Since 2003 the National Educational Research Centre (NEREC) based at the University of Colombo has administered tests in first Language...

What Doesn't Kill You Makes You Poorer : Adult Wages and the Early-Life Disease Environment in India

Lawson, Nicholas; Spears, Dean
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.1%
A growing literature documents links between early-life health and human capital, and between human capital and adult wages. Although most of this literature has focused on developed countries, economists have hypothesized that effects of early-life health on adult economic outcomes could be even greater in developing countries. This paper asks whether the early-life disease environment in India influences adult economic wages. The paper uses two measures of early-life disease environment to investigate this question: infant mortality rates and open defecation. A district-level differences-in-differences strategy is used to show that men born in district-years with lower infant mortality and better sanitation earned plausibly higher wages in their 20s and 30s. The effect estimates are applied to calculate the fiscal and welfare consequences of the disease environment, which are considerable. In particular, eliminating open defecation would increase tax revenue by enough to offset completely a cost to the government of over \$400 per household that stops defecating in the open. A fiscally neutral elimination of open defecation in India would increase the net present value of lifetime wages by more than \$1...

Enhancing China's Competitiveness Through Lifelong Learning

Dahlman, Carl; Zhihua Zeng, Douglas; Wang, Shuilin
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.26%
This study emphasizes that in response to demands for wider access and better quality of education, and to achieve economies of scale and leverage limited resources, China needs to develop a more integrated system of education and training with appropriate bridges and interfaces among its various constituents. This book outlines the key elements of such a system, focusing primarily on its economic aspects. It presents a framework to help identify and understand the demands being placed on the education and training system and the services that various education providers can supply, highlighting several policy approaches to building an effective and efficient lifelong learning system. These include changing the role of government from being the main provider of education and training to being the architect, facilitator, and rule-keeper for a more inclusive system. In this scenario, government would ensure quality, relevance, efficiency, and equity through sound accreditation, assessment, and vocational qualification systems...